Presentasi berjudul: "4th Encounter www.akurnews.com. Bagaimana budaya tertentu melihat suatu realitas bagaimana anggota budaya tersebut melihat dunia, tempat mereka di sana."— Transcript presentasi:
Bagaimana budaya tertentu melihat suatu realitas bagaimana anggota budaya tersebut melihat dunia, tempat mereka di sana dan bagaimana mereka berinteraksi dengan dunia itu. Sendiri VS bersama-sama Muda VS tua Memuja dunia VS merusak dunia Material VS hidup damai Harus dicari jawabnya untuk memahami bagaimana orang dari budaya lain berkomunikasi
Kita tidak cukup tahu bahwa: Bow VS Shaking hands Value silence VS Value talk What motivate them?? Source what culture views the world DEEP STRUCTURE Unifies and makes culture unique
Walaupun banyak masalah intercultural comm terjadi karena interpersonal comm, tapi konfrontasi dan kesalahpahaman yang serius dapat ditelusuri pada deep structure of culture yang menjadi inti masalah. To better understand any culture, you need to appreciate that culture’s deep structure. Deep structure has its roots in the basic institution of culture, because cultures produces and is reproduced by that. World view (religion) Family structure State (government) Working in combination, create, transmit, maintain, dan reinforce the basic elements of collective behaviour
Alasan kenapa institusi tersebut memegang hal yang penting dalam perilaku kita? Deep structure institutions carry a culture’s most important beliefs Mereka diberi tugas untuk mengajarmu apa yang penting dan apa yang harus kamu perjuangkan Whether you should believe in fate or free choice, what expect in life, how to prepare death. Deep structure institutions and their message endure Setiap generasi diceritakan mengenai cerita-cerita ttg agama mereka Setiap generasi diberi kebijakan, tradisi, dan kebiasaan yang membuat budaya unik. Fact that deep hatred between cultures also endure
Deep structure institutions and their message are deeply felt The content generated by these instituions arouse deep and emotional feeling. Menyebut nama Tuhan, menyebut nama ibu kita dgn kasar, membakar bendera Prajurit yang berperang, politikus yang berkampanye, selalu mengobar2kan semangat mengenai pentingnya ketiga institusi tadi Deep structure institutions supply much of our identity Born without identity. Interact to develop identity. These membership define you The identities that mean to most people are the ones gained through their deep structure institutions.
World View The link between perception, culture, and world view World view influences all aspects of our perception and cosequently affects or belief and value system as well as how we think World view is a culture’s orientation toward God, humanity, nature, questions of existence, life, detah, and other philosohical issues that influence how we perceive the world Example: Islam perception on women, biblical view about nature, The foundation of nation’s culture and the most important determinant of social dan business conduct are the religious and philosohical belief of someone Weber’s The protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism
The manner in which a culture conducts its business can be reflected in its world view. Out of awareness processes and intuitive problem solving versus scientifid method (japan vs US) Japan Buddhist tradition meditation.
Religion as a world view Predominat element found in every culture and has thousand years given people their world view religion Tanggung jawab untuk menghasilkan dan melestarikan elemen dari world view institusi agama & spiritual leader People have always felt a nedd to seek outside themselves the values by which they live their lives and guidance. Deals with the nature of life & death, creation of the universe, the relationship between individual, and relation of humankind with nature people rely on religious explanation Religion, be it theology or everyday practices of culture, gives us insight into the member of that culture.
Religious Similaritites Sacred Scripture Express and provide identity, authorization, and ideals. Kitab-kitab ini telah membantu membentuk pemikiran dan tindakan jutaan orang Authority Have an authority figure who provides guidance & instruction Someone greater than individual. Traditional Ritual Ritual : one of the oldest, most complex, and persistent symbolic activities associated with religions. Expresses the physic, sosial, religious world to its participant while its also provide identity. Ex: lighting candles, wearing special attire, sit, stand, kneel when you pray Ritual can also be indirect. Ex. Japanese tea ceremony. Every move and position, embodies humility, awareness. Framing the ordinary action in order to reveal some deeper significance Zen Buddhist idea
Speculation All human being seek answers to great mysteries of life Origin of the universe, detailed descriptions of heaven & hell Ethics Nearly same for all cultures All religions avoid murders, theiving, lying. Strees in humility, charity. Security Religion unites people by asking them to share symbols, values, and norms strong feeling to know that you are aprt of a religious family. Ex: fasting the same day, wearing the same attire when pray, bowing on one direction Religious Similaritites
Religious Traditions Religion is but one knd of world view, even the person who say “There is No God”, has answer for question about death, life, etc. To isolate those aspects of world view that are most manifest in how a culture perceives issues: life, death, ethics, social relationship that affect communication. Trying to demonstrate how a culture’s deep structure serves as the roots of their reality.
Christianity The dominant world view in america. Jesus’s view of the self was relational. The closer people drew to God, the closer they could draw to one another contribute in the social dimension of western culture belongs to numerous club, committes, organizations. (in East, one’s spiritual life : solitude, West : message shared with others) Central ethic of Jesus Love Love your neighbour as yourself. Reflected in large amout of charitable org. Christianity discovers individuality in the sense that it stress personal conversion. Future time orientation mmistake, regret are forgiven by God. Jesus might be feminist banned all divorce, giving her greater responsibility for teaching children.
Judaism (yahudi) The oldest of religions being practiced today & monotheistic. Walaupun memiliki presentase pengikut yang sedikit, tapi kemampuan mereka membuatnya penting dan bpengaruh. Historically, oppresion have been part of jewish view. Only the Jews have had their homeland destroys (twice), expelled from nearly every nation. Learning become important for Jewish. Islam The newest and fastest growing religion in the world. Codification of all values and ways to behave in every circumtances.
Hinduism The most difficult of all religious orientation for western to understand. Hindu: The more gods more better. No single founder, no orgnizational hierarchy. Hindus become the most religious people because they find divine in everything. Rituals important to show that God is in everything.
Buddhism Difficult to understand abandonment of views generated by the use of ordinary words and scripture. There is a supreme and wonderful truth that words cannot reach – a special transmission outside the scripture, direct pointing at the mind of man. World view Life Suffering Budha taught us that only in understanding how we create suffering fou ourselves can we become free. Direct itself to purification of life and consciusness, not to worship of godlike figure. Buddhism is faith, philosophy, and a way of life.
Confucianism The system of social, political, ethical, and religious thought based on the teaching of Confucius. Banyak ditemukan di di Cina, Jepang, Korea. Center around the teaching of Confucius (filsuf) Analects: contain saying, proverb that believed to be Confucius philosophy; help shape the thought and actions.
Family If you know the family, you dont need to know the individual (Chinese) God could not be evrywhre and therefore he made mothers (Jewish). Family among the oldest and most fundamental of all human institutions. Here is where one has first experience love, hate, giving, etc. Importance : Transforming biological organism into human being Caretaker of those view and transmit it to generations Supply all of us with part of our identity
Culture and Family At birth, babies can grow up to be members of any society. It depends on they trained and taught, loved and punished, whether they turn into one kind of person or another. A human beings development can take any number of paths, and culture is one of the major determinants of that. The interaction patterns in the family offer clues as to communication patterns found outside the family “Children act in the village as they have learned at home”.
Gender Roles Children learn to differentiate between masculine and feminine activity. Persepsi dipelajari dan mempengaruhi bagaimana anggota budaya berinteraksi dengan kedua gender tersebut. Confusius “Males are primarily responsible for task functions, while female attend to social and cultural task. India males are considered the superior sex. Anak laki2 adalah titipan Tuhan. The Quran addresses men only. These roles are subject to change.
Age Greatly influence the way individuals perceive youth as well as old age. American: prefer youth than old age (plastic surgery, media) Asian: respect for the old. Chinese : When eating the bamboo sprouts, remember who planted them Elder is the carrier of much of the knowledge that is important.
HISTORY History is the pact between the dead, the living, and the yet unborn can carry important message We need to recognize that the history of every society deserves to be studied not only as part of wolrd history but also on account of its intrinsic values. We’ll talk about historical events and spesific dates. The penetrating effect of a culture’s history on perception and behaviour can be seen in several examples. What a culture seeks to remember and pass on the next generation tells us about the character of that culture
TUGAS Jelaskan bagaimana pemahaman mengenai aspek agama dalam budaya tertentu akan membantumu untuk berkomunikasi lebih baik dengan anggota budaya tersebut? Ceritakan deep structure hatred yang terjadi pada kelompok-kelompok berikut: Pribumi vs kaum Cina Yahudi vs Arab Korea Selatan vs Korea Utara Bosnia Herzegovina vs Kosovo, Serbia, Montenegro Jepang vs Cina Pilih 3 dari 5 pilihan tersebut di atas!!