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SAP 4 LINGKUNGAN ORGANISASI OLEH : TIM DOSEN AZMEN.

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Presentasi berjudul: "SAP 4 LINGKUNGAN ORGANISASI OLEH : TIM DOSEN AZMEN."— Transcript presentasi:

1 SAP 4 LINGKUNGAN ORGANISASI OLEH : TIM DOSEN AZMEN

2 ORGANIZATIONAL ENVIRONMENT IS DEFINED AS ALL ELEMENTS THAT EXIST OUTSIDE AND INSIDE THE BOUNDARY OF THE ORGANIZATION AND HAVE THE POTENTIAL TO AFFECT ALL OR PART OF THE ORGANIZATION

3 1. INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT 2. EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT a. DIRECT INFLUENCE ( TASK ENVIRONMENT) ie: competitors, disributors,customers, suppliers b. INDIRECT INFLUENCE (GENERAL ENVIRONMENT) ie: technological forces, sociocultural forces, demographic forces, political and legal forces, global forces, and economic forces

4 Organization Environment I Environment II Environment III The Environments of Organization

5 LINGKUNGAN INTERNAL Lingkungan Internal yang berpengaruh langsung terhadap Organisasi ( Direct Internal Environment Organization ) Lingkungan internal organisasi adalah segala sesuatu yang berada di dalam organisasi yang berpengaruh atau mempengaruhi organisasi secara langsung. Contoh : Karyawan/pegawai organisasi yang bersangkutan, pimpinan/manajer.

6 Lingkungan Eksternal yang berpengaruh langsung terhadap Organisasi ( Direct External Environment Organization/Task environment) Lingkungan eksternal organisasi adalah segala sesuatu yang berada di luar organisasi namun mempengaruhi atau berpengaruh secara langsung terhadap organisasi. Contoh :, organisasi-organisasi yang menjadi pesaing kita, pemasok, komunitas lokal, customers, NGO, dll LINGKUNGAN EKSTERNAL

7 Lingkungan Eksternal yang tidak berpengaruh langsung terhadap Organization ( Indirect External Environment Organization/General environment) Yakni lingkungan di luar organisasi namun dirasakan tidak berpengaruh secara langsung terhadap organisasi. Lingkungan ini biasanya digambarkan sebagai lingkungan makro organisasi Contoh : Kondisi politik, ekonomi, sosial di negara kita, lemahnya nilai tukar mata uang kita dengan mata uang asing/dollar, terorisme, dsb.

8 THE GENERAL ENVIRONMENT ECONOMIC, TECHNOLOGICAL, SOCIOCULTURAL, DEMOGRAPHIC, POLITICAL AND LEGAL, AND GLOBAL FORCE IN AN ORGANIZATION’S GENERAL ENVIRONMENT CAN HAVE PROFOUND EFFECTS ON THE ORGANIZATION’S TASK ENVIRONMENT. THE IMPLICATION IS CLEAR : MANAGERS MUST CONSTANTLY ANALYZE FORCES IN THE GENERAL ENVIRONMENT BECAUSE THESE FORCE AFFECT ONGOING DECISION MAKING AND PLANNING.

9 TECHNOLOGICAL FORCES TECHNOLOGY IS THE COMBINATION OF SKILLS AND EQUIPMENT THAT MANAGERS USE IN THE DESIGN, PRODUCTION, AND DISTRIBUTION OF GOODS AND SERVICES. TECHNOLOGICAL FORCES : OUTCOME OF CHANGES IN THE TECHNOLOGY THAT MANAGERS USE TO DESIGN, PRODUCE, AND DISTRIBUTE GOODS AND SERVICES. CHANGES IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ARE ALTERING THE VERY NATURE OF WORK ITSELF WITHIN ORGANIZATIONS, INCLUDING THAT THE MANAGER’S JOB

10 ECONOMIC FORCES ECONOMIC FORCES AFFECT THE GENERAL HEALTH AND WELL BEING OF A COUNTRY OR WORLD REGION. THEY INCLUDE INTEREST RATE, INFLATION, UNEMPLOYMENT, AND ECONOMIC GROWTH. ECONOMIC FORCES PRODUCE MANY OPPORTUNITIES AND THREATS FOR MANAGERS. THAT MEAN, A CHANGE IN A PART OR A WHOLE OF THE ORGANIZATION.

11 DEMOGRAPHIC FORCES DEMOGRAPHIC FORCES : OUTCOME OF CHANGE IN, OR CHANGING ATTITUDES TOWARD, THE CHARACTERISTICS OF A POPULATION SUCH AS AGE, GENDER, ETHNIC ORIGIN, RACE, SEXUAL ORIENTATION AND SOCIAL CLASS THESE CHANGES SUGGEST THAT ORGANIZATIONS NEED TO FIND WAYS TO MOTIVATE AND UTILIZE THE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE FOR EMPLOYEES.

12 POLITICAL AND LEGAL FORCES POLITICAL AND LEGAL FORCES : OUTCOMES OF CHANGES IN LAWS AND REGULATIONS, SUCH AS THE DEREGULATION OF INDUSTRIES, THE PRIVATIZATION OF ORGANIZATIONS, AND INCREASED EMPHASIZE ON ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION. MANAGERS WHO WANT TO TAKE ADVANTAGE OF THE OPPORTUNITIES CREATED BY CHANGING GLOBAL POLITICAL AND LEGAL AND ECONOMIC FORCES FACE A MAJOR CHALLENGE.

13 SOCIOCULTURAL FORCES SOCIOCULTURAL FORCES ARE PRESSURES EMANATING FROM THE SOCIAL STRUCTURE OF A COUNTRY OR SOCIETY OR FROM THE NATIONAL CULTURE. SOCIAL STRUCTURE IS THE ARRANGEMENT OF RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN INDIVIDUALS AND GROUPS IN A SOCIETY. SOCIETIES DIFFER SUBSTANTIALLY IN SOCIAL STRUCTURE. IN SOCIETIES THAT HAVE A HIGH AND A LOW DEGREE OF SOCIAL STRATIFICATION, THERE ARE MANY DISTINCTIONS AMONG INDIVIDUALS AND GROUPS NATIONAL CULTURE IS THE SET OF VALUES THAT A SOCIETIES CONSIDERS IMPORTANT AND THE NORMS OF BEHAVIOR THAT ARE APPROVED OR SANCTIONED IN THAT SOCITIES. CONTINUED……..

14 INDIVIDUAL MANAGERS AND ORGANIZATION MUST BE RESPONSIVE TO CHANGES IN, AND DIFFERENCES AMONG THE SOCIAL STRUCTURES AND NATIONAL CULTURES OF ALL THE COUNTRIES IN WHICH THEY OPERATE. THAT’S WHY :

15 COMPLEXITY HIGH LOW UNPREDICTABILITY LOW VARIED CALM LOCALLY STORMY TURBULENT THE ENVIRONMENT SPACE SOURCE: BURTON at al, 2006:43 HIGH

16 COMPLEXITY : REFERS TO THE NUMBER OF POWERFULL FORCE AFFECTING AN ORGANIZATION. EXAMPLE, NUMBER OF COMPETITORS. UNPREDICTABILITY IS THE DEGREE OF UNCERTAINTY ABOUT THE FORCE THAT IMPACT THE ORGANIZATIONS. FOUR TYPES ENVIRONMENT : 1. A CALM ENVIRONMENT 2. A VARIED ENVIRONMENT 3. A LOCALLY STORMY ENVIRONMENT 4. A TURBULENT ENVIRONMENT Source : Burton,DeSanctis,Obel, (2006) THE FOUR TYPES OF ENVIRONMENT

17 WHY WE NEED TO ANALYSIS ENVIRONMENT ? 1.TO KNOW AND TO FORECAST WHAT WILL HAPPEN TOMORROW 2.TO RECOGNIZE AND ANTICIPATE THE RISK OF THE ORGANIZATION’S ACTION 3.TO ANALYSIS OF POLITICAL, SOCIAL, AND ECONOMIC TRENDS AND OTHER FACTORS 4.TO DEAL WITH ENVIRONMENT

18 APA YANG HARUS DILAKUKAN ? Melihat sifat lingkungan dan urgensinya bagi organisasi maka langkah yang perlu dilakukan adalah : 1.Membaca Dengan Cepat Kondisi Lingkungan ( Environmental Scanning) 2. Bekerjasama Untuk Mengendalikan Lingkungan (Joint Ventures) 3. Merespon dan menyiapkan diri menghadapi Lingkungan a.l Melalui Pendidikan dan Latihan ( Training and Development) 4. Organisasi Bersedia Membuka Diri ( Open Management )


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