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INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR SUSTAINABLE ALTERNATIVE ENERGY DEVELOPMENT Dear Prof Hiroto Maeda and team; Dear Prof Sukoso, Dr B.Yanuwiadi, Prof Suyadi, Prof Maryunani.

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Presentasi berjudul: "INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR SUSTAINABLE ALTERNATIVE ENERGY DEVELOPMENT Dear Prof Hiroto Maeda and team; Dear Prof Sukoso, Dr B.Yanuwiadi, Prof Suyadi, Prof Maryunani."— Transcript presentasi:

1 INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR SUSTAINABLE ALTERNATIVE ENERGY DEVELOPMENT Dear Prof Hiroto Maeda and team; Dear Prof Sukoso, Dr B.Yanuwiadi, Prof Suyadi, Prof Maryunani Dear Dr Sasmito Djati, Dr L. Hakim, Dr A.S. Leksono, Dr M.Purnomo, and others Dear participants Ass. Wr. Wb. It is our great pleasure to organize and present The Seminar on Sustainable Alternative Energy Development at the Graduate School Brawijaya University. I am greatly honored and pleased to welcome you all in this seminar.

2 UB GRADUATE SCHOOL THE CENTRE FOR INTERDISCIPLINARY STUDIES: 1.Environmental & Development Studies 2.Woman Studies 3.National Security Studies THE CENTRE FOR INTERDISCIPLINARY STUDIES: 1.Environmental & Development Studies 2.Woman Studies 3.National Security Studies ‘the smart card into the future world ’ Welcome to our campuss

3 SURAT DIRJEN DIKTI KEMENDIKBUD NO. 152/E/T/2012, 27 JANUARI 2012 PUBLIKASI KARYA ILMIAH TERHITUNG MULAI KELULUSAN SETELAH AGUSTUS 2012 DIBERLAKUKAN KETENTUAN: 1.UNTUK LULUS PROGRAM SARJANA HARUS MENGHASILKAN MAKALAH YANG TERBIT PADA JURNAL ILMIAH 2.UNTUK LULUS PROGRAM MAGISTER HARUS TELAH MENGHASILKAN MAKALAH YANG TERBIT PADA JURNAL ILMIAH NASIONAL, DIUTAMAKAN YANG TERAKREDITASI DIKTI 3.UNTUK LULUS PROGRAM DOKTOR HARUS TELAH MENGHASILKAN MAKALAH YANG DITERIMA UNTUK TERBIT PADA JURNAL INTERNASIONAL

4 JURNAL ILMIAH DI PPSUB 1. WACANA : Kajian-kajian Sosial- Ekonomi (Terakreditasi DIKTI 2003) 2. JPAL : Jurnal Pembangunan dan Alam Lestari 3. JELS: Journal of Experimental Life Sciences

5 C.I.S. THE CENTRE FOR INTERDISCIPLINARY STUDIES: Goals: Promote and enhance any interdisciplinary studies to solve “the real-world problems” …... eg. Energy problems Facilitate student in designing the “problem base learning program” and in conducting any ”independent learning” program. Interdisciplinary program challenges any students to learn “across multiple disciplines” and develop their academic focus “specifically” and “individual”. Sejak saat para mahasiswa memasuki Program Studi, mereka harus mulai menyusun “The Learning Program”.

6 ENERGI ALTERNATIF adalah istilah yang merujuk kepada semua energi yang dapat digunakan yang bertujuan untuk menggantikan bahan bakar konvensional, dengan minimum dis-economic externalities. Istilah ini digunakan untuk mengurangi penggunaan bahan bakar hidrokarbon yang mengakibatkan kerusakan lingkungan akibat emisi karbon dioksida yang tinggi, yang berkontribusi besar terhadap pemanasan global berdasarkan Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Selama beberapa tahun, konsep “energi alternatif” telah berubah akibat banyaknya pilihan energi yang berbeda dalam penggunaannya.

7 Istilah "alternatif" merujuk kepada suatu teknologi selain teknologi yang digunakan pada bahan bakar fosil untuk menghasilkan energi. Teknologi alternatif yang digunakan untuk menghasilkan energi dengan mengatasi masalah dan tidak menghasilkan masalah seperti penggunaan bahan bakar fosil. Oxford Dictionary mendefinisikan energi alternatif sebagai energi yang digunakan bertujuan untuk menghentikan penggunaan sumber daya alam atau pengrusakan lingkungan.

8 BATU BARA SEBAGAI ALTERNATIF KAYU Berdasarkan catatan Norman F. Cantor, Eropa telah hidup di abad pertengahan dengan hutan yang sangat lebat.Eropa Setelah tahun 1200an, bangsa Eropa menjadi sangat terlatih dalam melakukan deforestasi dan di tahun 1500an mereka kehabisan kayu untuk pemanas ruangan dan memasak. Di masa tersebut, Eropa berada di ujung ketersediaan bahan bakar dan bencana nutrisi, hingga ditemukannya batu bara lunak dan pertanian kentang dan jagung menyelamatkan mereka dari bencana kelaparan.

9 BAHAN BAKAR MINYAK SEBAGAI ATERNATIF MINYAK IKAN PAUS Minyak ikan paus adalah bahan bakar dominan di awal abad ke 19, namun di pertengahan abad, stok ikan paus berkurang dan harga minyak ikan paus meningkat tajam dan tidak dapat bersaing dengan sumber bahan bakar minyak yang murah dari Pennsylvania yang baru saja dikembangkan di tahun 1859.

10 ALKOHOL SEBAGAI ALTERNATIF BAHAN BAKAR FOSIL Pada tahun 1917, Alexander Graham Bell mengusulkan etanol dari jagung dan bahan pangan lainnya sebagai bahan bakar pengganti batu bara dan minyak dan menyatakan bahwa dunia dekat dengan masa di mana kedua jenis bahan bakar tersebut akan segera habis. Program etanol Brazil menggunakan peralatan modern dan bahan baku tebu yang murah sebagai bahan baku, dan residu yang dihasilkan dari proses tersebut digunakan sebagai sumber energi untuk proses berikutnya. Etanol selulosit dapat diproduksi dari berbagai macam bahan pangan, dan melibatkan penggunaan seluruh bagian hasil pertanian. Pendekatan baru ini meningkatkan hasil etanol yang diproduksi dan mengurangi emisi karbon karena jumlah energi pertanian yang digunakan sama untuk sejumlah etanol yang lebih tinggi.emisi karbon

11 GASIFIKASI BATU BARA SEBAGAI ALTERNATIF BAHAN BAKAR MINYAK YANG MAHAL Pada tahun 1970, pemerintahan Presiden Amerika Serikat Jimmy Carter mengusulkan gasifikasi batu bara sebagai alternatif bahan bakar minyak yang mahal yang sebagian besar diimpor. Program ini, termasuk Synthetic Fuels Corporation, terbengkalai ketika harga bahan bakar minyak turun di tahun 1980an.

12 List of different resources and products of 3rd generation biomass conversion

13 Various processes of thermochemical conversion of 3rd generation biomass..

14 Economic value of various biomass sources

15 3rd generation biomass processes and products..

16 Evaluation of a biomass gasification process. The average efficiency is around 40%. Alternatives for optimization of energy cycles by heat pumps and installation of heat exchangers will improve process efficiency.

17 ‘ the smart card into the future world ’ DUNIA MASA DEPAN memerlukan “scholars” yang menguasai pendekatan-global untuk menjawab permasalahan pembangunan, termasuk SUSTAINABLE ENERGY. Tidak lagi memadai hanya menguasai satu disiplin atau satu bidang kajian saja. Inquiry & discovery would be an interdisciplinary approach Oleh karena itu, misi Program Studi Interdisiplin adalah “membedah” batas-batas tradisional yang ada di antara disiplin, untuk membantu mahasiswa mengembangkan pengetahuan dan ketrampilan melakukan riset secara “smart” to solve any “present and future” real-world problems.

18 “We are not students of some subject matter, but students of problems. And problems may cut right across the borders of any subject matter or discipline.” Karl Popper (The Growth of Scientific Knowledge)

19 BIODIESEL In some countries biodiesel is less expensive than conventional diesel. Biodiesel is the most common biofuel in Europe. It is produced from oils or fats using transesterification and is a liquid similar in composition to fossil/mineral diesel. Chemically, it consists mostly of fatty acid methyl (or ethyl) esters (FAMEs). Feedstocks for biodiesel include animal fats, vegetable oils, soy, rapeseed, jatropha, mahua, mustard, flax, sunflower, palm oil, hemp, field pennycress, pongamia pinnata and algae. soyrapeseedjatrophamahuamustardflaxsunflower palm oilhempfield pennycresspongamia pinnata algae Pure biodiesel (B100) is the lowest emission diesel fuel. Although liquefied petroleum gas and hydrogen have cleaner combustion, they are used to fuel much less efficient petrol engines and are not as widely available.

20 BIODIESEL Biodiesel can be used in any diesel engine when mixed with mineral diesel. In some countries manufacturers cover their diesel engines under warranty for B100 use, although Volkswagen of Germany, for example, asks drivers to check by telephone with the VW environmental services department before switching to B100. B100 may become more viscous at lower temperatures, depending on the feedstock used. In most cases, biodiesel is compatible with diesel engines from 1994 onwards, which use 'Viton' (by DuPont) synthetic rubber in their mechanical fuel injection systems.

21 BIODIESEL Biodiesel is also safe to handle and transport because it is as biodegradable as sugar, 10 times less toxic than table salt, and has a high flash point of about 300 F (148oC) compared to petroleum diesel fuel, which has a flash point of 125 F (52oC). In the USA, more than 80% of commercial trucks and city buses run on diesel. The emerging US biodiesel market is estimated to have grown 200% from 2004 to "By the end of 2006 biodiesel production was estimated to increase fourfold [from 2004] to more than" 1 billion US gallons (3,800,000 m 3 ).

22 GREEN DIESEL Green diesel, also known as renewable diesel, is a form of diesel fuel which is derived from renewable feedstock rather than the fossil feedstock used in most diesel fuels. Green diesel feedstock can be sourced from a variety of oils including canola, algae, jatropha and salicornia in addition to tallow. Green diesel uses traditional fractional distillation to process the oils, not to be confused with biodiesel which is chemically quite different and processed using transesterification. “Green Diesel” as commonly known in Ireland should not be confused with dyed green diesel sold at a lower tax rate for agriculture purposes, using the dye allows custom officers to determine if a person is using the cheaper diesel in higher taxed applications such as commercial haulage or cars.

23 BIODRYING is the process by which biodegradable waste is rapidly heated through initial stages of composting to remove moisture from a waste stream and hence reduce its overall weight. In biodrying processes, the drying rates are augmented by biological heat in addition to forced aeration. The major portion of biological heat, naturally available through the aerobic degradation of organic matter, is utilized to evaporate surface and bound water associated with the mixed sludge. This heat generation assists in reducing the moisture content of the biomass without the need for supplementary fossil fuels, and with minimal electricity consumption. 1.Navaee-Ardeh S, Bertrand F, Stuart PR (2006). "Emerging biodrying technology for the drying of pulp and paper mixed sludges". Drying Technology 24 (7): 863– Sugni M, Calcaterra E, Adani F (August 2005). "Biostabilization-biodrying of municipal solid waste by inverting air-flow". Bioresour. Technol. 96 (12): 1331–7.

24 BIODRYING Biodrying may be used as part of the production process for refuse-derived fuels. Biodrying does not however greatly effect the biodegradability of the waste and hence is not stabilised. Biodried waste will still break down in a landfill to produce landfill gas and hence potentially contribute to climate change. In the UK this biodrying is increasingly applied within commercial mechanical biological treatment (MBT) plants, it is also still subject to on-going research and development. Velis CA, Longhurst PJ, Drew GH, Smith R, Pollard SJ (June 2009). "Biodrying for mechanical-biological treatment of wastes: a review of process science and engineering". Bioresour. Technol. 100 (11): 2747–61."Biodrying for mechanical-biological treatment of wastes: a review of process science and engineering"

25 Biological Drying: Increasing the Calorific Value of Organic Combustibles.

26 SOLID RECOVERED FUEL The controlling bio-drying and the quality of SRF using a semi- industrial scale rotary drum bio-reactor. management/srf

27 BIO-DRYING. acdcefc3c4fd/Model%20583%20Gel%20Dryer

28 Effect of maximum degradation rate on moisture removal rate, using the model of Andrews and Kambhu (1973).

29 Since several years ago, we have organized seminars, conferences and workshops, in order to enhance our vision and mission to achieve our graduate school objectives: Promoting and Enhancing Interdisciplinary studies to solve any complicated real world problems.

30 INTERDISCIPLINARY STUDY PROGRAM (ISP): The main student competencies are: Menggunakan ketrampilan kajian/ riset interdisiplin untuk mengintegrasikan beragam perspektif Bekerja secara efektif dalam lingkungan kolaboratif. Mengkomunikasikan secara efektif hasil kajiannya kepada khalayak luas. Memahami dan menilai beragam pendekatan untuk problem-solving Refleksi diri untuk peningkatan kualitas personal dan professional secara terus menerus

31 Our graduate school fundamentally focuses on interdisciplinary studies, both Master and Doctoral degree. - - Environmental & Development studies -Woman Studies -National Security Studies - and others

32 Mission & Phylosophy Interdisciplinary Study Program “menyiapkan mahasiswa untuk mampu mengkaji masalah pembangunan aktual yang kompleks dengan cara riset independen yang mengintegrasikan dua atau lebih perspektif dan metodologi disiplin ilmu. Mission of the ISP are strengthening the basic values: 1. Discovery and Innovation; 2. Education First; 3. Integrity and Accountability; 4. Diversity; 5. Inclusiveness and Respect; 6. Energized Collaborative Communities. ‘the smart card into the future world ’

33 The ISP basic values are : “Belajar diperkaya dengan mencari pengetahuan melintasi batas disiplin keilmuan” Therefore the ISP are: student center learning Interdisciplinary Research Multi-methodology and multi-dimensional approaches. Rekayasa Lapindo menjadi “Media Tanam” yang ramah lingkungan

34 Riset Interdisiplin bertumpu pada “discipline-based knowledge”, menghasilkan “integrated solutions to problems” yang melintasi batas disiplin keilmuan. Therefore ISP are: Problem base learning Mengintegrasikan atribut-atribut dari suatu pendekatan interdiscipliner dengan dilandasi fokus akademik yang akurat Menyediakan landasan yang kuat dalam hal teori, konsep dan metodologi dari dua atau lebih disiplin keilmuan ….. Kajian energi ramah lingkungan……

35 Pembelajaran berlangsung dalam lingkungan akademik yang terbuka terhadap beragam ide, latar budaya, perspetif disiplin ilmu, dan pendekatan, untuk men-solusi masalah. Therefore the ISP : appreciate any disciplines or field of studies integrate any scientific perspectives in learning theoritical instruments and rersearch methodologies so students can “rove” into the future world. MODEL SIPLO KENTANG

36 Studies on economic development and environmental problems are an interdisciplinary academic field and have its characters to crosses traditional boundaries between academic disciplines. It is especially important in the recent millennium to enhance our sustainable life in biosphere.

37 Masyarakat mendapatkan banyak manfaat dari kerja kolaboratif yang lintas disiplin untuk men-solusi masalah- masalah pembangunan Therefore the ISP: Empowering student as a “multi-functional” expert; by combining any relevant competencies to solve the real world problems Facilitating students in gaining any competencies needed to work in the collaborative environment. SIBERMAS: Community Resources Synergism

38 ENERGI TERBARUKAN SEBAGAI ALTERNATIF ENERGI TAK TERBARUKAN Energi terbarukanEnergi terbarukan adalah energi yang dihasilkan dari sumber alami, seperti cahaya matahari, angin, hujan, arus pasang surut, dan panas bumi, yang terbarui atau secara alami dapat muncul kembali setelah dipergunakan.cahaya mataharianginhujanarus pasang surutpanas bumi Ketika dibandingkan dengan proses produksi energinya, terdapat perbedaan mendasar antara energi terbarukan dengan bahan bakar fosil. Proses produksi bahan bakar fosil sulit dan membutuhkan proses dengan peralatan, proses fisik dan kimia yang rumit. Di lain hal, energi alternatif dapat diproduksi dengan peralatan dasar dan proses alam yang sangat mendasar.

39 ENERGI ALTERNATIF YANG RAMAH LINGKUNGAN Sumber energi terbarukan seperti biomassa kadang-kadang disebut sebagai alternatif untuk bahan bakar fosil yang membahayakan bagi ekologi, karena jika biomassa dikomersialkan dikhawatirkan akan membahayakan hutan sebagai penghasil biomassa terbesar (kayu juga merupakan biomassa). Energi terbarukan belum tentu energi alternatif dengan tujuan tersebut. Di Belanda, yang pernah digunakan minyak kelapa sawit sebagai bahan bakar bio, saat ini dihentikan akibat bukti ilmiah bahwa penggunaannya menciptakan kerusakan lebih parah dibandingkan bahan bakar fosil, seperti kemungkinan ekspansi lahan kelapa sawit yang dapat menghabiskan hutan alami.

40 ENERGI ALTERNATIF YANG RAMAH LINGKUNGAN Mengenai bahan bakar bio dari bahan pangan, realisasi mengkonversi seluruh hasil panen di Amerika Serikat hanya mampu menggantikan 16% bahan bakar mobil yang dibutuhkan, dan pemusnahan hutan hujan tropis, yang selama ini sebagai penyerap CO 2, untuk dijadikan ladang penghasil bahan bakar bio, sangat jelas akan mengakibatkan efek negatif yang sangat signifikan bagi ekologi dan menghasilkan peningkatan harga bahan pangan akibat kompetisi pasar. Pada saat ini, alternatif terhadap bahan bakar bio berkelanjutan sedang diupayakan dalam bentuk etanol selulosit.

41 ALTERNATIF "ZERO CARBON" Dari sudut pandang isu perubahan iklim, bahan bakar ekonomis rendah karbon adalah sumber alternatif untuk mengeliminasi emisi karbon dan metana. Sumber energi terbarukan dan berkelanjutan seperti biomassa, dan hidrogen yang dihasilkan dari gas alam, tidak tersedia secara ekonomis untuk melawan peningkatan karbon secara global. Energi nuklirEnergi nuklir dan tehnik penangkapan dan penyimpanan karbon seperti teknologi batu bara bersih adalah teknologi energi alternatif yang rendah emisi karbonnya, namun tidak sesuai dengan tujuan bahwa energi alternatif harus tidak merusak lingkungan.

42 KONSEP BARU ENERGI ALTERNATIF Area penangkapan energi angin mengapung Area penangkapan energi angin mengapung sama dengan area penangkapan energi angin biasa namun mengapung di tengah-tengah lautan. Area penangkapan energi angin lepas pantai dapat ditempatkan di perairan sedalam 40 meter. Keuntungan area penangkapan energi angin mengapung adalah kemampuannya menangkap energi angin di tengah lautan tanpa halangan bukit, pepohonan, dan bangunan; angin di tengah lautan dapat mencapai kecepatan dua kali kecepatan angin di daratan.

43 KONSEP BARU ENERGI ALTERNATIF Biogas hasil pencernaan BiogasBiogas hasil pencernaan berhubungan dengan pemanfaatan gas metana yang dilepaskan ketika kotoran hewan membusuk. Gas ini dapat diperoleh dari sampah dan sistem saluran limbah. Sistem penghasil biogas digunakan untuk menghasilkan untuk memproses gas metana melalui bakteri atau dekomposer yang memecah biomassa dalam lingkungan atau kondisi anaerobik. Gas metana yang dikumpulkan dan dimurnikan dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai sumber energi alternatif.

44 KONSEP BARU ENERGI ALTERNATIF Heliokultur adalah proses memanen energi matahari menjadi bahan bakar dengan memindahkan karbon dioksida di atmosfer dengan memanfaatkan pertanian.

45 ENERGI ALTERNATIF DALAM TRANSPORTASI Akibat peningkatan harga gas dan harga bahan bakar, telah ada gerakan untuk mengembangkan kendaraan dengan efisiensi bahan bakar yang lebih tinggi serta kendaraan dengan bahan bakar alternatif. Kendaraan Hybrid dan bertenaga baterai telah tersedia secara komersial dan dapat diterima masyarakat secara luas di seluruh dunia.Hybrid

46 HIDRO-ELEKTRISITAS adalah satu bentuk tenaga hidro digunakan untuk memproduksi listrik. Kebanyakan tenaga hidroelektrik berasal dari energi potensial dari air yang dibendung dan menggerakkan turbin air dan generator. Bentuk yang kurang umum adalah memanfaatkan energi kinetik seperti tenaga ombak. Hidroelektrisitas adalah sumber energi terbaharui..

47 HYDRO-ELECTRICITY The production of energy via hydrology is perhaps the oldest form of harnessing renewable energy. Water wheels were used several thousand years ago and the method progressed substantially with the advent of the Industrial Revolution. In simple terms, the movement of water into kinetic energy creates modern hydroelectric power. To produce hydroelectric power it is necessary to utilise the movement of significant amounts of water. Therefore, one would need to utilise a stream or weir. This requirement can prove problematic for many people, however, providing there is a hydro source relatively close by, it would be possible to set up a community hydro project.

48 ENERGI SURYA adalah energi yang didapat dengan mengubah energi panas surya (matahari) melalui peralatan tertentu menjadi sumber daya dalam bentuk lain. Energi surya menjadi salah satu sumber pembangkit daya selain air, uap,angin, biogas, batu bara, dan minyak bumi. Teknik pemanfaatan energi surya mulai muncul pada tahun 1839, ditemukan oleh A.C. Becquerel. Ia menggunakan kristal silikon untuk mengkonversi radiasi Matahari, namun sampai tahun 1955 metode itu belum banyak dikembangkan. Selama kurun waktu lebih dari satu abad itu, sumber energi yang banyak digunakan adalah minyak bumi dan batu bara. Sel silikon yang dipergunakan untuk mengubah energi surya menjadi sumber daya mulai diperhitungkan sebagai metode baru, karena dapat digunakan sebagai sumber daya bagi satelit angkasa luar..

49 PENERAPAN ENERGI SURYA Energi surya telah banyak diterapkan dalam kehidupan sehari-hari. Beberapa di antara aplikasi tersebut antara lain : 1.Pencahayaan bertenaga surya 2.Pemanasan bertenaga surya, untuk memanaskan air, memanaskan dan mendinginkan ruangan, 3.Desalinisasi dan desinfektisasi 4.Untuk memasak, dengan menggunakan kompor tenaga surya.

50 BIOENERGY is renewable energy made available from materials derived from biological sources.renewable energy Biomass is any organic material which has stored sunlight in the form of chemical energy. As a fuel it may include wood, wood waste, straw, manure, sugarcane, and many other byproducts from a variety of agricultural processes. In its most narrow sense it is a synonym to biofuel, which is fuel derived from biological sources. In its broader sense it includes biomass, the biological material used as a biofuel, as well as the social, economic, scientific and technical fields associated with using biological sources for energy. Frauke Urban and Tom Mitchell Climate change, disasters and electricity generation. London: Overseas Development Institute and Institute for Development StudiesClimate change, disasters and electricity generationOverseas Development InstituteInstitute for Development Studies

51 SOLID BIOMASS – KAYU BAKAR Simple use of biomass fuel (Combustion of wood for heat).wood One of the advantages of biomass fuel is that it is often a by-product, residue or waste-product of other processes, such as farming, animal husbandry and forestry. In theory this means there is no competition between fuel and food production, although this is not always the case. Biomass is material derived from recently living organisms, which includes plants, animals and their byproducts.organisms Manure, garden waste and crop residues are all sources of biomass. It is a renewable energy source based on the carbon cycle, unlike other natural resources such as petroleum, coal, and nuclear fuels. Another source includes Animal waste, which is a persistent and unavoidable pollutant produced primarily by the animals housed in industrial-sized farms.pollutant.

52 SOLID BIOMASS – KAYU BAKAR There are also agricultural products specifically being grown for biofuel production. These include corn, and soybeans and to some extent willow and switchgrass on a pre-commercial research level, primarily in the United States; sugarcane in Brazil; palm oil in Southeast Asia; sorghum and cassava in China; and jatropha in India. Hemp has also been proven to work as a biofuel. Biodegradable outputs from industry, agriculture, forestry and households can be used for biofuel production, using e.g. anaerobic digestion to produce biogas, gasification to produce syngas or by direct combustion. Examples of biodegradable wastes include straw, timber, manure, rice husks, sewage, and food waste. The use of biomass fuels can therefore contribute to waste management as well as fuel security and help to prevent or slow down climate change, although alone they are not a comprehensive solution to these problems..

53 ELECTRICITY GENERATION FROM BIOMASS The biomass used for electricity production ranges by region. Forest by products, such as wood residues, are popular in the United States. Agricultural waste is common in Mauritius (sugar cane residue) and Southeast Asia (rice husks). Animal husbandry residues, such as poultry litter, is popular in the UK.

54 ELECTRICITY FROM SUGARCANE BAGASSE Sucrose accounts for little more than 30% of the chemical energy stored in the mature plant; 35% is in the leaves and stem tips, which are left in the fields during harvest, and 35% are in the fibrous material (bagasse) left over from pressing. The production process of sugar and ethanol in Brazil takes full advantage of the energy stored in sugarcane.sugarcane Part of the bagasse is currently burned at the mill to provide heat for distillation and electricity to run the machinery. This allows ethanol plants to be energetically self-sufficient and even sell surplus electricity to utilities; current production is 600 MW for self-use and 100 MW for sale. This secondary activity is expected to boom now that utilities have been induced to pay "fair price "(about US$10/GJ or US$0.036/kWh) for 10 year contracts.

55 BIOCHAR or TERRA PRETA is a name for charcoal when it is used for particular purposes. Like all charcoal, biochar is created by pyrolysis of biomass. Biochar is under investigation as an approach to carbon sequestration to produce negative carbon dioxide emissions.pyrolysis Biochar thus has the potential to help mitigate climate change, via carbon sequestration. Independently, biochar can increase soil fertility, raise agricultural productivity and reduce pressure on forests, though the degree to which results offer long term carbon sequestration in practice has been challenged.soil fertilityforests Biochar is a stable solid, rich in carbon and can endure in soil for thousands of years.

56 BIOFUEL is a type of fuel whose energy is derived from biological carbon fixation. Biofuels include fuels derived from biomass conversion, as well as solid biomass, liquid fuels and various biogases. Although fossil fuels have their origin in ancient carbon fixation, they are not considered biofuels by the generally accepted definition because they contain carbon that has been "out" of the carbon cycle for a very long time.carbon fixation Biofuels are gaining increased public and scientific attention, driven by factors such as oil price hikes, the need for increased energy security, concern over greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels, and support from government subsidies. Demirbas, A.. (2009). "Political, economic and environmental impacts of biofuels: A review". Applied Energy 86: S108–S117.

57 BIOFUEL BioethanolBioethanol is an alcohol made by fermentation, mostly from carbohydrates produced in sugar or starch crops such as corn or sugarcane. Cellulosic biomass, derived from non-food sources such as trees and grasses, is also being developed as a feedstock for ethanol production. Ethanol can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form, but it is usually used as a gasoline additive to increase octane and improve vehicle emissions. Demirbas, A.. (2009). "Political, economic and environmental impacts of biofuels: A review". Applied Energy 86: S108–S117.

58 BIOFUEL BiodieselBiodiesel is made from vegetable oils and animal fats. Biodiesel can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form, but it is usually used as a diesel additive to reduce levels of particulates, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons from diesel-powered vehicles. Biodiesel is produced from oils or fats using transesterification and is the most common biofuel in Europe. Demirbas, A.. (2009). "Political, economic and environmental impacts of biofuels: A review". Applied Energy 86: S108–S117.

59 VEGETABLE OIL Straight unmodified edible vegetable oil is generally not used as fuel, but lower quality oil can and has been used for this purpose. Used vegetable oil is increasingly being processed into biodiesel, or (more rarely) cleaned of water and particulates and used as a fuel. Oils and fats can be hydrogenated to give a diesel substitute. The resulting product is a straight chain hydrocarbon with a high cetane number, low in aromatics and sulfur and does not contain oxygen.cetane numbersulfur Hydrogenated oils can be blended with diesel in all proportions Hydrogenated oils have several advantages over biodiesel, including good performance at low temperatures, no storage stability problems and no susceptibility to microbial attack.

60 BIOGAS Biogas is methane produced by the process of anaerobic digestion of organic material by anaerobes. It can be produced either from biodegradable waste materials or by the use of energy crops fed into anaerobic digesters to supplement gas yields. The solid byproduct, digestate, can be used as a biofuel or a fertilizer. Biogas can be recovered from mechanical biological treatment waste processing systems. Landfill gas is a less clean form of biogas which is produced in landfills through naturally occurring anaerobic digestion. If it escapes into the atmosphere it is a potential greenhouse gas. Farmers can produce biogas from manure from their cows by using an anaerobic digester (AD).landfills. "BIOGAS: No bull, manure can power your farm." Farmers Guardian (September 25, 2009): 12. General OneFile. Gale.

61 SOLID BIOFUELS Examples include wood, sawdust, grass trimmings, domestic refuse, charcoal, agricultural waste, non-food energy crops, and dried manure.sawdustgrassdomestic refuse When raw biomass is already in a suitable form (such as firewood), it can burn directly in a stove or furnace to provide heat or raise steam. When raw biomass is in an inconvenient form (such as sawdust, wood chips, grass, urban waste wood, agricultural residues), the typical process is to densify the biomass. This process includes grinding the raw biomass to an appropriate particulate size (known as hogfuel), which depending on the densification type can be from 1 to 3 cm (1 in), which is then concentrated into a fuel product. The current types of processes are wood pellet, cube, or puck. The pellet process is most common in Europe and is typically a pure wood product. The other types of densification are larger in size compared to a pellet and are compatible with a broad range of input feedstocks. The resulting densified fuel is easier to transport and feed into thermal generation systems such as boilers.. "Biofuel Production". European Biofuels Technology Platform. Retrieved 17 May "Biofuel Production"

62 SOLID BIOFUELS One of the advantages of solid biomass fuel is that it is often a by- product, residue or waste-product of other processes, such as farming, animal husbandry and forestry. In theory this means there is no competition between fuel and food production, although this is not always the case. A problem with the combustion of raw biomass is that it emits considerable amounts of pollutants such as particulates and PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). Even modern pellet boilers generate much more pollutants than oil or natural gas boilers. Pellets made from agricultural residues are usually worse than wood pellets, producing much larger emissions of dioxins and chlorophenols.. "Biofuel Production". European Biofuels Technology Platform. Retrieved 17 May "Biofuel Production"

63 SECOND GENERATION BIOFUELS Second generation biofuels, also known as advanced biofuels, are fuels that can be manufactured from various types of biomass. Biomass is a wide-ranging term meaning any source of organic carbon that is renewed rapidly as part of the carbon cycle. Biomass is derived from plant materials but can also include animal materials. First generation biofuels are made from the sugars and vegetable oils found in arable crops, which can be easily extracted using conventional technology. In comparison, second generation biofuels are made from lignocellulosic biomass or woody crops, agricultural residues or waste, which makes it harder to extract the required fuel.

64 SECOND GENERATION TECHNOLOGY Thermochemical routes Carbon-based materials can be heated at high temperatures in the absence (pyrolysis) or presence of oxygen, air and/or steam (gasification). These thermochemical processes both yield a combustible gas and a solid char. The gas can be fermented or chemically synthesised into a range of fuels, including ethanol, synthetic diesel or jet fuel.

65 SECOND GENERATION TECHNOLOGY Gasification Gasification technologies are well established for conventional feedstocks such as coal and crude oil. Second generation gasification technologies include gasification of forest and agricultural residues, waste wood, energy crops and black liquor. Output is normally syngas for further synthesis to e.g. Fischer-Tropsch products, biomethanol, BioDME or biomethane (synthetic natural gas). Syngas can also be used in heat production and for generation of mechanical and electrical power via gas motors or gas turbines.

66 SECOND GENERATION TECHNOLOGY Pyrolysis Pyrolysis is a well established technique for decomposition of organic material at elevated temperatures in the absence of oxygen. In second generation biofuels applications forest and agricultural residues, wood waste and energy crops can be used as feedstock to produce e.g. bio-oil for fuel oil applications. Torrefaction Torrefaction is a form of pyrolysis at temperatures typically ranging between °C. Feedstocks and output are the same as for pyrolysis.

67 SECOND GENERATION TECHNOLOGY Biochemical routes Chemical and biological processes that are currently used in other applications are being adapted for second generation biofuels. Biochemical processes typically employ pre-treatment to accelerate the hydrolysis process, which separates out the lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose. Once these ingredients are separated, the cellulose fractions can be fermented into alcohols. Feedstocks are energy crops, agricultural and forest residues, food industry and municipal biowaste and other biomass containing sugars. Products include alcohols (such as ethanol and butanol) and other hydrocarbons for transportation use.

68 ENERGY CROPS Plants are made from lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose; second generation technology uses one, two or all of these components. Common lignocellulosic energy crops include wheat straw, Miscanthus, short rotation coppice poplar and willow. However, each offers different opportunities and no one crop can be considered 'best' or 'worst'. National Non-Food Crops CentreNational Non-Food Crops Centre. "Advanced Biofuels: The Potential for a UK Industry, NNFCC ", Retrieved on "Advanced Biofuels: The Potential for a UK Industry, NNFCC "

69 SAMPAH = Municipal solid waste Municipal Solid Waste comprises a very large range of materials, and total waste arisings are increasing. In the UK, recycling initiatives decrease the proportion of waste going straight for disposal, and the level of recycling is increasing each year. However, there remains significant opportunities to convert this waste to fuel via gasification or pyrolysis. National Non-Food Crops CentreNational Non-Food Crops Centre. "Evaluation of Opportunities for Converting Indigenous UK Wastes to Fuels and Energy (Report), NNFCC ", Retrieved on

70 GREEN WASTE Green waste such as forest residues or garden or park waste may be used to produce biofuel via different routes. Examples include Biogas captured from biodegradable green waste, and gasification or hydrolysis to syngas for further processing to biofuels via catalytic processes.

71 I would like to thank all of participants for their valuable contributions. Though this seminar, we will share our knowledge and experiences on interdisciplinary studies in order to achieve sustainability of our earth- biosphere. May the conference a complete success! thanks for your attention Malang, 7 th Febr. 2012, Soemarno Wass.

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