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Advertising, Sales Promotion and Public Relations.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Advertising, Sales Promotion and Public Relations."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Advertising, Sales Promotion and Public Relations

2 Marketing Mix : - Product - Price - Place - Promotion

3 Promotion Mix : 1. Personal Selling 2. Publicity 3. Advertising 4. Sales Promotions 5. Public Relations 6. Direct Marketing 7. Packaging 8. Word of Mouth

4 Advertising : is paid non personal communication from an identified sponsor using mass media to persuade or to influence an audience. Advertising is used when sponsors want to communicate with a number of people who can not be reached economically and effectively through personal means.

5 Target audience : pembeli dan orang yang mempengaruhi pembelian Target market : pemakai. Contoh : Susu bayi : TA : ibu TM : bayi

6 Personal Selling : Personal, face to face contact between a seller’s representative with whom the seller wants to communicate is personal selling. Non profit organizations, political candidates, companies and individuals use personal selling to communicate with their publics.

7 Sales Promotion : It involves any activity that offers an incentive to induce a desired response by sales persons, intermediaries and / or final customers.E.G : buy 1 get 2, discount.

8 Sales Promotion activities add value to the product because the incentives ordinarily do not accompany the product. Most incentives, are short term in nature.

9 Public Relations is concerned with developing and sustaining a positive image of the company and its products. Public relations is concerned primarily with people out side the target market, although it may include them, government agencies, communications in which plants are located, consumerists, environmentalists, stock holders and college professors.

10 Direct Marketing ( Penjualan langsung dengan menggunakan media komunikasi inter aktif : telepon, internet ). Direct Marketing is direct communications with carefully targeted individual consumers to obtain an immediate response and cultivate lasting consumer relationships. Some forms of direct Marketing : tele marketing, direct mail, on line marketing.

11 Direct marketing is : - non public : the message is normally addressed to a specific person. - immediate and customized : messages can be prepared very quickly and they can be tailored to specific person. - inter active : it allows a dialogue between the marketer and the consumer.

12 Types of Advertising : 1.Brand Adv 2.Retail / Local Adv 3.Political Adv 4.Directory Adv 5.Direct-Response Adv 6.Business-to Business Adv 7.Institusional Adv 8.Public Service Adv 9.Interactive Adv

13 Brand Adv : develop a distinctive brand image for a product. Retail Adv : focuses on the store where a variety of product can be purchased. Political Adv: used by politicians to vote for them. Directory Adv :used by people to find out how to buy a product or services. E.G : Yellow Pages.

14 Direct- Response Adv :Can use any advertising medium, but the massage is different from that of Brand Adv and Retail Adv in that it tries to stimulate a sale directly. The consumer can respond by telephone or mail, and the product is delivered directly.

15 Business-to Business Adv : includes messages directed at retailers, wholesalers and distributors as well as industrial purchasers and professionals such as lawyers and physicians. Advertisers place most business adv in business publications or professional journals.

16 Institutional Adv: also called corporate adv.These messages focus on establishing a corporate identity. Public Service Adv : communicates a message on behalf of some good cause, such as stopping drunk driving or preventing child abuse.These ads are usually created for free by ad professionals and the media often donate the space and time.

17 Interactive Adv :delivered to individual consumers who have access to computer and internet. Ads are delivered via web pages, banner ads, etc. Consumer can respond to the ads, modify, expand, or ignore.

18 Functions of Advertising : 1. Provide product and brand information 2. Provide incentives to take action 3. Provide reminders and reinforcement

19 Sales Promotion

20 Sales promotion tools are used by most organizations, including manufacturers, distributors,retailers, trade associations and profit institutions.They are targetted toward final buyers (consumer promotions) business customers ( business promo),retail and wholesaler (trade promo), and member of the sales force (sales force promo).

21 Objectives: - Sellers use consumer promo to increase short term sales or to help build long term market share. - Trade promo : getting retailers to carry new items and more inventory,getting them to advertise the product and give it more shelf space, getting them to buy ahead.

22 -Sales Force Promo :getting more sales force support for current or new products or getting sales people to sign up new accounts. -Sales promo is usually used together with advertising or personal selling. -Consumer promo must be advertised and can add excitement and pulling power to ads.

23 Major Sales promotion tools : 1. Consumer promo tools : Coupon, sample, discount, contest,sweepstakes, games. 2. Trade promo tools : Discount, advertising allowance, display allowance. 3. Business promo tools :trade shows, sales contest, trips, cash prizes or other gift.

24 Public Relations Building good relations with the company’s various publics by obtaining favorable publicity, building up a good corporate image, handling unfavorable rumors, stories and events.

25 Public relations departments may perform any or all of the following functions : 1. Press relations : creating and placing newsworthy information in the news media to attract attention to a person,product, or service. 2. Product Publicity :publicizing specific products.

26 3.Public affairs : building and maintaining national or local community relations. 4. Lobbying : building and maintaining relations with legislators and government officials to influence legislation and regulation. 5. Investor Relations : maintaining relationships with shareholders and others in the financial community.

27 6. Development : Public Relations with donors or members of non profit organizations to gain financial or volunteer support.

28 Public Relations can have a strong impact on public awareness at a much lower cost than advertising. The company does not pay for space or time in the media. Rather, it pays for staff to develop and circulate information and to manage events.

29 If the company develops an interesting story, it could be picked up by several different media, having the same effects as advertising that would cost million of dollars. It would have more credibility than advertising.

30 The Difference between Public Relations and Advertising : 1. Media Use :PR People avoid purchasing time or space to communicate message. Instead, they persuade media to carry their stories. This type of PR is labeled publicity,and cost free.

31 Even when PR sues paid-for media, the nature of the message tends to be general or focused on the organization, with no attempt to sell a brand or product line. The goal is to change public’s attitudes to favor the organization.This type of ad is called corporate / institusional ad.

32 2. Control : In the case of news stories the PR Strategist is at the mercy of the media. There is no guarantee that all or even part of story will appear. In contrast, advertising is paid for runs as written and approved by the client, so there are many checks to ensure that the message is accurate and appears when scheduled.

33 3. Credibility : Consumers tend to trust the media more than they trust advertisers. This consumer tendency is called the implied third-person endorsement factor.

34 Major Public Relations Tools ( Kotler & Armstrong ) : 1.News 2.Speeches 3. Special Events : news conference, press tour, grand openings,, hot air balloon releases, multi media presentations, educational programs designed to reach and interest target publics.

35 Direct Marketing Benefits to Buyers: 1. Convenient : customers don’t have to battle traffic, find parking spaces, trek through stores and aisles to find the product. 2. Easy and private : don’t have to face sales people. 3. Greater Product access and selection : Unrestrained by physical boundaries, cyber store can offer almost unlimited selection : Amazon.com, CDNow, etc.

36 4. On line and internet channels also give consumers access to information about companies, products and competitors. 5. Inter active and immediate.

37 Benefits of Direct Marketing to Sellers : 1. Direct Marketing is a powerful tool for customer relationship building. 2. Reducing costs, increasing speed and efficiency. 3. Greater flexibility :allowing the marketer to make ongoing adjustments to its offers and programs. 4. Internet is a truly global medium that allows buyers and sellers to click from 1 country to another in seconds.

38 Personal Selling and Sales Management Sales person : an individual acting for a company by performing 1 or more of the following activities : prospecting, communicating,servicing, and information gathering.

39 At one extreme, a sales person might be largely an order taker, such as at the department store sales person standing behind the counter. At other extreme are order getters,whose position demand the creative selling of products and services ranging from appliances, industrial equipment,airplane, insurance,advertising or consulting services.

40 Other sales people engage in “missionary selling “ : these sales people are not expected or permitted to take an order but only build goodwill or educate buyers. E.G: sales person for pharmaceutical company who calls on doctors to educate them about the company’s drug product and to urge them to prescribe the products to their patients.

41 Istilah “wakil penjualan“ ( sales rep ) mencakup posisi yang luas.Mc Nurry membuat klasifikasi berikut untuk posisi- posisi penjualan : 1. Pengirim ( deliverer ) :wiraniaga yang tugas utamanya adalah mengirim produk.

42 2. Penerima pesanan ( order taker ) : wiraniaga yang bertindak sebagai penerima pesanan di dalam ( misalnya : penjaga toko yang berdiri di belakang counter ) atau sebagai penerima pesanan luar, misalnya : wiraniaga sabun yang mengunjungi toko swalayan ).

43 3. Pembawa misi ( missionary ) :wiraniaga yang tidak diharapkan / tidak diijinkan menerima pesanan, tetapi hanya ditugaskan membangun nama baik / mendidik (calon) pemakai ( misalnya : “detailer “ )

44 4.Teknisi ( technician ) : wiraniaga yang memiliki tingkat kehlian teknis yang tinggi misalnya : teknisi komputer. 5.Pencipta permintaan ( demand creator ) : wiraniaga yang mengandalkan metode kreatif untuk menjual produk berwujud ( penyedot debu, pencuci mobil ) atau produk tak berwujud ( misalnya : asuransi, pendidikan ).

45 6. Penjual Solusi ( solution vendor ) : wiraniaga yang mengkhususkan diri dalam memecahkan masalah pelanggan, sering dengan sistem produk dan jasa perusahaan.

46 Tugas wiraniaga : 1.Mencari calon pembeli potensial 2.Menetapkan sasaran : wakil penjualan memutuskan bagaimana mengalokasikan waktu mereka bagi para calon pembeli dan pelanggannya. 3.Berkomunikasi : terampil mengkomunikasikan informasi tentang produk dan jasa perusahaan. 4.Menjual : mengetahui seni menjual, mendekati, mempresentasikan, menjawab pertanyaan, menutup penjualan.

47 5. Melayani : memberi bantuan teknis, membantu pembiayaan, melakukan pengiriman. 6.Mengumpulkan informasi :melakukan riset pasar dan melakukan tugas intelijen, membuat laporan kunjungan. 7. Mengalokasikan : memutuskan pelanggan mana yang akan mendapat produk yang langka selama terjadi kekurangan produk

48 Managing The Sales Force : Analysis, planning, implementation, and control of sales force activities.

49 Designing Sales Force Structure : Marketing Managers face several sales force strategy and design questions : - How should sales people and their tasks be structured ? - How big should the sales force be ? - Should sales people sell alone or work in teams ? - Should they sell in field or by telephone ?

50 Sales force structure : 1.Territorial Sales Force Structure : each sales person is assigned to an exclusive geographic areas and sells the company’s full line of products / services to all customers in that the territory.

51 It clearly defines the sales person’s job, and because only 1 sales person works the territory, he/ she will get all credit or blame for territory sales. The territorial structure also increases the sales person’s desire to build local business relationship that, in turn, improve selling effectiveness. because a sales person travels within a limited geographic areas, travel expenses are relatively small.

52 2. Product Sales Force Structure : Sales people must know their products, especially when the products are numerous and complex. This need a product sales force structure, in which the sales force sells along product lines. E.G : Kodak film, Kodak industrial.

53 The Product Sales Force Structure can lead to problems if a single large customer buys many different products. E.G : Baxter International, a hospital supply company, has several product division, each with a separate sales force. Several Baxter sale people might end up calling on the same hospital on the same day.

54 This means that they travel over the same routes and wait to see the same customer’s purchasing manager.

55 3. Customer Sales Force Structure : A sales force organization under which sales people specialize in selling only to certain customers or industries. Organizing the sales force around customers can help a company become more customer focused and build closer relationships with important customers.

56 E.G : IBM, advertising agencies, TV Stations.

57 4.Complex Sales Force Structures : When a company sells a wide variety of products to many types of customers over broad geographic area, it often combines several types of sale force structures.

58 Sales people can specialized by : - customer and territory - product and territory - product and customer - territory, product and customer.

59 Direct Marketing ( Tambahan ) Forms of Direct Marketing : 1. Face-to-face selling : insurance agents, stock broker, Avon, Amway. 2. Tele marketing: Using telephone to sell directly to consumers : Credit card, membership, stock. 3. Direct- mail marketing : letters, samples, fold outs, etc. 4. Catalog marketing : Direct marketing through print, video or electronic catalogs, available in stores or presented on line.

60 5. Direct – response television marketing : infomercials and shopping channels. 6. Kiosk Marketing : menggunakan mesin penerima pesanan pelanggan yang dinamakan kios.Beda dengan mesin penjual otomatis yang mengeluarkan produk, dan menempatkannya di toko,bandara, dan tempat-tempat umum. Contoh : Florsheim Shoe Company. 7. On line Marketing : mepasaran abad 21, melalui komputer dan modem.

61 On Line Marketing Pemasaran on line menjadi begitu populer karena memberi kemudahan bagi pembeli: 1. Kemudahan : pembeli dapat memesan produk 24 jam sehari. 2. Informasi : pelanggan dapat memperoleh setumpuk info. 3. Rongrongan yang lebih sedikit dari tenaga penjual.

62 Layanan on line memberikan sejumlah manfaat bagi pemasar : 1. Penyesuaian yang cepat terhadap kondisi pasar, misalnya mengubah harga. 2.Biaya yang lebih rendah : biaya sewa toko, biaya asuransi, dll tidak perlu lagi. 3.Pemupukan hubungan : dapat bekomunikasi dengan pelanggan, memperoleh info dari pelanggan, dsb. 4. Mengukur banyaknya pemirsa : berapa banyak orang yang mengunjungi situs on linenya ?

63 Saluran Pemasaran On line : ada 4 cara untuk membuat saluran pemasaran on line : 1. membuat etalase elektronik 2. berpartisipasi dalam forum, news group, buletin boards. 3. memasang iklan on line 4. menggunakan e mail.

64 1.Membuat etalase elektronik(Home page): menawarkan berbagai ragam informasi : - gambaran perusahaan & produknya. - Katalog perusahaan berisi : keistimewaan, ketersediaan, dan harga produk. - berita perusahaan, laporan keuangan, peristiwa terbaru, produk baru, dll - informasi teknis, lowongan pekerjaan, dsb.

65 2.Berpartisipasi dalam forum, news group dan bulletin boards : partisipasi ini dapat meningkatkan “keterlihatan” ( visibility ) dan kredibilitas perusahaan.

66 Forum : kelompok diskusi dalam layanan on line komersial. Sebuah forum dapat mengopreasikan sebuah perpustakaan, ruang konferensi untuk bincang-bincang real time. Yamaha musik membuat forum tentang musik klasik.Home page forum tersebut menampilkan icon untuk kilasan berita, perpustakaan, pesan, dan ruang konferensi.Untuk bisa mengakses foum ini, tidak harus jadi member.

67 News groups : versi forum di internet, namun terbatas pada orang yang menempatkan dan membaca pesan tentang topik tertentu. Pemakai internet dapat berpartisipasi dalam news group tanpa berlangganan.Untuk bisa mengakses new group ini harus jadi member. Contoh : Creative Circle.

68 Bulletin Board Systems ( BBS ) : layanan on line yang terpusat pada topik tertentu, misalnya : topik kesehatan, topuik gosip artis, dsb di Bisa diakses oleh siapapun.www.cbn.net.id

69 3. Memasang iklan on line : - di kolom iklan - atau di new group 4. Menggunakan e mail perusahaan : - memberi tahu para pemilik mobil pada saat mobilnya harus diservis. - memberi tahu pemilik anjing untuk penyuntikan rabies tahunan.


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