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Definisi Desain Penelitian Jenis-jenis desain penelitian Chapter 3 Business Research Design (Desain Penelitian Bisnis) 1.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Definisi Desain Penelitian Jenis-jenis desain penelitian Chapter 3 Business Research Design (Desain Penelitian Bisnis) 1."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Definisi Desain Penelitian Jenis-jenis desain penelitian Chapter 3 Business Research Design (Desain Penelitian Bisnis) 1

2 2 Definisi Desain Penelitian Kerangka (framework)/cetak biru (blueprint) yang berisikan rencana dan prosedur untuk mengarahkan penelitian (mengumpulkan, mengukur, dan analisa data) menjawab masalah penelitian (research questions).

3 Data Collection & Preparation Exploration Research Design Strategy (type, purpose, time frame, scope, environment) Management Decision Data Analysis and Interpretation Research Reporting Clarifying the Research Question Discover the Management Dilemma Define the Research Questions Refine the Research Questions Research Proposal Data Collection Design Sampling Design Instrument Development And Pilot Testing 3

4 Research Design Data Collection & Preparation Research Design Strategy (type, purpose, time frame, scope, environment) Research Proposal Data Collection Design Sampling Design Instrument Development & Pilot Testing 4

5 5 Types of Research Design Single Cross- Sectional Design Multiple Cross- Sectional Design Research Design Conclusive Research Design Exploratory Research Design Descriptive Research Causal Research Cross-Sectional Design Longitudinal Design Sumber: Malhotra, 2004; Zikmund, 2002

6 6 Menentukan Desain Penelitian Apakah tujuan penelitian spesifik & data yg dibutuhkan sudah jelas? Penelitian Eksploratori Analisis Data & Intepretasi Hasil Perlu Penelitian Lanjutan? Penelitian Konklusif Perlu uji hubungan kausal ? Penelitian Kausal Analisis Data & Intepretasi Hasil Beri Rekomendasi Penelitian Deskriptif Ya Tidak

7 Exploratory Studies Bila gagasan/persoalan yang diteliti kurang jelas, lakukan penelitian/studi eksplorasi. Melalui studi eksplorasi dapat dikembangkan konsep yang lebih jelas, menetapkan prioritas penelitian, mengembangkan definisi operasional, atau memperbaiki desain penelitian. 7

8 8 Faktor Pembeda Riset EksploratoriRiset Konklusif TujuanUmum, untuk menemukan pandangan awal ttg suatu situasi Spesifik, untuk memperoleh informasi bagi pengambilan keputusan Data yg dibutuhkan SamarJelas Sumber dataKurang terdefinisiTerdefinisi dgn baik SampelUmumnya kecil, dipilih secara subjektif, yg dapat memberi pandangan (insight) Relatif besar, dipilih secara objektif agar hasil dpt digeneralisasi Pengumpulan data Fleksibel, tidak perlu prosedurKetat, perlu prosedur yg jelas Analisis dataInformal, umumnya tidak kuantitatif Formal, umumnya kuantitatif Kesimpulan, rekomendasi Cenderung sementaraCenderung final Sumber: Malhotra, 2004; Zikmund, 2002

9 9 Desain dan Metode Penelitian

10 Studi Eksplorasi: Teknik Kualitatif Studi eksplorasi dapat dilakukan dg teknik kuantitatif maupun kualitatif. Dalam praktek, lebih banyak teknik kualitatif. Teknik Kualitatif yang dapat digunakan antara lain: Individual Depth Interview Participant Observation Film, Photographs, & videotape Projective techniques & psychological testing Case studies Street ethnography Elite or expert interviewing Document analysis (to evaluate historical or contemporary confidential) Proxemics and kinesics (use of space and body motion communication) 10

11 Studi Eksplorasi: Secondary Data Analysis Langkah awal studi eksplorasi adalah mencari data sekunder melalui literatur. Bahan-bahan data sekunder adalah dokumen-dokumen yang telah dipublikasikan berbagai perusahaan/peneliti. 11

12 12 Secondary data shows: Lots of skaters were in trouble with the law for skating around the city. There were not too many places for skaters go skating safely. Idea: Opening large skate parks next to shopping malls. Primary research was conducted to assess consumer preferences & the demand for large skate parks next to malls  research results confirmed this. Decision: The park opened in 1998, attendance 250,000 went over target of 100,000 skaters. In 2002, Vans opened its 11 th park in Orlando. Conclusion: research which started with analysis of secondary data had led to successful expansion strategy. Example: Vans Incorporated

13 Studi Eksplorasi: Experience Survey Experience Survey dilakukan dengan menginterview orang-orang secara individual maupun kelompok. Peneliti harus menggali gagasan-gagasan orang yang diwawancarai tentang isu-isu penting atau aspek-aspek dari subyek dan menemukan apa yang penting. 13

14 14 Repositioning Diet Cherry Coke  2001, sales down more than 8 million cases.  Industry experts consultation  Diet Cherry Coke was not positioned correctly.  Brand image was a key factor influencing soft drink sales.  It was perceived as conventional & old fashioned, inconsistent with Cherry Coke.  Research to measure the image & positioning of Diet Cherry Coke  confirmed the experts’  Brand then repositioned to align it more closely to the image of Cherry Coke.  Targeted younger drinkers.  Packaging was remade consistent with Cherry Coke. Placed with Cherry Coke in a teen-targeted promotional giveaway.  Sales recovered.

15 15 Studi Eksplorasi: Focus Group Discussions (FGD) Free flowing (1-3 hours) Group interview (8-10 people) Guided by moderator Start with broad topic & focus in on specific issues Using videocassettes & tapes The most common uses are: Testing advertising copy or marketing promotions Positioning products or services Testing new concepts Testing usability of a product Generate new ideas

16 When to Avoid Focus Groups Focus groups should not be used to make a final decision. Results of focus groups are not statistically valid and should be used more as a thermometer to test the temperature of the market rather than as a ruler to provide precise measurements. Likewise, the following represent good examples of when to avoid using focus groups  When you need a numerical response to questions like “what percentage…?” or “how many…?” Focus groups do not provide quantitative results. When you need to explore issues that are very personal or sensitive in nature. People are not really comfortable discussing personal topics in a group situation. When you want to set prices for your products or your services. Again, these results are not quantitative in nature hence it is not advisable to make final pricing decisions based on small group responses. 16

17 Studi Deskriptif Bentuk studi Deskriptif lebih formal dan terstruktur dibanding eksplorasi, dengan pernyataan (hipotesis) dan pertanyaan investigatif yang lebih jelas. Studi deskriptif digunakan menjawab tujuan penelitian, seperti berikut: Deskripsi fenomena atau karakteristik terkait dengan sebuah populasi (who, what, when, where, and how) Estimasi proporsi populasi yang memiliki karakteristik/ perilaku tertentu Menentukan persepsi ttg karakteristik produk Menemukan asosiasi di antara berbagai variabel (correlational study) 17

18 18 Descriptive Research Time-frame of research… Cross-sectional design (CSD) Longitudinal design

19 Studi Cross-sectional vs Longitudinal Studi cross-sectional dilakukan pada suatu titik waktu tertentu yg bersamaan dari berbagai tempat yg berbeda. Studi longitudinal dilakukan pada berbagai pengulangan sepanjang rentang waktu tertentu dari suatu tempat yang sama. 19

20 20 Cross-Sectional Designs The collection of information from any given sample of population elements only once. Single cross-sectional designs: only one sample of respondents and information is obtained from this sample only once. Multiple cross-sectional designs: two or more samples of respondents, and information from each sample is obtained only once. Often, information from different samples is obtained at different times.

21 21 Longitudinal Designs A fixed sample (or samples) of population elements is measured repeatedly on the same variables A longitudinal design differs from a cross-sectional design in that the sample or samples remain the same over time

22 22 Cross-Sectional Data may not Show Change Brand Purchased Time Period Period 1Period 2Survey Brand A Brand B Brand C Total

23 23 Longitudinal Data may Show Substantial Change Brand Purchased in Period 1 Brand Purchased in Period 2 Brand ABrand BBrand C Total Brand A Brand B Brand C Total

24 Studi Kausalitas Studi Kausalitas: jenis penelitian yang ditujukan untuk menjawab permasalah- an mengapa. Contoh: Mengapa kinerja perusahaan menurun? Karena dipengaruhi oleh faktor… (terjadi hubungan kausalitas (sebab-akibat) Perhatian: Jika hanya hubungan korelasi bukan merupakan hubungan kausalitas 24

25 Studi Kausalitas Jenis-jenis hubungan (relationship) kausalitas: 1.Symmetrical Relationship. Bentuk hubungan dimana dua variabel berubah bersama-sama, dg asumsi perubahan masing-masing variabel bukan karena perubahan variabel yang lain. 2.Reciprocal Relationship. Terjadi jika dua variabel saling memengaruhi satu sama lain. 3.Asymmetrical Relationship. Bentuk ini terjadi jika perubahan satu variabel (variabel independen) berakibat pada perubahan variabel lain (variabel dependen) 25

26 26 Potential Sources of Error in Research Designs Surrogate Information Error Measurement Error Problem Definition Error Data Analysis Error Respondent Selection Error Questioning Error Recording Error Cheating/dishonest Error Inability Error Unwillingness Error Total Error Non-sampling Error Sampling ErrorNon-response Error Response Error Interviewer Error Respondent Error Researcher Error Sumber: Malhotra, 2004; Zikmund, 2002

27 27 Errors in Research Design Total error is the variation between the true mean value in the population and the observed mean value obtained in the research project. Sampling error is the variation between the true mean value for the population and the true mean value for the original sample. Non-sampling errors can be attributed to sources other than sampling, and they may be response/no response: including errors in problem definition, approach, scales, question- naire design, interviewing methods, and data preparation and analysis.

28 28 Errors in Research Design Non-response error arises when some of the respondents included in the sample do not respond. Response error arises when respondents give inaccurate answers or their answers are misrecorded or misanalyzed.

29 Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research QualitativeQuantitative Focus of research Understand and interpret Describe, Explain, and predict Researcher Involvement High  researcher is participant or catalyst Limited ; controlled to prevent bias Research purpose In-depth understanding; theory building Describe, or predict ; build and test theory Sample design Non probability; purposive Probability Sample size Small Large Research design May evolve or adjust during the course of the project Often uses multiple methods simultaneously or sequentially Consistency is not expected Involves longitudinal approach. Determined before commencing the project Uses single method or mixed methods Consistency is critical Involves either a cross- sectional or a longitudinal approach 29

30 Qualitative vs Quantitative Research QualitativeQuantitative Participant Preparation Pre-tasking is common No preparation desired to avoid biasing the participant Data type and preparation Verbal or pictorial descriptions Reduced to verbal codes (sometimes with computer assistance) Verbal descriptions Reduced to numerical codes for computerized analysis Data Analysis Human analysis following computer or human coding; primarily non-quantitative Forces researcher to see the contextual framework of the phenomenon being measured— distinction between facts and judgments less clear Always ongoing during the project. Computerized analysis – statistical and mathematical methods dominate. Analysis may be ongoing during the project Maintains clear distinction between facts and judgment. 30

31 Features of Qualitative & Quantitative Research QualitativeQuantitative "All research ultimately has a qualitative grounding" - Donald Campbell "There's no such thing as qualitative data. Everything is either 1 or 0" - Fred Kerlinger The aim is a complete, detailed description. The aim is to classify features, count them, and construct statistical models in an attempt to explain what is observed. Researcher may only know roughly in advance what he/she is looking for. Researcher knows clearly in advance what he/she is looking for. Recommended during earlier phases of research projects. Recommended during latter phases of research projects. The design emerges as the study unfolds. All aspects of the study are carefully designed before data is collected. Researcher is the data gathering instrument. Researcher uses tools, such as questionnaires or equipment to collect numerical data. Data is in the form of words, pictures or objects.Data is in the form of numbers and statistics. Subjective - individuals’ interpretation of events is important,e.g., uses participant observation, in-depth interviews etc. Objective – seeks precise measurement & analysis of target concepts, e.g., uses surveys, questionnaires etc. Qualitative data is more 'rich', time consuming, and less able to be generalized. Quantitative data is more efficient, able to test hypotheses, but may miss contextual detail. Researcher tends to become subjectively immersed in the subject matter. Researcher tends to remain objectively separated from the subject matter. 31

32 Research with Informants (Qualitative) 1. What do my informants know about their culture that I can discover? 2. What concepts do my informants use to classify their experiences? 3. How do my informants define these concepts? 4. What folk theory do my informants use to explain their experience? 5. How can I translate the cultural knowledge of my informants into a cultural description my colleagues will understand? Research with Subjects (Quantitative) 1. What do I know about a problem that will allow me to formulate and test a hypothesis? 2. What concepts can I use to test this hypothesis? 3. How can I operationally define these concepts? 4. What scientific theory can explain the data? 5. How can I interpret the results and report them in the language of my colleagues? 32

33 Teknik-teknik Kualitatif Teknik Kualitatif yang bisa digunakan al: Individual Depth Interview Participant Observation Film, Photographs and videotape Projective techniques and psychological testing Case studies Street ethnography Elite or expert interviewing Document analysis (to evaluate historical or contemporary confidential) Proxemics and kinesics (use of space and body motion communication) 33

34 Individual Depth Interview and Group Interviews Individual InterviewGroup Interview Research Objective : Explore life of individual in depth Create case histories through repeated interview s over time Test a survey Research Objective: Orient the researcher to a field of inquiry and the language of the field Explore a range of attitudes, opinions, and behaviors Observe a process of consensus and disagreement Add contextual detail to quantitative findings Topic Concerns : Detailed individual experiences, choices, biographies. Sensitive issues that might provoke anxiety Topic Concerns : Issues of public interest or common concern Issues where little is known or of a hypothetical nature Participants: Time pressed participant or those difficult to recruit (e.g., elite or high-status participants) Participants with sufficient language skill (e.g., those older than seven) Participants whose distinction would inhibit participation Participants : Participants whose backgrounds are similar or not so dissimilar as to generate conflict or discomfort. Participants who offer a range of positions on issues. 34

35 Interviews Wawancara tidak terstruktur /Unstructured Interview Wawancara semi terstruktur /Semi-structured Interview Wawancara terstruktur /Structured Interview Jenis Interviews 35

36 Statistical studies vs. Case Studies Studi secara statistikal dirancang lebih untuk mengungkapkan keluasan cakupan daripada kedalamannya. Studi ini mencoba mengungkapkan karakteristik suatu populasi dengan melakukan inferensi karakteristik suatu sampel. Hipotesis-hipotesis diuji secara kuantitatif. Generalisasi atas temuannya disajikan berdasarkan keterwakilan sampel dan validitas dari rancangannya. Studi kasus lebih menekankan pada sebuah analisis kontekstual yang menyeluruh atas kejadian-kejadian atau kondisi-kondisi yang lebih sempit dan menekankan interrelasinya. 36

37 Teknik Kualitatif: Teknik-Teknik Projektif Word association: Participants are asked to match images, experiences, emotions, products and services, even people and places, to whatever is being studied. Contoh: “Apa yang Anda pikirkan bila mendengar kata KEJU……” Sentence completion: Participants are asked to complete a sentence Contoh: “Lengkapi kalimat berikut ini: Restoran yang menawarkan diskon kartu kredit berarti… ….. “ Cartoons or empty balloons Participants are asked to write the dialog for a cartoon-like picture 37

38 38 A Cartoon Test Let’s see if we can pick up some house wares at GiantGiant ………. ………

39 Teknik Kualitatif: Teknik-teknik Projektif Component sorts : Participants are presented with a flash cards containing component features and asked to create new combinations Sensory sorts : Participants are presented with scents, textures, and sound, usually verbalized on cards, and asked to arrange them by one or more criteria Laddering or benefit chain : Participants are asked to link functional features to their physical and psychological benefits, both real and ideal Thematic Apperception Test : Participants are confronted with a picture (usually a photograph or drawing) and asked to describe how the person in the picture feels and thinks 39

40 40 Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

41 Imagination exercises: Participants are asked to relate the properties of one thing/person/brand to another. Imaginary universe: Participants are asked to assume that the brand and its users populate an entire universe; then they describe the features of this new world Visitor from another planet: Participant are asked to assume that they are aliens and are confronting the product for the first time; they then describe their reactions, questions, and attitudes about purchase or retrial. Personification. Participants are asked to imagine inanimate objects with the traits, characteristics, and features, and personalities of humans. “if brand X were a person, what type of person would brand X be ? Teknik Kualitatif: Teknik-teknik Projektif 41

42 Authority figure. Participants are asked to imagine that the brand or product is an authority figure and to describe the attribute of the figure. Ambiguities and paradoxes. Participants are asked to imagine a brand as something else (e.g., a Tide dog Food or Marlboro cereal), describing its attributes and position Semantic mapping. Participants are presented with a four- quadrant map where different variables anchor the two different axes; they then spatially place brands, product components, or organizations within the four quadrants Brand mapping. Participants are presented with different brands and asked to talk about their perceptions, usually in relation to several criteria. They may also be asked to spatially place each brand on one or more semantic map. Teknik Kualitatif: Teknik-teknik Projektif 42

43 Contoh Brand Mapping High moisturizing low moisturizing Nondeodorant Deodorant Zest Lever 2000 Safeguard Giv Lifebuoy Dove Biore Lux Coast Medicare


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