Basic Function of Land a store of wealth for individuals, groups, or a community production of food, fiber, fuel or other biotic materials for human use provision of biological habitats for plants, animals and micro-organisms co-determinant in the global energy balance and the global hydrological cycle, which provides both a source and a sink for greenhouse gases regulation of the storage and flow of surface water and groundwater storehouse of minerals and raw materials for human use a buffer, filter or modifier for chemical pollutants provision of physical space for settlements, industry and recreation storage and protection of evidence from the historical or pre-historical record (fossils, evidence of past climates, archaeological remains, etc.) enabling or hampering movement of animals, plants and people between one area and another
renewable or non-renewable? In the terminology of environmental economics, land can be regarded as a stock renewable resource. Land resources do not easily fit into the categories of renewable or non-renewable. In general, they are slowly renewable; however, their rate of degradation far exceeds their natural rate of regeneration. In practical terms, this means that land that is lost to degradation is not naturally replaced within a human time frame, resulting in a loss of opportunities for the next generation.
Availability of Land Notwithstanding the role of technology in increasing the number of people that can be supported by the terrestrial biosphere, there are finite limits to the supply of land resources. FAO estimates that a gross area of approximately 2.5 thousand million ha of land in the developing world2 has some potential for rain fed agriculture, although two-thirds of the land are rated as having significant constraints due to topography or soil conditions, while not all of this land is available for agricultural production (Alexandrite, 1995).2
Availability of land However, land is not evenly distributed either between countries or within countries, and the difference in access to land relative to population need is more significant than global totals. Based on an assessment of the potential production from available land, and projected population growth in 117 countries in the developing world, FAO concluded that by the year 2000, 64 countries (55 percent) would not be able to support their populations from land resources alone using production systems based on low inputs (FAO, 1982).
Availability of land Land is becoming more and more scarce as a resource, and this is particularly true of land available for primary production of biomass or for conservation related purposes. Competition for land among different uses is becoming acute and conflicts related to this competition more frequent and more complex. This competition is often most apparent on the peri-urban fringe, where the continuing pressures of urban expansion compete with agricultural enterprises, and with recreational demands. Such situations frequently lead to rapid increases in the economic value of land, and land tenure becomes an important political issue.
Many factors associated with global change directly or indirectly influence how land is used. These include biophysical influences, such as changes in climate or natural or human- induced disasters, as well as socio-economic aspects such as trade liberalization, the globalization of markets, decentralization of decision making, privatization, and the widening gap between the "haves" and the "have-nots".
Pressure of Population Although the rate at which population is increasing has slowed since 1980, the increase in actual numbers is currently higher than at any time in the world's history. Additions will average 97 million per year until the end of the century and 90 million per year until AD 2025. Ninety-five percent of this increase is expected to take place in developing countries. Present figures indicate that by the year 2050 Africa's population will be three and a half times its present level, and by the year 2150, almost five times.
Population Pressure The previous hundred years has seen great advances in the technology of production, such as the development of more productive crop varieties and the extension of irrigation and fertilizer use. Nevertheless, it is becoming more difficult for technological progress to keep up with the rising demands generated by population growth. This is partly a result of the extension of cropping to more marginal areas where physical factors limit potential productivity and the risks of failure are higher. The success of technology in meeting these demands has been geographically uneven, being most successful in areas of low recent population growth, such as Europe and North America, meeting with varied success in Asia and Latin America, and generally being least successful in sub-Saharan Africa, where food production per caput has actually declined by almost 20 percent since 1960.
Population Pressure Growth in total population over the past 50 years has been matched by a relative increase in the urban population at the expense of the rural population (Figure 1). The impact of this trend is two-fold. On the one hand, movement of people to the cities may reduce the absolute pressure on land for agriculture while stimulating the market for producers. On the other hand, production of primary products such as food, fibre and fuel must be produced from a diminishing land area by a diminishing relative population, while urban expansion reduces the total land available for agriculture. A further factor is the disproportionate migration of economically active males to the towns, leaving women, children and the aged to shoulder the burdens of agriculture. The situation is frequently exacerbated by government policies of urban bias, such as cheap food prices which favour the urban dwellers and their employers, but often penalize the food producers, who are commonly a less organized and less vociferous political constituency. Urbanization due to population growth and migration effects has also promoted a growth in per caput consumerism which has further increased the demands on land resources.
SYMPTOMS OF THE PROBLEM OF PRESSURE ON LAND RESOURCES
Problems Massive degradation of natural resources, including forests, rangeland, and irrigation water, has been taking place in the Third World. Its growing population has increased demand for land, trees, and water, which, coupled with tenure insecurity or the absence of clear property rights, has resulted in the over-exploitation of these natural resources (e.g., Deacon 1994).
Boserup (1965) argued that population pressure need not result in such disastrous consequences. the evolution of farming systems from land using or natural resource-using systems, such as shifting cultivation, to land-saving and labor intensive farming systems, such as annual cropping.
Hayami and Ruttan (1985) argued that not only technologies but also institutions change in order to save increasingly scarce resources. land tenure institutions change toward individual ownership, so as to provide appropriate investment incentives to conserve natural resources. Consistent with the induced innovation thesis, a theory of property rights institution developed by Demsetz (1967) and Alchian and Demsetz (1973) asserted, based on the historical experience of hunting communities in Canada, that property rights institutions evolve from open access to private ownership when natural resources become scarce.
Investasi SDL Investment is required to establish intensive farming systems (e.g., investment in the construction of irrigation facilities, terracing, and tree planting), investment incentives are governed by the land tenure or property rights institution, as it affects the expected returns to investments accrued to those who actually undertake them (Besley 1995).
Permintaan thd lahan Dipengaruhi oleh: Pengembangan teknologi Tradisi dan Adat Pendidikan dan latar belakang budaya Pendapatan dan daya beli Selera Basic factor affecting the demand is that of population numbers.
Distribusi Populasi Population density: relationship between population numbers and land resources Man Land Ratio: relationships between man and his resource base Per capita level of food consumption: ability to provide people with adequate diets; only 30.6% of world people had enjoy access to more than 2700 calories Average per capita use of energy resource
Perubahan Karakter Populasi Urbanisasi : perubahan komposisi populasi perkotaan, perubahan porsi ciri komunitas perkotaan Ukuran rumahtangga: terkait dengan nilai Perubahan Distribusi Usia dari Populasi : piramida penduduk: transisi demografi Tingkat Pendidikan: dasar, lanjutan, PT Jenis pekerjaan dan Status Pendapatan
Lima Tahap Pertumbuhan Populasi III IV III V Tingkat Kelahiran Dan Kematian Jumlah Pendu- duk Hidup Total Populasi
1.1. Teori Malthus dan Masalah Ketersediaan Lahan (a)Penduduk permintaan bahan pangan Pertumbuhan permintaan bahan pangan Pertumbuhan penduduk geometrik (b)Lahan Basis produksi pangan Supply lahan relatif ‘fixed’ Investasi untuk pembangunan infrastruktur Pertumbuhan produksi pangan aritmatik (c) Kelaparan dan kematian
1.2. Kritik atas Teori Malthus (a)Terlalu simplistis Pasokan pangan tidak hanya oleh luasan permukaan lahan (kuantitas) Kesuburan, varietas tanaman, manajemen produksi kapasitas produksi lahan (b)Kemampuan manusia dalam rekayasa teknologi kapasitas produksi lahan
1.3.Jebakan Ricardo dan Masalah Ketersediaan Lahan (1) (a)Biaya produksi pangan dan kualitas lahan Kualitas lahan berbeda Biaya produksi pangan di lahan subur lebih murah dari di lahan kurang subur Peningkatan permintaan pangan pemanfaatan lahan yang semakin kurang subur Biaya produksi semakin mahal
1.3.Jebakan Ricardo dan Masalah Ketersediaan Lahan (2) (b) Harga pangan Biaya produksi harga pangan Semakin mahal biaya produksi semakin mahal harga pangan (c) Konsep ‘Ricardian land rent’ ‘Land rent’ timbul sebagai konsekuensi perbedaan kesuburan lahan dan pemanfaatan lahan yang kurang subur Semakin meningkat permintaan pangan ‘land rent’ semakin meningkat
1.3.Jebakan Ricardo dan Masalah Ketersediaan Lahan (3) (d) Jebakan Ricardo (Ricardian Trap) Peningkatan permintaan pangan peningkatan harga pangan Upah buruh harus naik mengikuti kenaikan harga pangan Sebagai konsekuensinya, ‘rate of business profit’ merosot Di sisi lain, para tuan tanah menikmati kenaikan ‘land rent’ Stagnasi perekonomian
1.4.Kritik atas Teori Ricardo 1. Kesuburan lahan hanya berpengaruh terhadap rent sektor pertanian, pada sektor lain spt pemukiman kualitas lahan merupakan hal kompleks seperti kelerengan (slope), ketersediaan air tanah, 2. Ricardo tidak memperhitungkan aspek lokasi.
1.5. Kondisi SOSEK di LDCs sebelum Memulai Proses Pembagunan Surplus tenaga kerja Pengangguran Kemiskinan Kelaparan Tekanan penduduk terhadap lahan Perekonomian stagnan
1.6. Transformasi Struktur Perekonomian (a)Transformasi Suatu kebutuhan Perekonomian berbasis pertanian yang stagnan perekonomian berbasis industri yang berkembang pesat (b)Transformasi ala Arthur Lewis Perekonomian dua sektor Surplus tenaga kerja di sektor pertanian Eksploitasi surplus tenaga kerja untuk pembangunan industri upah buruh murah
1.7. Peranan Strategis Bahan Pangan Murah (a)Pangan murah dalam jumlah yang cukup: Pengendalian inflasi Upah buruh murah Tingkat keuntungan industri (b) Perlu Kontrol atas supply pangan Swasembada pangan
1.8. Program Swasembada Pangan (a)Revolusi proses produksi bahan pangan Teknologi revolusi hijau Produksi melimpah swsembada Harga murah (b) ‘Relaxing land constraints’ High Yielding Varietys (HYVs) land productivity Short maturity of crops cropping intensity (c) ‘Intensive cash input requirements’ (d) ‘Input price subsidization profitability
1.9. Dimensi Baru Masalah Penguasaan Lahan (a)Komersialisasi penguasaan lahan pertanian Rasionaliasi dalam proses produksi kesempatan berburuh dan upah buruh Perubahan kelembagaan pertanian (b)Memburuknya distribusi penguasaan lahan Marjinalisasi vs akumulasi (c) Pengangguran, kemiskinan, kelaparan
Keterkaitan dengan faktor demand lain Permintaan Lahan pertanian mencerminkan: Jumlah populasi Standar pangan Perubahan Produktivitas lahan Kebutuhan lahan Non Pertanian: dengan meningkatnya populasi meningkat pula kebutuhan primer, sekunder dan tersier. Peningkatan Produktivitas meningkatkan Income Dampak peningkatan urbanisasi
Kebutuhan lahan non Pertanian Kebutuhan perumahan baru, material bangunan, pusat industri dan perdagangan Secara umum selain dipengaruhi trend populasi, juga oleh laju pendapatan per kapita, peningkatan teknologi dan produktivitas per kapita Peningkatan produktivitas -> income -> purchasing power -> pembelanjaan non pangan
Meningkatnya Urbanisasi Apakah urbanisasi ? Demand s.d non pertanian -> urbanisasi Pertumbuhan proporsi penggunaan lahan untuk pemukiman dan perkotaan Urbanisasi -> demand rekreasi,transportasi dan jasa
Competition between Land Use Encroachment of residential, recreation and others to production purposes Shift from agriculture to sub urban and urban uses Under the free market the control of real estate resources normally goes to highest bidders. Exploitative practices and the encroachment of consumptions uses on lands often tolerated by society