Proses manajemen untuk mengidentifikasi, mengantisipasi dan memuaskan kebutuhan pelanggan secara menguntungkan Pemasaran adalah proses perencanaan dan pelaksanaan konsepsi, penetapan harga, promosi dan distribusi ide, barang dan jasa untuk menciptakan pertukaran yang memuaskan individu dan organisasi tujuan.
Peter F Drucker : pemasaran merupakan orientasi kepada pelanggan, perusahaan seharusnya menempatkan pelanggan seabgai hal yang pertama untuk itu perusahaan harus selalu berinovasi dalam rangka memberikan nilai terbaik bagi pelanggan Drucker’s perspective lacked strategic content in that it gives emphasis to the organizational culture, but fails to provide guidance on which customers to serve and how to serve them.
The identification of consumers’ needs (covering what goods and services are bought, how they are bought, by whom they are bought, and why they are bought) The definition of target market segments (by which customers are grouped according to common characteristics – whether demographic, psychological, geographic, etc.) The creation of a differential advantage within target segments by which a distinct competitive position relative to other companies can be established, and from which profit flows
Strategic decisions are concerned with seven principal areas: 1. They are concerned with the scope of an organization’s activities. 2. They relate to the matching of the organization’s activities with the opportunities of its substantive environment. 3. They require the matching of an organization’s activities with its resources. In order to take advantage of strategic opportunities it will be necessary to have funds, capacity, personnel, etc., available when required. 4. They have major resource implications for organizations – such as acquiring additional capacity, disposing of capacity, or reallocating resources in a fundamental way.
5. They are influenced by the values and expectations of those who determine the organization’s strategy. 6. They will affect the organization’s long- term direction. 7. They are complex in nature since they tend to be non-routine and involve a large number of variables. As a result, their implications will typically extend throughout the organization.