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PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN Sustainable agriculture is the practice of farming using principles of ecology, the study of relationships between organisms and.

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Presentasi berjudul: "PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN Sustainable agriculture is the practice of farming using principles of ecology, the study of relationships between organisms and."— Transcript presentasi:

1 PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN Sustainable agriculture is the practice of farming using principles of ecology, the study of relationships between organisms and their environment. It has been defined as "an integrated system of plant and animal production practices having a site-specific application that will last over the long term: 1.Satisfy human food and fiber needs 2.Enhance environmental quality and the natural resource base upon which the agricultural economy depends 3.Make the most efficient use of non-renewable resources and on-farm resources and integrate, where appropriate, natural biological cycles and controls 4.Sustain the economic viability of farm operations 5.Enhance the quality of life for farmers and society as a whole.

2 PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN

3 The FAO (1991): Several basic criteria to measure the sustainability of present agriculture and future trends, as follows: 1.Meeting the food needs of present and future generations in terms of quantity and quality and the demand for other agricultural products. 2.Providing enough jobs, securing income and creating human living and working conditions for all those engaged in agricultural production. 3.Maintaining, and where possible enhancing, the productive capacity of the natural resources base as a whole and the regenerative capacity of renewable resources, without impairing the function of basic natural cycles and ecological balance, destroying the socio-cultural identity of rural communities or contaminating the environment. 4.Making the agricultural sector more resilient against adverse natural and socio-economic factors and other risks, and strengthening the self-confidence of rural populations.

4 ENVIRONMENTAL Vs. FINANCIAL Vs. SOCIAL SUSTAINABILITY Defining the basis of sustainable agriculture outcomes is not easy. MAF has chosen to define it in terms of three concepts: economic, social and environmental sustainability. These are shown in figure one. This approach is deliberately wider than that adopted by some agencies, and is based on field experience and an understanding of behaviour change psychology. Sustainable agriculture is only possible when all three components are addressed. The objective is to move a "sustainability balance sheet" forward, even if at times components within the balance sheet may be moving at different rates. Inherent in this approach are "tensions" and "trade-offs"; tensions between financial and environmental sustainability in particular; and trade-offs which recognise that the overall objective is to enhance the wellbeing of people (society). However, whilst many landholders havea common vision for the environment they wish to pass to their grandchildren, the means to achieve the end point are often initially different. The situation remains, however, that in order to ultimately secure environmental sustainability (and therefore the basis for ongoing life) the pathway must include financial and social outcomes.

5 “Sustainable agriculture" adalah penerapan praktek dan sistem yang mampu menjaga atau memperbaiki: 1. Kemampuan petani dan masyarakat tani menyediakan kesejahteraan sosial dan budaya; 2.Kelayakan ekonomi usaha pertanian; 3.Pertanian berbasis sumberdaya alam; 4.Ecosystems yang dipengaruhi oleh aktivitas pertanian 5.Kualitas dan keamanan pangan dan serat.

6 Seven Dimensions of Sustainable Agriculture by Nicanor Perlas

7 SA Dimensions and Strategic Challenges Dimension and Strategic Challenge Ecological Soundness "Safe Pesticides", chemical fertilizers, monoculture, chemically addicted seeds, soil erosion and water scarcity, factory farming, methodological materialism (nature as a biological machine) Associative Economics WTO. Agreement on Agriculture. "Organic Commercialism." Lack of integration. Commodity-based polyculture. Social Justice/Equity Traditional politics of exploitation. Appropriation. Disempowerment. Cultural Sensitivity Neglect and collapse of indigenous knowledge systems and farming culture. Holistic and More Spiritual Science Reductionism, Materialism, Fragmentation Appropriate Technology Commodification and molecular reduction of humans and living nature by "environmentally friendly" biotechnology. Non-diffusion of good technologies. Development of Full Human Potential Attaining "deep sustainability," Overcoming gender bias

8 ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY SUSTAINABLE SOIL MANAGEMENT

9 Multidisciplinary Aspects of Sustainable Soil Management Sustainable soil management (SSM) must take a multidisciplinary approach. It is not limited only to soil science. Three aspects of this soil management system : 1.Bio-physical aspects: Sustainable soil management must maintain and improve the physical and biological soil conditions for plant production and biodiversity. 2.Socio-cultural aspects: Sustainable soil management must satisfy the needs of human beings in a socially and culturally appropriate manner at a regional or national level. 3.Economic aspects: Sustainable soil management must cover all the costs of individual land users and society.

10 SEBAB-SEBAB DEGRADASI TANAH Permasalahan dalam Pengelolaan sumberdaya tanah secara berkelanjutan: 1.Deplesi dan defisiensi unsur hara; 2.Erosi Tanah dan Degradasi Lahan; 3.Harga-harga sosial-ekonomi dan Pemasaran; 4.Penggunaan air yang tidak efisien; 5.Metode penelitian yang rumit; 6.Usaha pertanian yang tidak berkelanjutan; 7.Kemasaman Tanah; 8.Teknologi inovasi yang tidak diadopsi oleh petani; 9.Kompetisi penggunaan air; 10. Kurangnya bahan organik; 11. Aplikasi dan pengelolaan pupuk yang tidak tepat; 12. Pemadatan tanah berlebihan; 13. Kekeringan musiman; 14. Cekaman air, genangan air dan drainage buruk.

11 Erosi tanah yang disebabkan oleh air hujan sangat penting. 1.Kehilangan tanah oleh erosi angin (28%); 2.Kehilangan tanah oleh erosi air hujan (56%); 3.Deplesi hara akibat aplikasi pupuk yang tidak tepat; 4.Pengasaman tanah; 5.Salinisasi akibat buruknya praktek irigasi dan drainage (12%); 6.Deplesi bahan organik tanah akibat dekomposisi yang cepat dan kurangnya pupuk organik 7.Pemadatan tanah akibat penggunaan alat berat (4%).

12 INDIKATOR SSM The six basic ecological criteria of sustainable soil management: 1.Soil mass should be conserved long-term in each small land unit. 2.Soil fertility and biology should be conserved long-term, and damage by toxic substances from outside minimized. 3.Soil use should be stepped up when the marginal return has significantly increased. 4.All forms of degradation (erosion, biological, physical, and chemical degradation) should be prevented. In degraded soils, soil formation should be enhanced to improve soil biology and soil fertility. 5.Natural biodiversity and the other natural resources of a region should be conserved or restored, to ensure that the extinction of individual species does not endanger the biological community. 6.Local land use should not hamper the sustainable development of a zone, especially in social, institutional and economic respects.

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14 Financial Sustainability Financial Sustainability is essential for two reasons. Firstly, the majority of busineses will not pursue sustainability unless they see it as offering them financial benefits. Secondly, financial wealth is an important element of quality of life.

15 A financially sustainable system should have the following characteristics: 1. Does not rely on finite resources. 2. Maximises profitability by minimising consumption of resources. 3. Does not threaten the financial wellbeing of its customers. 4. Generates long term revenue by constantly meeting customer needs. 5. Does not have any significant liabilities.

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17 Economic sustainability: When everyone profits Kelayakan suatu kegiatan proyek pertanian biasanya diukur dengan empat macam kelayakan, yaitu: Kelayakan teknis, kelayakan ekonomi dan finansial, kelayakan politis, dan kelayakan administratif. Kelayakan teknis berkaitan dengan pertanyaan apakah secara teknis, proyek tersebut dapat dilaksanakan? Misal: apakah jembatan yang diusulkan dapat menahan beban lalu lintas yang akan terjadi diatasnya? Kelayakan ekonomi dan finansial berkaitan dengan biaya dan keuntungan Kelayakan politis berkaitan dengan perkiraan pengaruh proyek terhadap berbagai peran atau kekuatan politik di masyarakat dan pemerintahan yang terkait dengan proyek tersebut. Kelayakan administratif mengukur apakah proyek tersebut dapat diimplementasikan dalam sistem administrasi pemerintahan yang ada.

18 KELAYAKAN EKONOMI Tiga konsep yang sering dijumpai dalam kelayakan ekonomi, yaitu: 1.Kriteria yang terlihat dan yang tidak terlihat, 2. Dapat atau tidak dapat diukur secara moneter, 3.Langsung atau tak langsung; diukur dengan analisis biaya dan keuntungan (cost benefit analysis).

19 Efisiensi ekonomis berkaitan dengan pemakaian sumber daya (biaya) yang ada dalam mencapai keuntungan yang maksimal (maksimal dari segi kepuasan masyarakat). Cara yang populer untuk mengukur efisiensi adalah analisis perbandingan biaya lawan keuntungan (cost-benefit analysis).

20 Profitabilitas (profitability) merupakan salah satu ukuran yang dipakai pelaku usaha Untuk mengkaji usulan kegiatan ekonomi. Ukuran ini memperlihatkan selisih antara pendapatan yang akan diterima dikurangi biaya yang harus dikeluarkan berkaitan dengan kegiatan ekonomi yang diusulkan.

21 Efektivitas biaya merupakan ukuran lain, yang berarti dapat mencapai tujuan dengan biaya yang minimal. Semua alternatif kegiatan ekonomi diperbandingkan dalam hal biaya yang diperlukan. Salah satu yang paling sedikit memerlukan biaya itulah yang paling tinggi efektif biayanya.

22 Analisis Biaya Tujuannya: Untuk memberikan gambaran kepada user apakah manfaat yang diperoleh dari sistem baru ‘lebih besar’ dibandingkan dengan biaya yang dikeluarkan. Metode yang dipakai : Analisa Payback (Payback Period) Analiasa NPV = Net Present Value

23 METODE ANALISIS KELAYAKAN EKONOMI INVESTASI USAHA EKONOMI 1. Metode ekivalensi nilai sekarang (present worth analysis) atau lebih dikenal dengan istilah umum PNV atau Net Present Value. Metode ini didasarkan atas nilai sekarang bersih dari hasil perhitungan nilai sekarang aliran dana masuk (penerimaan) dengan nilai sekarang aliran dana keluar (pengeluaran) selama jangka waktu analisis dan suku bunga tertentu. Kriteria kelayakannya adalah apabila nilai sekarang bersih atau NPV > 0, yang dirumuskan dengan : NPV = (PV Pendapatan) – (PV Pengeluaran).

24 METODE ANALISIS KELAYAKAN EKONOMI INVESTASI USAHA EKONOMI Metode ekivalensi nilai tahunan (annual worth analysis) Metode ini didasarkan atas ekivalensi nilai tahunan dari aliran dana masuk dan aliran dana keluar (nilai A­bersih). Kriteria kelayakannya adalah bila nilai Abersihnya positif atau lebih besar dari nol (Abersih > 0).

25 METODE ANALISIS KELAYAKAN EKONOMI INVESTASI USAHA EKONOMI Metode ekivalensi nilai yang akan datang (future worth analysis) Metode ini hampir sama dengan dua metode sebelumnya hanya yang dihitung adalah nilai yang akan datangnya. Kriteria kelayakannya juga sama yaitu bila nilainya lebih besar dari nol.

26 METODE ANALISIS KELAYAKAN EKONOMI INVESTASI USAHA EKONOMI Metode periode pengembalian modal (payback period analysis) Metode periode pengembalian modal ini berbeda dengan metode-metode lainnya. Pada metode ini tidak digunakan perhitungan dengan menggunakan rumus bunga, akan tetapi yang dianalisis adalah seberapa cepat modal atau investasi yang telah dikeluarkan dapat segera kembali. Kriteria penilaiannya adalah semakin singkat pengembalian investasi akan semakin baik.

27 METODE ANALISIS KELAYAKAN EKONOMI INVESTASI USAHA EKONOMI Metode rasio manfaat dan biaya (benefit cost ratio analysis) atau lebih dikenal dengan istilah BC Ratio. Metode BC Ratio pada dasarnya menggunakan data ekivalensi nilai sekarang dari penerimaan dan pengeluaran, yang dalam hal ini BC Ratio adalah merupakan perbandingan antara nilai sekarang dari penerimaan atau pendapatan yang diperoleh dari kegiatan investasi dengan nilai sekarang dari pengeluaran (biaya) selama investasi tersebut berlangsung dalam kurun waktu tertentu. Kriteria kelayakannya adalah bila nilai BC Ratio > 1 dan dirumuskan dengan : BCR = (Nilai Sekarang Pendapatan) : (Nilai Sekarang Pengeluaran)

28 METODE ANALISIS KELAYAKAN EKONOMI INVESTASI USAHA EKONOMI Metode tingkat suku bunga pengembalian modal (rate of return analysis) atau lebih dikenal dengan nama IRR (Internal Rate of Return). IRR adalah suatu nilai petunjuk yang identik dengan seberapa besar suku bunga yang dapat diberikan oleh investasi tersebut dibandingkan dengan suku bunga bank yang berlaku umum (suku bunga pasar atau Minimum Attractive Rate of Return / MARR). Pada suku bunga IRR akan diperoleh NPV = 0, dengan perkataan lain bahwa IRR tersebut mengandung makna suku bunga yang dapat diberikan investasi, yang akan memberikan NPV = 0. Syarat kelayakannya yaitu apabila IRR > suku bunga MARR. Untuk menghitung IRR dapat digunakan cara coba-coba dengan formula berikut : IRR = i1 – NPV1 * (i2 – i2) (NPV2 – NPV1) dimana : i1 = suku bunga ke 1; NPV1 = Net Present Value pada suku bunga ke 1 i2 = suku bunga ke 2 ; NPV1 = Net Present Value pada suku bunga ke 2

29 Kelayakan Administratif 1.Kewenangan (authority): apakah instansi pelaksana proyek mempunyai kewenangan untuk melaksanakan tugasnya? untuk bekerjasama dengan instansi terkait? untuk menentukan prioritas? 2.Komitmen kelembagaan (institutional commitment) dari lembaga atasannya? dari lembaga bawahan? 3.Kemampuan (capability) sumberdaya: manusia, dana/finansial? 1.Dukungan organisasi (organizational support), antara lain: peralatan, fasilitas fisik

30 Kelayakan Politis 1.Dapat diterima tidaknya(acceptability) oleh sebagian besar pemeran politik 2.Sesuai atau tepat tidaknya (appropriateness) dengan “nilai-nilai politis” a.l.: HAM, pemerataan, keadilan 3.Merupakan tanggapan terhadap kebutuhan atau bukan (responsiveness) dilihat dari kelompok sasaran 4.Sesuai perundang-undangan (legalicy) atau tidak 5.Kesamarataan (equity): apakah pengaruh proyek merata ke semua kelompok masyarakat

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32 Promoting Sustainable Agriculture In India Economic sustainability Agriculture cannot be sustainable unless it is economically viable over the long term. Conventional agriculture poses greater long-term economic risks than "sustainable" alternatives.

33 Sustainable Farming - A Model To be sustainable, inputs must be less than outputs. Inputs include fuel and all forms of energy, labour and raw materials. Even treatment of wastes must not consume excessive energy. For a farmer to practice sustainable agriculture, he must derive a reasonable income from his efforts. SUMBER:

34 GREY WATER TREATMENT; MINI WETLANDS The farm produces some grey water - from the workers' quarters, from when we wash the rebans, from overflow from the fish ponds. All grey water is fed into a mini wetlands; first into a large pond planted with aquatic plants, then led into a biological filter using microbes before being led into a mini wetlands made up of slow flowing meandering channels planted with more aquatic plants. SUMBER:

35 Stewardship of both natural and human resources is of prime importance agriculture.html

36 SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE IS A SYSTEMS APPROACH Sustainable agriculture is a process having: 1.small, realistic steps at farm level; where 2.family economics and personal goals influence how fast or how far participants can go with the transition to sustainable agriculture; it is the 3. responsibility of all participants – farmers, labourers, policymakers, researchers, advisors, retailers and consumers; and 4.education, training and sharing of best practices are key practice/challenges-of-modern-agriculture/sustainable-agriculture.html

37 CONTRIBUTION OF MODERN TECHNOLOGY Modern agricultural technology has the potential to optimise the use of land, water and energy and create an economically viable production system that: 1.minimises soil erosion or even improves soil productivity; 2.improves water quality and promotes efficient use; 3.preserves biodiversity through conservation of plant varieties; 4.optimizes crop health; 5.increases crop yields; 6.improves rural incomes. Sumber:

38 An Assets-Based Model for Agriculture Sustainability Agricultural systems at all levels rely for their success on the value of services flowing from the total stock of assets that they control. Five types of capital, natural, social, human, physical and financial, are now being addressed in the literature. Natural capital produces nature’s goods and services, and comprises food (both farmed and harvested or caught from the wild), wood and fibre; water supply and regulation; treatment, assimilation and decomposition of wastes; nutrient cycling and fixation; soil formation; biological control of pests; climate regulation; wildlife habitats; storm protection and flood control; carbon sequestration; pollination; and recreation and leisure. usag/WhatissusagBa1.shtm

39 Social capital yields a flow of mutually beneficial collective action, contributing to the cohesiveness of people in their societies. The social assets comprising social capital include norms, values and attitudes that predispose people to cooperate; relations of trust, reciprocity and obligations; and common rules and sanctions mutually-agreed or handed-down. These are connected and structured in networks and groups. An Assets-Based Model for Agriculture Sustainability Sumber:

40 Human capital is the total capability residing in individuals, based on their stock of knowledge skills, health and nutrition. It is enhanced by their access to services that provide these, such as schools, medical services, and adult training. People’s productivity is increased by their capacity to interact with productive technologies and with other people. Leadership and organisational skills are particularly important in making other resources more valuable. An Assets-Based Model for Agriculture Sustainability Sumber:

41 Physical capital is the store of human-made material resources, and comprises buildings (housing, factories), market infrastructure, irrigation works, roads and bridges, tools and tractors, communications, and energy and transportation systems, that make labour more productive. Financial capital is accumulated claims on goods and services, built up through financial systems that gather savings and issue credit, such as pensions, remittances, welfare payments, grants and subsidies. An Assets-Based Model for Agriculture Sustainability Sumber:

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43 PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN SALAH SATU KONSEP UNTUK VALUASI PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN MK. ETIKA PROFESI PERTANIAN Disarikan oleh: Prof Dr Ir Soemarno MS Malang, 6 Juni 2011


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