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CONTIGUOUS ZONE DAN CONTINENTAL SHELF Dhiana P, SH, LLM, PhD.

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Presentasi berjudul: "CONTIGUOUS ZONE DAN CONTINENTAL SHELF Dhiana P, SH, LLM, PhD."— Transcript presentasi:

1 CONTIGUOUS ZONE DAN CONTINENTAL SHELF Dhiana P, SH, LLM, PhD

2 Continental Shelf Exclusive Economic Zone Territorial Waters Contiguous Zones Baseline 12 Nm 24 Nm 200 Nm Air space Upper limits are Unspecified Internal Waters EEZ Air Space International Air Space EEZ Superjacent Waters High Seas Territorial Sea Air Space Contiguous Zones 12 Nm Deep Seabed Outer Continental Shelf Territorial Sea 12 Nm EEZ (air space, superjacent waters and seabed) 188 Nm Legal Continental Shelf (Continental Margin) Baseline

3 CONTIGUOUS ZONE (ZONE TAMBAHAN)  Perkembangan konsep CZ  Pengertian CZ  The breadth of (Lebar) CZ  Legal status CZ  Hak dan Kewajiban Negara Pantai

4 PERKEMBANGAN KONSEP CZ  Berasal dari Hovering Acts dari UK yang mencegah penyelundupan pada jarak 24 mil ke arah laut bebas  —belum ada prkatek negara2 bhw lebar laut teritorial adalah 3 mil (cannon ball theory)  Dispute Spains v. British early nineteenth century – Spains objected on the seizure of British ship within the six-mile Spanish custom zone  Custom zone – 3 miles---UK 24 miles (kelebihan)

5 Continued  3-miles custom zone recognize, subject to two exceptions:  Doctrine constructive presence – utk melepas prisoners  Doctrine of Hot-Pursuit – pengejaran ssorg yg melanggar hukum

6 PENGERTIAN CONTIGUOS ZONE IS A ZONE OF SEA CONTIGUOUS TO AND SEAWARD OF THE TERRITORIAL SEA IN WHICH STATES HAVE LIMITED POWERS FOR THE ENFORCEMENT OF CUSTOMS, FISCAL, SANITARY AND IMMIGRATION LAWS

7 THE BREADTH OF CZ  Negara tidak wajib u/ menentukan CZ seperti halnya TS  Berbeda dengan CS, CZ tidak secara otomatis diberikan kepada negara pantai  Negara harus dg aktif claim CZ – hanya 1/3 negara pantai yg claim CZ  24 mil dari baselines (article 33 (2) LOSC)

8 LEGAL STATUS OF CZ  LOSC: CZ is part of ZEE  TSC 1958: CZ is part of High Seas  LOSC: inclusion of both enforcement and legislative jurisdiction – dalam hal2 ttt

9 Article 33 of LOSC 1.In a zone contiguousto its territorial sea, described as the contiguous zone, the coastal state may exercise the control necessary to:  Prevent infringement of its customs, fiscal, immigration or sanitary laws and regulations within its territory or territorial sea  Punish infringement of the above laws and regulations committed within its territory or territorial sea

10 CONTINENTAL SHELF  Perkembangan konsep CS  Pengertian CS  Seaward limit of CS  Legal status CS  Hak dan Kewajiban Negara Pantai di CS

11 Mainland TSTS 12 mls 12 mls CSCS 200 mls EEZ Cont. Slope Continental Rise Deep Sea Bed High Seas

12 PEMBAGIAN CS  Continental Slope Proper: the area which slopes down gradually from the low water mark to the depth, averaging about 130 meters, at which the angle of declination increases markedly.  Continental Slope: the section bordering the shelf and having the steeper slope, going down to around 1,200 to 3,500 meters.  Continental rise: an area beyond the slope where the sea bed falls away more gradually and is composed mainly of sediments washed down from the continent – descends to a depth of around 3,500 to 5,000 meters.

13 Continued Ketiga macam continental slope tersebut secara bersama sama membentuk suatu apa yg disebut continental margin, yang berjumlah 1/5 dari sea floor. Sudah tentu area tsb kaya akan natural resources juga mineral resources – memberikan kontribusi ekonomi yg significant bagi negara pantai Oleh karena itu legal statusnya sangat penting

14 PENGERTIAN CS—Part VI, Article 76 LOSC The continental shelf of a coastal state comprises the sea-bed and subsoil of the submarine areas that extend beyond its territorial sea throughout the natural prolongation of its land territory to the outer edge of the continental margin, or to a distance of 200 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of territorial sea is measured where the outer edge of the continental margin does not extend up to that distance

15 SEAWARD LIMIT OF CS  Biasanya 200 mil laut dari baselines (di bawah ZEE)  Akan tetapi karena CS berhubungan dengan geografis dasar laut mungkin saja kontinental slope yg membentuk suatu kontinental shelf melebihi dari 200 meter  Hal tsb diperbolehkan asalnya tidak melebihi 350 mil laut dari baselines

16 LEGAL STATUS OF CS – Article 78 LOSC  The right of coastal state over its CS does not affect the legal status of the superjacent waters or of the airspace above the waters  The exercise of the rights of the coastal state over the continental shelf must not infringe or result in any unjustifiable interference with navigation and other rights and freedoms of other states as provided for in this convention

17 HAK DAN KEWAJIBAN NEGARA PANTAI DI CS – are not unlimited  Sovereign rights for the purpose of exploring and exploiting its natural resources  If coastal state does not do this, no one can except with its express consent  Termasuk juga memperbolehkan negara lain u/ lay submarine cables dan pipelines  Negara pantai punya exclusive right to authorize and regulate drilling in its CS

18 Landas Kontinen v. ZEE  Hak dan kewajiban negara pantai dalam batas 200 mil dari baselines:  Not part of territory – exploration and exploitation  The sovereign rights are limited to natural resources  Exclude non-natural resources – wrecks (Art. 303 LOSC)  Authorization of the use of artificial islands and installations and structures used for economic purposes

19 LANDAS KONTINEN v. HIGH SEAS  Significant differences include:  Living resources – sedentary species (coastal state control), non-sedentary species (free fishing)  Non-living resources – coastal state has right to engage to such activities – has to pay ISA a proportion of the value or volume of the production at the site after the first five years of exploitation


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