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Dari VISI sampai REALITA - Penyusunan Rencana Strategi.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Dari VISI sampai REALITA - Penyusunan Rencana Strategi."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Dari VISI sampai REALITA - Penyusunan Rencana Strategi

2 Dari mimpi… Kenyataan / Realisasi Langkah 1 Langkah 2 Langkah 3 Langkah 4 Langkah 5 Klarifikasi Nilai-nilai Definisikan nilai-nilai kunci yang bermakna dalam setiap aktifitas Pahami kondisi saat ini Kaji kondisi lingkungan saat ini (internal dan eksternal) Ciptakan Visi Ciptakan visi sesuai dengan kebutuhan masa depan Definisikan Misi Klarifikasi tujuan dasar Implementasi Visi Ciptakan rencana strategis, rencana aksi, dan evaluasi

3 Visi Misi Tujuan Strategi Kebijakan Program Anggaran Prosedur Performance STRATEGY FORMULATION STRATEGY IMPLEMENTATION EVALUATION F E E D B A C K Situasi lingkun gan Ekster nal Inter nal

4 Triarko Nurlambang Daya Makara UI Disampaikan pada Rapat Kerja Lembaga Pengembangan Insani Baznas Kamis 11 Januari 2007, Vila Askar, Cisarua - Bogor

5 a b c Start Tujuan Kondisi ideal: efisien efektif puas Perlu Perencanaan Pelaksanaan / operasional Evaluasi / monitoring Ilmiah > Seni Seni > Ilmiah Ilmiah > Seni

6 MEMBANGUNKOMITMENMEMBANGUNKOMITMEN Apa kegiatannya? (Mengapa kita harus berubah?) Visi (Apa yang kita inginkan?) Misi (Apa bisnis/kegiatan yang akan kita tekuni?) Tujuan (Apa yang harus kita lakukan untuk mencapai Visi?) Ukuran (Bagaimana kita mengukur program dan sukses?) Strategi (Bagaimana kita memnuhi Tujuan tsb?) Membangun Organisasi (Bagaimana kita mencipatakan kondisi yang siap untuk mencapai sukses?) Monitoring dan Review (Seberapa baik kita melaksanakan rencana strategi?) Kaji Ulang dan Revisi (Apa tindakan yang dibutuhkan untuk mencapai hasil; lebih baik?) Kajian Strategis (tetapkan harapan dan arah) Perencanaan Strategis (tetapkan pendekatan) Implementasi Strategi (tetapkan kendali)

7 STRATEGI: program umum dari satu kegiatan, pelaksanaan, atau pemanfaatan sumberdaya uuntuk mencapai tujuan komprehensif KEBIJAKAN: bagian dari perencanaan berupa ketetapan umum yang memberikan arah pemikiran dan kegiatan pengambilan keputusan PROSEDUR: bagian dari perencanan yang menetapkan metode yang dibutuhkan untuk mencapai tujuan yang telah ditetapkan sehingga ada petunjuk uuntuk pengambilan keputusan dan bertindak PROGRAM: satu kumpulan dari tujuan, prosedur, peraturan, langkah yang akan diambil, pemanfaatan sumberdaya, dan elemen lainnya yang dibutuhkan bagi pelaksanaan kegiatan yang umumnya didukung oleh anggaran ANGGARAN: satu kebijakan diharapkan dapat mewujudkan hasil yang diinginkan; merupakan program ‘dalam angka’

8 Menentukan tujuan yang ingin dicapai selama satu periode tertentu Menentukan apa atau tindakan apa yang akan dilakukan untuk mencapai tujuan Strategic PlanOperational Plan Pengertian Rancangan perencanaan untuk mencapai tujuan umum organisasi Rencana yang mengandung rincian kegiatan yang harus dijalankan sehari-hari Horizon waktu Cenderung untuk melihat masa depan (beberapa tahun YAD) Biasanya tahunan Lingkup Mempengaruhi aktifitas organisasi yang luas Sempit dan terbatas Tingkat rinci Sederhana dan generic (yang memeungkinkan untuk memeberikan arah kegiatan) Turunan dari strategic plan

9 Visi (Misi dan Nilai-nilai) Tujuan Analisa kesenjangan (Kesenjangan antara tujuan dan harapan ) Pilihan Strategis dan resiko Strategi terpilih Hasil Finansial yang diharapkan Tujuan (Milestones)Rencana kegiatan Harapan Stakeholder/ Shareholder Dinamika situasi perkembangan lingkungan Kesiapan Mitra dan antar departemen atau organisasi yang lain Kekuatan dan Kelemahan Kapabilitas Kompetensi Inti Ketersediaan sumberdaya Hasil Nyata Proses Monitoring dan Pengendalian

10 Fokus/ Arah Mission Vision Business Value Markets Major products & services Core competenc e Environment Stakeholder s Critical resources

11 Proses Rencana Strategi dalam Bisnis Strategi Operasional - Terjemahkan strategi bisnis pada tingkat operasional dan kegiatan mata rantai supply - Berikan nilai tambah untuk pelanggan - Kembangkan kompetensi inti Strategi Fungsional lainnya - Pemasaran - Keuangan - Sumberdaya Manusia - Penelitian dan Pengembangan - Rekayasa/ Engineering Visi dan Misi Strategi Bisnis - Target pelanggan/ pasar - ‘Ruang’ kelanggengan keunggulan kompetitif - Peran mitra mata rantai supply - Kerangka Waktu dan kinerja pencapaian tujuan Strategic Alignment

12 Things/ Task Ide People Top Mngt Middle Mngt First Line Mngt Conceptual thinking: Visioning Strategizing Administrasi: Planning Staffing Organizing Directing Controlling HRM (Human Resource Mngt) & Leadership Recruiting & Hiring Developing & Motivating Rewarding / Punishing Retaining Empowering

13 Bagaimana Mengukur Hasil Pelaksanaan Rencana Strategi; Aplikasi Balanced Score Card

14 BALANCED SCORE CARD kumpulan ukuran kinerja yang terintegrasi dan diturunkan dari strategi perusahaan yang mendukung strategi perusahaan secara keseluruhan tidak hanya mengukur kinerja berdasarkan perspektif keuangan (financial perspective) tetapi juga dengan mengukur berdasarkan perspektif pelanggan (customer perspective), proses bisnis/aktifitas dijalankan (internal business process perspective) dan perspektif kemampuan belajar dan tumbuh (learning and growth perpective) suatu cara untuk mengkomunikasikan strategi suatu perusahaan pada manajer-manajer di seluruh organisasi (sumber: Tunggal, A.W., 2002) Penggagas Balanced Score Card (BSC): Robert S. Kaplan dan David P. Norton sejak 1992 (pertama kali ditulis di Jurnal HBR/ Harvard Business Review). Bukunya yang menjadi acuan: “Translating Strategy Into Action – The Balanced Score Card” (1996) “The Strategy – Focused Organization – How Balanced Scorecard Company Thrive in the New Business Environment” (2001)

15 Financial Perspective Objectives Measures Targets Initiatives To succeed financially, how should we appear to our sharehold ers? Learning and Growth Perspective Objectives Measures Targets Initiatives To achieved our vision, how will we sustain our ability to change and improve? Internal Business Process Persp. To satisfy our shareholde rs and customers, what business processes must we excel at ? Customer Perspective To achieve our vision, how should we appear to our customers? Objectives Measures Targets Initiatives Vision & Strategy

16 FINAN CIAL Cash flow, ROI Residual Income % revenue from innovation Residual cash flow Revenue growth CUSTOMER *) Customer *) Customer *) Customer satisfaction loyalty service INTERNAL BUSINESS PROCESS *) Throughput *) Reduction *) Process *) On- time time in waste quality delivery INNOVATION/LEARNING AND GROWTH *) number of new products *) return on innovation * employee skills *) time-to-market (new products) *) time to spent talking to customers Dikembangkan oleh: Douglas Clinton dan Ko-Cheng Hsu, 2000

17 Clarifying and translating the Vision and Strategy Clarifying the Vision Gaining consensus Planning and Target Setting Setting targets Aligning strategic initiatives Allocating resources Establishing milestones Communicating and Linking Communicating and educating Setting goals Linking rewards to performance measure Strategic Feedback and Learning Articulating the shared vision Supplying strategic feedback Facilitating strategy review and learning Balanced Score Card

18 Operations Management Operations Strategy Chapter 2

19 Business Elements Structural buildings, equipment, technology, computer systems Infrastructural organization, planning & control, decision rules, quality management, purchasing, product/service development Personnel ( )

20 Merck – The mission of Merck is to provide society with superior products and services - innovations and solutions that improve the quality of life and satisfy customer needs - to provide employees with meaningful work and advancement opportunities and investors with a superior rate of return Hard Rock Café – To spread the spirit of Rock ‘n’ Roll by delivering an exceptional entertainment and dining experience. We are committed to being an important, contributing member of our community and offering the Hard Rock family a fun, healthy, and nurturing work environment while ensuring our long- term success. Mission The organization’s purpose for being; provides boundaries and focus

21 Mission / Strategy / Core Competencies Mission – The organization’s purpose for being; provides boundaries and focus Business strategy – Action plan for the business to achieve the mission Functional strategies – Translate the business strategy into specific actions for the functional areas Core competencies – Organizational abilities/strengths, developed over a long period, which customers find valuable, and competitors find difficult to copy

22 Strategy Linkages / Alignment All functional strategies must support the business strategy All functional strategies must support the business strategy Marketing strategy based on differentiation and customization Operations strategy to build to stock Marketing strategy based on differentiation and customization Operations strategy to build to stock Financial strategy to minimize capital investment Financial strategy to minimize capital investment Operations strategy to increase investment for quality improvement Operations strategy to increase investment for quality improvement Engineering strategy to specify an entirely new part when an existing part will do Engineering strategy to specify an entirely new part when an existing part will do Operations strategy for low cost Operations strategy for low cost

23 Strategy Process Operations Strategy - Translate business strategy into operations & supply chain actions - Provide value to targeted customers - Develop supporting core competencies Other Functional Strategies - Marketing - Finance - Human Resources - Research & Development - Engineering Mission Statement Business Strategy - Targeted customers / markets - Areas of sustainable competitive advantage - Role of supply chain partners - Time frames & performance objectives Strategic Alignment

24 Four Performance Dimensions Operations Strategy - Translate business strategy into operations & supply chain actions - Provide value to targeted customers - Develop supporting core competencies Other Functional Strategies - Marketing - Finance - Human Resources - Research & Development - Engineering Mission Statement Business Strategy - Targeted customers / markets - Areas of sustainable competitive advantage - Role of supply chain partners - Time frames & performance objectives Quality-Performance quality -Conformance quality -Reliability quality Time-Delivery speed -Delivery reliability Flexibility-Volume flexibility -Mix flexibility -Changeover flexibility Cost -Low-cost operations

25 Order Winners vs. Order Qualifiers Item Conformance quality 99.9% pure - Meets 98% pure – Does not meet Delivery 3 days2 days Cost $30 / liter $20 / liter Flexibility 100 liter minimum order50 liter minimum order Supplier ASupplier B Order winners – performance dimensions that differentiate a company’s products and services from its competitors Order Qualifiers – performance dimensions on which customers expect a minimum level of performance

26 Operations Strategy Operations Strategy - Translate business strategy into operations & supply chain actions - Provide value to targeted customers - Develop supporting core competencies Other Functional Strategies - Marketing - Finance - Human Resources - Research & Development - Engineering Mission Statement Business Strategy - Targeted customers / markets - Areas of sustainable competitive advantage - Role of supply chain partners - Time frames & performance objectives Operations strategy Process decisions Quality decisions Capacity, location, and layout decisions Operating decisions Services Manufacturing Customized services Assemble-to-order Standardized services Make-to-order Assemble-to-order Make-to-stock

27 Operations Strategy Make to Order (MTO) Receive order before producing goods e.g. Machine shop Make to Stock (MTS) Satisfy customer orders from inventory e.g. Paper Assemble to Order (ATO) Stock standardized components/assemblies assemble finished product to customer order e.g. Dell Computer Service StrategiesManufacturing Strategies Customized Services Strategy Individualized services e.g. Health clinic Assemble to Order Strategy Assemble standardized offerings for a specific customer’s needs e.g. Cellular phone service Standardized Services Strategy High volume with little variety e.g. U.S. Postal Service

28 Generic Operations Strategies Operations Strategy - Translate business strategy into operations & supply chain actions - Provide value to targeted customers - Develop supporting core competencies Other Functional Strategies - Marketing - Finance - Human Resources - Research & Development - Engineering Mission Statement Business Strategy - Targeted customers / markets - Areas of sustainable competitive advantage - Role of supply chain partners - Time frames & performance objectives Differentiation – better / unique Cost leadership – cheaper / value Quick response – faster

29 Operations Strategies - Examples

30 Closing the Loop Operations Strategy - Translate business strategy into operations & supply chain actions - Provide value to targeted customers - Develop supporting core competencies Other Functional Strategies - Marketing - Finance - Human Resources - Research & Development - Engineering Mission Statement Business Strategy - Targeted customers / markets - Areas of sustainable competitive advantage - Role of supply chain partners - Time frames & performance objectives Strategic Alignment

31 OM’s Contribution to Strategy Response (Faster) Quality Product Process Location Layout Human Resource Supply Chain Inventory Scheduling Maintenance HP’s ability to follow the printer market Differentiation (Better) Cost leadership (Cheaper) Southwest Airlines No-frills service Sony’s constant innovation of new products Pizza Hut’s five-minute guarantee at lunchtime Federal Express’s “absolutely, positively on time” Motorola’s automotive products ignition systems Motorola’s pagers IBM’s after-sale service on mainframe computers Fidelity Security’s broad line of mutual funds FLEXIBILITY Design Volume LOW COST DELIVERY Speed Dependability QUALITY Conformance Performance AFTER-SALE SERVICE BROAD PRODUCT LINE Operations Decisions Examples Specific Strategy Used Competitive Advantage

32 Strategy and Issues During a Product’s Life

33 Summary Strategy is how we accomplish our mission Functional strategies must be aligned to support the business strategy OM goals are to be faster, better and/or cheaper Operations strategy: –Where the product or service is in its life cycle –Determines our mix of faster, better, and cheaper to satisfy our customers (trade-offs where necessary) –Specifies process choice, work flow, order processing, inventory, capacity, etc.


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