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Www.ebpaa.yolasite.com Bagian 3 Ethical Governance and Governance Systems materi ini dapat diunduh di www.ebpaa.yolasite.com 1.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Www.ebpaa.yolasite.com Bagian 3 Ethical Governance and Governance Systems materi ini dapat diunduh di www.ebpaa.yolasite.com 1."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Bagian 3 Ethical Governance and Governance Systems materi ini dapat diunduh di 1

2 Ethical Governance and Governance Systems Ethical governance and governance system adalah konsep serta sistem pengelolaan organisasi yang berbasis etika. Konsekuensi: prinsip-prinsip etika harus dimasukkan ke dalam perencanaan, pelaksanaan, dan pertanggungjawaban pengelolaan organisasi. 2

3 Ethical Governance and Governance System Corporate governance menjadi sangat penting untuk tujuan pencapaian kebahagiaan melalui peningkatan kualitas hidup. Dengan kata lain, perusahaan diharapkan tidak hanya memberikan kontribusi terhadap pertumbuhan ekonomi, tetapi juga meningkatkan kesejahteraan sosial dan kualitas hidup, atau secara sederhana meningkatkan kebahagiaan hidup. 3

4 Ethical Governance and Governance System Persoalan utama: Pengelolaan organisasi yang tidak mengindahkan prinsip-prinsip GCG bisa menimbulkan kerusakan ekonomi, sosial, politik, serta alam (natural resources) secara dramatis. Inilah alasan pentingnya ethical governance serta governance systems. Governance systems adalah sistem yang dirancang untuk memastikan efektifitas dan efisiensi implementasi ethical governance. 4

5 Ethical Governance and Governance System Sebelum isu Corporate Governance atau Good Corporate Governance (GCG) mengemuka dan menjadi populer, telah muncul konsep pengendalian organisasi yang dikenal dengan SPI (Sistem Pengendalian Interen), yang di kembangkan oleh COSO (Committee of Sponsoring Organizations). 5

6 Ethical Governance and Governance System COSO (committee of sponsoring organizations) adalah organisasi independen yang anggotannya terdiri dari berbagai asosiasi profesi, seperti: 1.AAA (the American Accounting Association) 2.AICPA (the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants) 3.IIA (the Institute of Internal Auditors) 4.IMA (the Institute of Management Accountants) dan 5.FEI (the Financial Executive Institute) 6

7 Ethical Governance and Governance System COSO merumuskan konsep Sistem Pengendalian Interen (SPI) untuk perusahaan-perusahaan publik, yaitu yang menjual sahamnya di bursa saham. SPI memiliki peran yang sangat besar dalam organisasi, karena tanpa SPI yang efektif, perusahaan publik memiliki potensi untuk membuat kerusakan perekonomian secara masif. 7

8 Ethical Governance and Governance System SPI harus terdokumentasi dan terukur, agar dapat diaudit implementasi dan operasinya (SPI bukan sekedar kata- kata tanpa bukti dokumenter). Elemen SPI  lihat slide selanjutnya. 8 Catatan: CG lebih luas dibanding SPI, karena SPI belum memasukkan prinsip-prinsip etika secara kesejahteraan stakeholders secara eksplisit.

9 Ethical Governance and Governance System Elemen SPI menurut COSO: 1.Lingkungan pengendalian (control environment) 2.Pengukuran risiko (risk assessment) 3.Aktivitas pengendalian (control activities) 4.Sistem informasi dan komunikasi (information and communication systems) 5.Pemantauan (monitoring) 9

10 Ethical Governance and Governance System Corporate governance merepresentasikan hubungan antar stakeholders, yang digunakan untuk menentukan dan mengendalikan arah strategis dan kinerja organisasi Corporate governance memiliki implikasi strategis dan etika. Simply put, bad corporate governance leads to bad strategy formulation and implementation. (dalam bahasa Inggrisnya dikatakan demikian). 10

11 Ethical Governance and Governance System Strategi adalah penyesuaian sumberdaya dan kemampuan intereren organisasi dengan peluang yang ada di lingkungan eksteren, maka pertanyaan yang perlu diajukan adalah: 1.Do we have the right strategy, given what we do well? 2.Is our strategy matched to the external environment (economy, social expectations, etc.)? 3.Are we capable of executing the strategy? 4.Do we have the right top management team? 5.If the answer to one or more of these questions is “no,” what do we need to change? 11

12 Ethical Governance and Governance System Implikasi strategis dari corporate governance: Bad strategy (bad corporate governance) makes it harder for firms to fulfill their economic and ethical responsibilities to stakeholders, including shareholders and employees. Strategi yang buruk (CG yang buruk) akan membuat perusahaan menghadapi kesulitan dalam memenuhi tanggungjawab ekonomi dan etika terhadap stakeholders, termasuk pemegang sahan dan karyawan. 12

13 Ethical Governance and Governance System Implikasi strategis dari corporate governance: Bad strategy (bad corporate governance) makes it harder for firms to fulfill their economic and ethical responsibilities to stakeholders, including shareholders and employees. Strategi yang buruk (CG yang buruk) akan membuat perusahaan menghadapi kesulitan dalam memenuhi tanggungjawab ekonomi dan etika terhadap stakeholders, termasuk pemegang sahan dan karyawan. 13

14 Ethical Governance and Governance System Apa yang akan terjadi ke depan dengan Corporate Governance? 1)Peningkatan tuntutan atas transparansi pelaporan keuangan dan tanggungjawab sosial organisasi. 2)Peningkatan tuntutan keterlibatan dewan komisaris dalam penetapan strategi serta pengembangan tanggungjawab organisasi terhadap isu-isu sosial. 3)Peningkatan keterlibatan dari institutional shareholders (pension funds, mutual funds) dalam proses corporate governance. 4)Peningkatan pengawasan terhadap komisaris perusahan dan manajer oleh pemerintah, pemegang saham, dan non-shareholder stakeholders. 14

15 Ethical Governance and Governance System Mekanisme Governance (Pengendalian Organisasi) Dewan komisaris, memenuhi kriteria sbb: Elected by stockholders Legally accountable Monitors corporate strategy decisions Authority to hire, fire, and compensate Ensures accuracy of audited financial statements Inside directors Outside directors 15

16 Ethical Governance and Governance System Lanjutan slide sebelumnya: Stock-based compensation Pay-for-performance Stock options The right to buy company shares at a predetermined price at some point in the future Financial statements and auditors SEC  mengacu pada kriteria pasar modal GAAP  mengacu pada standar akuntansi 16

17 Ethical Governance and Governance System Mekanisme Governance (Internal Organisasi): Sistem pengawasan strategis, mencakup: Standar untuk pengukuran kinerja organisasi. Sistem untuk pengukuran dan monitoring kinerja secara rutin. Perbandingan antara target kenerja dengan realisasi kinerja. Evaluasi hasil dan tindakan koreksi 17

18 Ethical Governance and Governance System Mekanisme Governance (Internal Organisasi) - lanjutan: Insentif pegawai, mencakup: Skema kepemilikan saham bagi pegawai Stock options – hak membeli saham dengan harga khusus. Kompensasi berbasis pencapaian: superior efficiency, quality, innovation, and responsiveness to customers 18

19 Ethical Governance and Governance System 19 Balanced Scorecard Approach Untuk Governance System

20 Budaya Organisasi Berbasis Etika Budaya organisasi berbasis etika harus dibangun melalui kesadaran organisasi tentang peran penting etika untuk keberlangsungan hidup organisasi. Prinsip dasar: kesadaran tentang peran penting hubungan harmonis antara organisasi dengan stakeholders. 20

21 Budaya Organisasi Berbasis Etika 21 Piramida tanggungjawab sosial organisasi

22 Budaya Organisasi Berbasis Etika 22 Pertanyaan-pertanyaan penting untuk membangun kesadaran etika bisnis

23 Budaya Organisasi Berbasis Etika 23 Interaksi organisasi dengan stakeholders Inducements = keputusan dan tindakan untuk mendorong stakeholders memberikan kontribusi kepada organisasi secara optimal.

24 Budaya Organisasi Berbasis Etika 24 Hubungan antara ROIC (Return on Invested Capital), Kepuasan Stakeholder, dan Dukungan Stakeholder.

25 Budaya Organisasi Berbasis Etika Milton Friedman 1962, mengatakan : “Satu-satunya tanggungjawab sosial bisnis adalah … untuk meningkatkan keuntungan dengan syarat tetap berada di area aturan bermain (rules of the game) 25 Today’s businesses tend to do more than just make profits (pada saat ini, bisnis cenderung tidak dilakukan hanya sekedar untuk meraih laba)  tetapi juga untuk memenuhi tanggungjawab sosial (laba untuk jangka panjang)

26 Budaya Organisasi Berbasis Etika Tetapi pertanyaan yang mengemuka adalah: Apakah CSR dapat membantu perusahaan dalam membangun competitive advantage? The answer might depend on where you do business… UAE, Japan, and India are less interested in CSR China, Brazil, and Germany are more interested in CSR 26

27 Budaya Organisasi Berbasis Etika 27 Global Survey of Attitudes toward Business At least somewhat agree that… “the social responsibility of business is increasing profits”

28 Pengembangan Struktur Korporasi Berlandaskan Etika 28 Interkon- eksi tiga aktivitas utama kepe- mimpinan

29 Pengembangan Struktur Korporasi Berlandaskan Etika Penetapan Arah Organisasi (Setting a Direction) Pemahaman lingkungan untuk memperoleh: Pengetahuan tentang stakeholders Pengetahuan tentang tendensi dan kejadian di lingkungan bisnis yang penting untuk diperhatikan. Pengintegrasian pengetahuan ke dalam visi organisasi. 29

30 Pengembangan Struktur Korporasi Berlandaskan Etika Designing the organization A strategic leadership activity of building structures, teams, systems, and organizational processes that facilitate the implementation of the leader’s vision and strategies. 30

31 Pengembangan Struktur Korporasi Berlandaskan Etika Difficulties in implementing the leaders’ vision and strategies Lack of understanding of responsibility and accountability among managers Reward systems that do not motivate individuals and groups toward desired organizational goals Inadequate or inappropriate budgeting and control systems Insufficient mechanisms to coordinate and integrate activities across the organization 31

32 Pengembangan Struktur Korporasi Berlandaskan Etika Nurturing an Excellent and ethical organizational culture An organizational culture focused on core competencies and high ethical standards 32

33 Pengembangan Struktur Korporasi Berlandaskan Etika Overcoming Barriers to Change Reasons why organizations are prone to inertia and slow to change Vested interests in the status quo Systemic barriers Behavioral barriers Political barriers Personal time constraints 33

34 Pengembangan Struktur Korporasi Berlandaskan Etika The Effective Use of Power Power A leader’s ability to get things done in a way he or she wants them to be done. Organizational bases of power A formal management position that is the basis of a leader’s power. 34

35 Pengembangan Struktur Korporasi Berlandaskan Etika Inspiring and Motivating People with a Mission or Purpose: A Learning environment, involves: Organization-wide commitment to change An action orientation Applicable tools and methods Guiding philosophy Inspired and motivated people with a purpose 35

36 Pengembangan Struktur Korporasi Berlandaskan Etika Empowering Employees at All Levels, involves: Top-down perspective  Start at the top.  Clarify the organization’s mission, vision, and values.  Clearly specify the tasks, roles, and rewards for employees.  Delegate responsibility.  Hold people accountable for results. 36

37 Pengembangan Struktur Korporasi Berlandaskan Etika Bottom-up View  Start at the bottom by understanding needs of employees  Teach employees skills of self-management  Build teams to encourage cooperative behavior  Encourage intelligent risk taking  Trust people to perform 37

38 Pengembangan Struktur Korporasi Berlandaskan Etika Challenging the Status Quo and Enabling Creativity Create a sense of urgency Establish a “culture of dissent” Foster a culture that encourages risk taking Cultivate culture of experimentation and curiosity 38

39 Pengembangan Struktur Korporasi Berlandaskan Etika Creating An Ethical Organization Ethical orientation  the practices that firms use to promote an ethical business culture,  Includes ethical role models, corporate credos and codes of conduct, ethically-based reward and evaluation systems, and consistently enforced ethical policies and procedures. 39

40 Pengembangan Struktur Korporasi Berlandaskan Etika Ethical values  Shape the search for opportunities  Shape the design organizational systems  Shape the decision-making process used by individuals and groups  Provide a common frame of reference that serves as a unifying force 40

41 Pengembangan Struktur Korporasi Berlandaskan Etika Compliance-Based versus Integrity- Based Approaches Compliance-based ethics programs programs for building ethical organizations that have the goal of preventing, detecting, and punishing legal violations. 41

42 Pengembangan Struktur Korporasi Berlandaskan Etika Compliance-Based versus Integrity- Based Approaches Integrity-based ethics programs Programs for building ethical organizations that combine a concern for law with an emphasis on managerial responsibility for ethical behavior. 42

43 Pengembangan Struktur Korporasi Berlandaskan Etika Integrity-based Ethics Programs include: 1.enabling ethical conduct; 2.examining the organization’s and members’ core guiding values, thoughts, and actions; and 3.defining the responsibilities and aspirations that constitute an organization’s ethical compass. 43

44 Pengembangan Struktur Korporasi Berlandaskan Etika Key Elements of Highly Ethical Organizations Role models Corporate credos and codes of conduct Reward and evaluation systems Policies and procedures 44

45 Kode Perilaku Korporasi (Coporate Codes of Conduct) Excerpts from the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and Fines 45

46 Kode Perilaku Korporasi (Coporate Codes of Conduct) 46

47 Kode Perilaku Korporasi (Coporate Codes of Conduct) 47

48 Kode Perilaku Korporasi (Coporate Codes of Conduct) 48

49 Kode Perilaku Korporasi (Coporate Codes of Conduct) 49 A Code of Conduct for the Multinational Company

50 Kode Perilaku Korporasi (Coporate Codes of Conduct) 50 A Code of Conduct for the Multinational Company

51 Kode Perilaku Korporasi (Coporate Codes of Conduct) 51 A Code of Conduct for the Multinational Company

52 Kode Perilaku Korporasi (Coporate Codes of Conduct) 52 A Code of Conduct for the Multinational Company

53 Kode Perilaku Korporasi (Coporate Codes of Conduct) 53 A Code of Conduct for the Multinational Company

54 Kode Perilaku Korporasi (Coporate Codes of Conduct) 54 A Code of Conduct for the Multinational Company

55 Kode Perilaku Korporasi (Coporate Codes of Conduct) 55 A Code of Conduct for the Multinational Company

56 Terimakasih 56


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