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PERAN GEN DALAM PERKEMBANGAN. Para peneliti mengklon hewan melalui transplantasi inti –Inti sel telur digantikan oleh inti sel somatik dewasa Sejauh ini,

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Presentasi berjudul: "PERAN GEN DALAM PERKEMBANGAN. Para peneliti mengklon hewan melalui transplantasi inti –Inti sel telur digantikan oleh inti sel somatik dewasa Sejauh ini,"— Transcript presentasi:

1 PERAN GEN DALAM PERKEMBANGAN

2 Para peneliti mengklon hewan melalui transplantasi inti –Inti sel telur digantikan oleh inti sel somatik dewasa Sejauh ini, kloning pada manusia belum berhasil hingga menghasilkan embrio kurang dari 6 sel –Perkembangan embrio ditentukan oleh ekspresi gen

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4 Dalam reproduksi eukariota secara kloning, embrio diimplantasikan di induknya Untuk terapi, kloning dihasilkan dari stem sel embrionik –Stem cells can help patients with damaged tissues

5 Remove nucleus from egg cell Donor cell Add somatic cell from adult donor Grow in culture to produce an early embryo (blastocyst) Nucleus from donor cell Implant blastocyst in surrogate mother Remove embryonic stem cells from blastocyst and grow in culture Clone of donor is born (REPRODUCTIVE cloning) Induce stem cells to form specialized cells for THERAPEUTIC use

6 GENE REGULATION IN PROKARYOTES

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11 Interaksi protein dan DNA pada gen prokariotik: on-off tergantung pada respon perubahan lingkungan Aliran informasi genetik dari gen ke protein disebut dengan ekspresi gen ▫Penjelasan awalnya menggunakan pengaturan gene dari bakteri E. coli

12 Pada prokariot, gen berperan sebagai enzim, pengaturannya secara bersama menjadi unit pengaturan yang disebut operon Pengaturan pengikatan protein yang mengontrol urutan DNA dan on-off kerja operon diatur oleh perubahan lingkungan

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14 Operon lac akan menghasilkan enzim untuk mengurai laktose jika ada laktose DNA mRNA Protein Regulatory gene PromoterOperatorLactose-utilization genes OPERON RNA polymerase cannot attach to promoter Active repressor OPERON TURNED OFF (lactose absent) DNA mRNA Protein OPERON TURNED ON (lactose inactivates repressor) Lactose Inactive repressor RNA polymerase bound to promoter Enzymes for lactose utilization

15 Dua tipe repressor yang dikontrol oleh operon Tryptophan DNA PromoterOperatorGenes Active repressor Inactive repressor lac OPERONtrp OPERON Lactose

16 Pada eukariota, sel menjadi spesifik seperti zigot berkembang menjadi organisme ▫Tipe sel yang berbeda menyebabkan perbedaan macam protein penyusunnya ▫Perbedaan kombinasi gen penyusun protein: aktif setiap tipe sel Diferensiasi sel dan kloning eukariota

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18 An overview of cellular respiration Figure 9.6 Electrons carried via NADH Glycolsis Glucose Pyruvate ATP Substrate-level phosphorylation Electrons carried via NADH and FADH2 Citric acid cycle Oxidative phosphorylation: electron transport and chemiosmosis ATP Substrate-level phosphorylation Oxidative phosphorylation Mitochondrion Cytosol

19 1 When blood glucose level rises, a gland called the pancreas secretes insulin, a hormone, into the blood. Insulin enhances the transport of glucose into body cells and stimulates the liver and muscle cells to store glucose as glycogen. As a result, blood glucose level drops. 2 STIMULUS: Blood glucose level rises after eating. Homeostasis: 90 mg glucose/ 100 mL blood STIMULUS: Blood glucose level drops below set point. Glucagon promotes the breakdown of glycogen in the liver and the release of glucose into the blood, increasing blood glucose level. 4 When blood glucose level drops, the pancreas secretes the hormone glucagon, which opposes the effect of insulin. 3

20 Awal eksperimen: transplantasi inti sel hewan (katak) – Kloning larva katak: inti sel somatik berpotensi genetik dan berkembang menjadi embrio selanjutnya larva katak Tadpole (frog larva) Intestinal cell Frog egg cell Nucleus UV Nucleus destroyed Transplantation of nucleus Eight-cell embryo Tadpole

21 The first mammalian clone, a sheep named Dolly, was produced in 1997 –Dolly provided further evidence for the developmental potential of cell nuclei

22 Reproductive cloning of nonhuman mammals has applications in basic research, agriculture, and medicine Scientists clone farm animals with specific sets of desirable traits Piglet clones might someday provide a source of organs for human transplant

23 stem sel dapat diperbanyak dan dapat digunakan untuk terapi setelah mengalami diferensiasi sel Stem sel dewasa dapat di kultur dan mengalami diferensiasi Diferensiasi sel dipengaruhi oleh perubahan media kultur

24 Differentiation of embryonic stem cells in culture Cultured embryonic stem cells Different culture conditions Different types of differentiated cells Heart muscle cells Nerve cells Liver cells

25 GENE REGULATION IN EUKARYOTES

26 DNA packing in eukaryotic chromosomes helps regulate gene expression A chromosome contains a DNA double helix wound around clusters of histone proteins DNA packing tends to block gene expression

27 DNA double helix (2-nm diameter) Metaphase chromosome 700 nm Tight helical fiber (30-nm diameter) Nucleosome (10-nm diameter) Histones “Beads on a string” Supercoil (200-nm diameter)

28 In female mammals, one X chromosome is inactive in each cell An extreme example of DNA packing in interphase cells is X chromosome inactivation EARLY EMBRYO Cell division and X chromosome inactivation X chromosomes Allele for orange fur Allele for black fur TWO CELL POPULATIONS IN ADULT Active X Inactive X Orange fur Inactive X Active X Black fur

29 Chromosome GENE RNA transcript mRNA in nucleus mRNA in cytoplasm Polypeptide ACTIVE PROTEIN GENE Exon Intron Tail Cap NUCLEUS Flow through nuclear envelope CYTOPLASM Breakdown of mRNA TranslationBroken-down mRNA Broken-down protein Cleavage/modification/ activation Breakdown of protein DNA unpacking Other changes to DNA TRANSCRIPTION Addition of cap and tail Splicing

30 The Control of Gene Expression

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32 Mutant fruit flies show the relationship between gene expression and development –Some mutants have legs where antennae should be Eye Antenna Head of a normal fruit fly Head of a developmental mutant Leg

33 Development of head-tail polarity in fruit fly EGG CELL WITHIN OVARIAN FOLLICLE 1 Egg cell Egg protein signaling follicle cells Gene expression in follicle cells Follicle cell protein signaling egg cell Localization of “head” mRNA 2 3 “Head” mRNA Follicle cells

34 EMBRYO 4 Gradient of regulatory protein Gene expression Translation of “head” mRNA Gradient of certain other proteins Gene expression Body segments 5 6 FERTILIZATION AND MITOSIS ZYGOTE

35 Body segments Gene expressionLARVA ADULT FLY Head end 6 7 Tail end EMBRYO

36 A signal-transduction pathway that turns on a gene (1) The signaling cell secretes the signal molecule (2) The signal molecule binds to a receptor protein in the target cell’s plasma membrane SIGNALING CELL 1 Signal molecule Receptor protein Plasma membrane 2 TARGET CELL

37 (3) Binding activates the first relay protein, which then activates the next relay protein, etc. (4) The last relay protein activates a transcription factor SIGNALING CELL 1 Signal molecule Receptor protein Plasma membrane 2 3 TARGET CELL Relay proteins 4 Transcription factor (activated)

38 SIGNALING CELL 1 Signal molecule Receptor protein Plasma membrane 2 3 TARGET CELL Relay proteins 4 Transcription factor (activated) 5 NUCLEUS DNA mRNA Transcription 6 Translation New protein (5)The transcription factor triggers transcription of a specific gene (6)Translation of the mRNA produces a protein

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41 1.Gen merupakan materi genetik yang dapat diturunkan pada keturunannya 2.Plasmid adalah bakteri ekstra- kromosomal yang dapat bereplikasi 3.Gen yang terdapat dibagian intron dapat diterjemahkan dalam proses transkripsi 4.Urutan sintesis protein dimulai dari replikasi DNA, transkripsi, dan translasi 5.Ekspresi gen diaktifkan oleh adanya perubahan lingkungan 6.Transplantasi inti sel dewasa pada sel telur, maka sel telur dapat berkembang menjadi embrio A 1.Perbanyakan sel (kloning) dapat dilakukan dengan transformasi inti sel somatik 2.Plasmid adalah protein ekstra- kromosomal yang dapat bereplikasi dan dapat ditemukan pada sel hidup 3.Transkripsi untuk menghasilkan protein terjadi di sitoplasma sel 4.Gen yang terdapat dibagian ekson dapat diterjemahkan dalam proses transkripsi 5.Pengaturan gen ditentukan oleh interaksi hubungan sel ke sel 6.Stem sel dewasa dapat di kultur dan mengalami diferensiasi B

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43 KEY A 1. B 2. S (DNA) 3. S (akson) 4. B 5. B 6.B B 1. S (transplantasi) 2. S (DNA) 3. S (inti) 4. B 5. B 6.B


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