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Chapter 8 Consumer Attitude Formation and Change Perubahan dan Pembentukan Sikap Konsument.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Chapter 8 Consumer Attitude Formation and Change Perubahan dan Pembentukan Sikap Konsument."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Chapter 8 Consumer Attitude Formation and Change Perubahan dan Pembentukan Sikap Konsument

2 ©2000 Prentice Hall Attitudes A learned predisposition to behave in a consistently favorable or unfavorable manner with respect to a given object. Sebuah kecenderungan belajar untuk berperilaku dengan cara yang konsisten menguntungkan atau tidak menguntungkan sehubungan dengan objek tertentu.

3 ©2000 Prentice Hall What are Attitudes? The attitude “object” : sikap objek Attitudes are a learned predisposition : sikap adalah predisposisi belajar Attitudes have consistency : sikap memiliki konsistensi Attitudes occur within a situation : sikap terjadi dalam situasi

4 ©2000 Prentice Hall Table 8.1 Examples of How Situations Might Influence Attitudes Coppertone Oil Free Sunscreen “It sounds like a good idea to use an oil free sunscreen when involved in summer sports activities.” Active sports in the sun Cannon Color Printers “Now that they have gone down in price so much, it’s time for me to buy a color printer.” Old PC printer ceases to work Hilton Resorts and Casinos “I worked hard; I earned a couple of days away to relax.” Exhausted, time or a weekend get-a-way Altoids Mints“I really need a strong mint after I drink a large cup of coffee.” Bad taste in one’s mouth PRODUCT/SERVICEATTITUDESITUATION

5 ©2000 Prentice Hall Table 8.1 continued Sports Illustrated for Kids “He loves sports; I should get a one- year subscription.” It’s my nephew’s birthday Omega Seamaster Professional “Now I have an opportunity to get the watch James Bond wears.” Old wristwatch is lost Claritin-D 24 Hour“I need something that really works. I’ve heard good things about Claritin.” Summer allergy PRODUCT/SERVICEATTITUDESITUATION Kraft Free Salad Dressing “I really should try using more fat-free products.” Going on a diet

6 ©2000 Prentice Hall Structural Models of Attitudes Tricomponent Attitude Model : trikomponen sikap model Muliattribute Attitude Models : multiatribut sikap model The Trying-to-Consume Model : mencoba ke konsumsi model Attitude-toward-the-ad Model : Sikap ke iklan model

7 ©2000 Prentice Hall Figure 8.1 A Simple Representation of the Tricomponent Attitude Model Conation Affect Cognition

8 ©2000 Prentice Hall The Tricomponent Model Cognitive Component : Komponen kognitif: –The knowledge and perceptions that are acquired by a combination of direct experience with the attitude object and related information from various sources. ; Pengetahuan dan persepsi yang diperoleh oleh kombinasi pengalaman langsung dengan objek sikap dan informasi terkait dari berbagai sumber Affective Component : efektif komonen –A consumer’s emotions or feelings about a particular product or brand. : Seorang konsumen emosi atau perasaan tentang produk tertentu atau merek. Conative Component : komponen Konatife –The likelihood or tendency that an individual will undertake a specific action or behave in a particular way with regard to the attitude object : Kemungkinan atau kecenderungan bahwa seseorang akan melakukan tindakan tertentu atau berperilaku dengan cara tertentu berkaitan dengan obyek sikap

9 ©2000 Prentice Hall Figure 8.2 A Consumer’s Belief System for Two Brands of Pocket Digital Organizers PRODUCT BRAND ATTRIBUTES BELIEFS EVALUATIONS POCKET DIGITAL ORGANIZERS 3Com PalmPilot Ease of useHandwriting feature PC backupOther features Known to be a snap to use A little effort to learn a few rules Simple one button Doesn’t have built-in drawing feature (++++)(+++)(++)(-)

10 ©2000 Prentice Hall Figure 8.2 continued PRODUCT BRAND ATTRIBUTES BELIEFS EVALUATIONS POCKET DIGITAL ORGANIZERS Casio Cassiopeia Ease of useHandwriting feature PC backupOther features A longer learning curve Easy, but a little learning Some learningHas drawing and voice- record features (+)(++) (+++)

11 ©2000 Prentice Hall Table 8.2 Selected Evaluations Scale Used to Gauge Consumers’ Attitudes toward Old Spice After Shave Good Positive Pleasant Appealing [1] Bad Negative Unpleasant Unappealing [2][2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] Compared to other after shave products,Old Spice is:

12 ©2000 Prentice Hall Table 8.3 Measuring Consumers’ Feelings and Emotions with Regard to Using Old Spice After Shave My face felt relaxed My face felt handsome My face felt tight My face felt smooth My face felt supple My face felt clean My face felt refreshed My face felt revived My face felt pampered My face felt renewed [ ] For the past 10 days you have had a chance to try Old Spice After Shave. We would appreciate it if you would identify how your face felt after using the product during this 10-day trial period. For each of the words below, we would appreciate it if you would mark with an “X” in the box corresponding to how your face felt after using Old Spice during the past 10 days. [ ] VERY NOT AT ALL

13 ©2000 Prentice Hall Table 8.4 Two Examples of Intention-to- Buy Scales Which of the following statements best describes the chance that you will buy Old Spice the next time you purchase an after shave product? ___I definitely will buy it. ___I probably will buy it. ___I am uncertain whether I will buy it. ___I probably will not buy it. ___I definitely will not buy it. How likely are you to buy Old Spice After Shave during the next three months? ___Very likely ___Likely ___Unlikely ___Very unlikely

14 ©2000 Prentice Hall Multiattribute Attitude Models Attitude models that examine the composition of consumer attitudes in terms of selected product attributes or beliefs. Sikap model yang meneliti komposisi sikap konsumen dalam hal atribut produk yang dipilih atau keyakinan.

15 ©2000 Prentice Hall Multiattribute Attitude Models The attitude-toward-object model : model Sikap terhadap Objek –Attitude is function of evaluation of product-specific beliefs and evaluations : Sikap merupakan fungsi dari evaluasi khusus produk kepercayaan dan evaluasi The attitude-toward-behavior model : Model sikap Terhadap Prilaku –Is the attitude toward behaving or acting with respect to an object, rather than the attitude toward the object itself : Apakah sikap terhadap berperilaku atau bertindak sehubungan dengan obyek, daripada sikap terhadap obyek itu sendiri Theory-of-reasoned-action model : teory dalam Tindakan Model –A comprehensive, integrative model of attitudes : model yang komprehensif integratif sikap

16 ©2000 Prentice Hall Attitude- Toward- Behavior Model A model that proposes that a consumer’s attitude toward a specific behavior is a function of how strongly he or she believes that the action will lead to a specific outcome (either favorable or unfavorable). Sebuah model yang mengusulkan bahwa sikap konsumen terhadap perilaku tertentu merupakan fungsi dari seberapa kuat ia percaya bahwa tindakan tersebut akan menyebabkan hasil tertentu (baik menguntungkan atau tidak menguntungkan).

17 ©2000 Prentice Hall Theory of Reasoned Action A comprehensive theory of the interrelationship among attitudes,intentions, and behavior. Sebuah teori komprehensif keterkaitan antara sikap, niat, dan perilaku.

18 ©2000 Prentice Hall Figure 8.3 A Simplified Version of the Theory of Reasoned Action Beliefs that the behavior leads to certain outcomes Evaluation of the outcomes Beliefs that specific referents think I should or should not perform the behavior Motivation to comply with the specific referents Subjective norm Attitude toward the behavior Intention Behavior

19 ©2000 Prentice Hall Theory of Trying to Consume An attitude theory designed to account for the many cases where the action or outcome is not certain but instead reflects the consumer’s attempt to consume (or purchase). Sebuah teori sikap yang dirancang untuk menjelaskan banyak kasus di mana tindakan atau hasil yang tidak pasti melainkan mencerminkan upaya konsumen untuk mengkonsumsi (atau pembelian).

20 ©2000 Prentice Hall Table 8.5 Selected Examples of Potential Impediments That Might Impact on Trying POTENTIAL PERSONAL IMPEDIMENTS “I wonder whether my fingernails will be longer by the time of my wedding.” “I want to try to lose fifteen pounds by next summer.” “I’m going to try to get tickets for a Broadway show for your birthday.” “I’m going to attempt to give up smoking by my birthday.” “I am going to increase how often I go to the gym from two to four times a week.” “Tonight, I’m not going to have dessert at the restaurant.” POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPEDIMENTS “The first ten people to call in will receive a free T-shirt.” “Sorry, the shoes didn’t come in this shipment from Italy.” “There are only three bottles of champagne in our stockroom. You better come in sometime today.” “I am sorry. We cannot serve you. We are closing the restaurant because of a problem with the oven.”

21 ©2000 Prentice Hall Attitude- Toward-the- Ad Model A model that proposes that a consumer forms various feelings (affects) and judgments (cognitions) as the result of exposure to an advertisement, which, in turn, affect the consumer’s attitude toward the ad and attitude toward the brand. Sebuah model yang mengusulkan bahwa konsumen membentuk berbagai perasaan (mempengaruhi) dan penilaian (kognisi) sebagai akibat dari paparan iklan, yang, pada gilirannya, mempengaruhi sikap konsumen terhadap iklan dan sikap terhadap merek

22 ©2000 Prentice Hall Figure 8.4 A Conception of the Relationship among Elements in an Attitude-Toward-the-Ad Model Exposure to an Ad Judgments about the Ad (Cognition) Beliefs about the Brand Attitude toward the Brand Attitude toward the Ad Feelings from the Ad (Affect)

23 ©2000 Prentice Hall Issues in Attitude Formation How attitudes are learned : Bagaimana Sikap d pelajari Sources of influence on attitude formation : Sumber Pengaruh pada pembentukan sikap Personality factors : Faktor Kepribadian Cognition Affect Attitude

24 ©2000 Prentice Hall Strategies of Attitude Change Changing the Basic Motivational Function : Mengubah Fungsi Motipasi Dasar. Associating the Product With a Special Group, Event,or Cause : Bergaul Produk Dengan Kelompok Khusus, Event, atau Penyebab Resolving Two Conflicting Attitudes : Menyelesaikan konflik dua sikap Altering Components of the Multiattribute Model : Mengubah komponen model Multi atribut Changing Beliefs About Competitors’ Brands : Merubah Keyakinan Tentang Merek Pesaing The Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) : Kemungkinan Elaborasi Model ( ELM )

25 ©2000 Prentice Hall Functional Approach An attitude-change theory that classifies attitudes in terms of four functions: utilitarian, ego-defensive value-expressive, and knowledge functions. Sebuah teori sikap-perubahan yang mengklasifikasikan sikap dalam empat fungsi: utilitarian, ego-defensif nilai- ekspresif, dan fungsi pengetahuan.

26 ©2000 Prentice Hall Four Basic Motivational Functions The Utilitarian Function : Fungsi Utilitarian The Ego-defensive Function : Fungsi ego defensif The Value-expressive Function : Fungsi nilai exprensip The Knowledge Function : Fungsi Pengetahuan

27 ©2000 Prentice Hall Utilitarian Function A component of the functional approach to attitude-change theory that suggests consumers hold certain attitudes partly because of the brand’s utility. Sebuah komponen dari pendekatan fungsional untuk sikap-perubahan teori yang mengemukakan konsumen memiliki sikap tertentu sebagian karena utilitas merek.

28 ©2000 Prentice Hall Ego-Defensive Function A component of the functional approach to attitude-change that suggests that consumers want to protect their self-concepts from inner feelings of doubt. Sebuah komponen dari pendekatan fungsional untuk sikap-perubahan yang menunjukkan bahwa konsumen ingin melindungi diri mereka-konsep dari perasaan batin keraguan

29 ©2000 Prentice Hall Value- Expressive Function A component of the functional approach to attitude-change theory that suggests that attitudes express consumers’ general values, lifestyles, and outlook. Sebuah komponen dari pendekatan fungsional untuk sikap-perubahan teori yang mengemukakan bahwa sikap mengekspresikan nilai-nilai umum konsumen, gaya hidup, dan pandangan.

30 ©2000 Prentice Hall Knowledge Function A component of the functional approach to attitude-change theory that suggests that consumers have a strong need to know and understand the people and things with which they come into contact. Sebuah komponen dari pendekatan fungsional untuk sikap-perubahan teori yang menunjukkan bahwa konsumen memiliki kebutuhan yang kuat untuk mengetahui dan memahami orang dan hal-hal yang mereka datang ke dalam kontak.

31 ©2000 Prentice Hall Altering Components of the Multiattribute Model Changing the Relative Evaluation of Attributes : Mengubah Evaluasi Relatif Atribut Changing Brand Beliefs : Merubah Keyakinan Merek Adding an Attribute : Menambahkan atribut Changing the Overall Brand Rating : Merubah Penilaian Keseluruhan Merek

32 ©2000 Prentice Hall Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) A theory that suggests that a person’s level of involvement during message processing is a critical factor in determining which route to persuasion is likely to be effective. Sebuah teori yang mengemukakan bahwa tingkat seseorang keterlibatan selama pemrosesan pesan merupakan faktor penting dalam menentukan rute ke persuasi kemungkinan efektif.

33 ©2000 Prentice Hall The Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) Involvement Central Route Peripheral Route Peripheral Cues Influence Attitudes Message Arguments Influence Attitudes HIGHLOW

34 ©2000 Prentice Hall Why Might Behavior Precede Attitude Formation? Cognitive Dissonance Theory Attribution Theory Behave (Purchase) Form Attitude

35 ©2000 Prentice Hall Cognitive Dissonance Theory Holds that discomfort or dissonance occurs when a consumer holds conflicting thoughts about a belief or an attitude object. Gelar ketidaknyamanan itu atau disonansi terjadi ketika konsumen memiliki pemikiran yang bertentangan tentang suatu keyakinan atau suatu obyek sikap

36 ©2000 Prentice Hall Postpurchase Dissonance Cognitive dissonance that occurs after a consumer has made a purchase commitment. Consumers resolve this dissonance through a variety of strategies designed to confirm the wisdom of their choice. Disonansi kognitif yang terjadi setelah konsumen telah membuat komitmen pembelian. Konsumen mengatasi disonansi ini melalui berbagai strategi yang dirancang untuk mengkonfirmasi kebijaksanaan pilihan mereka.

37 ©2000 Prentice Hall Attribution Theory A theory concerned with how people assign casualty to events and form or alter their attitudes as an outcome of assessing their own or other people’s behavior. Sebuah teori berkaitan dengan bagaimana orang menetapkan korban ke tempat kejadian dan bentuk atau mengubah sikap mereka sebagai hasil dari menilai perilaku orang-orang mereka sendiri atau lain.

38 ©2000 Prentice Hall Issues in Attribution Theory Self-perception Theory : Teori Persepsi Diri –Foot-In-The-Door Technique : Kaki didalam sebuah Pintu Tekhnik Attributions Toward Others : atribusi menuju lainnya Attributions Toward Things : Atribusi Menuju Hal How We Test Our Attributions : Bagaimana kami uji atribut kami

39 ©2000 Prentice Hall Self- Perception Theory A theory that suggests that consumers develop attitudes by reflecting on their own behavior. Sebuah teori yang mengemukakan bahwa konsumen mengembangkan sikap dengan merefleksikan pada perilaku mereka sendiri.

40 ©2000 Prentice Hall Defensive Attribution A theory that suggests consumers are likely to accept credit for successful outcomes (internal attribution) and to blame other persons or products for failure (external attribution). Sebuah teori yang mengemukakan konsumen cenderung untuk menerima kredit untuk hasil yang sukses (atribusi internal) dan menyalahkan orang lain atau produk untuk gagal (atribusi eksternal).

41 ©2000 Prentice Hall Foot-in-the- Door Technique A theory of attitude change that suggests individuals form attitudes that are consistent with their own prior behavior. Sebuah teori perubahan sikap yang menunjukkan sikap individu bentuk yang konsisten dengan perilaku mereka sebelumnya.

42 ©2000 Prentice Hall Criteria for Causal Attributions Distinctiveness : Kehasan Consistency Over Time : Konsistensi Selama Waktu Consistency Over Modality : konsistensi Selama Modal Consensus “ : konsensus

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