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1 Akuntansi untuk Investasi. 2 Mengapa perusahaan berinvestasi pada perusahan lain Pelindung Keamanan Kebutuhan kas yg musiman Investasi untuk suatu imbal.

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Presentasi berjudul: "1 Akuntansi untuk Investasi. 2 Mengapa perusahaan berinvestasi pada perusahan lain Pelindung Keamanan Kebutuhan kas yg musiman Investasi untuk suatu imbal."— Transcript presentasi:

1 1 Akuntansi untuk Investasi

2 2 Mengapa perusahaan berinvestasi pada perusahan lain Pelindung Keamanan Kebutuhan kas yg musiman Investasi untuk suatu imbal hasil LanjutttLanjuttt

3 3 Pembelian untuk mendapatkan pengendalian Invetasi untuk mendapatkan pengaruh

4 4 Definisi EFEK Menurut Undang-undang pasar modal psl 1 point 5 Efek adalah surat berharga, yaitu surat pengakuan hutang, surat berharga komersial, saham, obligasi, tanda bukti hutang, unit penyertaan, kontrak investasi kolektif, kontrak berjangka atas efek, dan setiap derifatif dari efek

5 5 1.Nilai jatuh temponya mewakili nilai yang harus dibayarkan pada pemegang efek hutang pd saat jatuh tempo. 2.Suatu tingkat bunga yg menetapkan pembayaran bunga secara periodik. 3.Tanggal jatuh tempo yg mengindikasikan kapan kewajiban akan diselesaikan Klasifikasi efek Investasi Efek Hutang Umumnya memiliki karakteristik sebagai berkut:

6 6 Lembar-lembar saham ini biasanya mengandung hak untuk memperoleh deviden dan untuk memberikan suara dalam kegiatan perusahaan. Efek ekuitas Mewakili kepemilikan dalam suatu perusahaan. Dan memiliki potensi untuk kenaikan secara signifikan atas harga efek tsb. Klasifikasi efek investasi

7 7 Efek Hutang/ Ekuitas Diper- dagang- kan Diper- dagang- kan Efek dibeli dengan tujuan untuk dijual dalam waktu dekat Hingga jatuh tempo Efek dibeli untuk tujuan ditahan hingga jatuh temponya Tersedia u/ dijual Efek yg tidak dikategorikan diperdagangkan atau ditahan hingga jatuh tempo. Klasifikasi efek investasi

8 8 Efek-efek dipasar Modal Saham Obligasi Derivatif (warans, rights, option, futures contract) Efek lain (unit penyertaan reksa dana dan efek beragun aset

9 9 Saham Surat berharga sebagai bukti penyertaan atau pemilikan individu maupun institusi dalam suatu perusahaan

10 10 Beberapa istilah penting saham Laba per saham, laba bersih setelah pajak dibagi dengan jumlah lembar saham yg telah disetor Kapitalisasi, perkalian harga saham di bursa (market price) dg jumlah lembar saham yg disetor Capital gain/loss, keuntungan/kerugian yg diperoleh investor dari selisih harga beli dan harga jual suatu saham

11 11 Nilai nominal, nilai yg tertera pd lembar saham yg besarnya ditentukan dalam anggaran dasar perusahaan Nilai buku per saham, total nilai ekuitas dibagi total jumlah saham yg beredar Nilai pasar, harga jual saham Deviden, bagian keuntungan perusahaan yang dibagikan kepada pemegang saham Price earning rasio, rasio harga pasar saham dengan laba per saham

12 12 Tersedia u/dijual diperdag angkan Ditahan hingga jth tempo Hutang Metode ekuitas ekuitas Klasifikasi efek investasi Metode biaya

13 13 Investasi dalam saham biasa Metode yg digunakan tergantung dari pengaruh atau kontrol yg dilakukan oleh investor terhadap perusahaan yg ingin dikuasainya (investee) Besarnya pengaruh ini merupakan faktor utama untuk menjelaskan apa yg investor dan investe tampilkan dalam laporan keuangan yg merupakan investasi dalam saham biasa, berdasarkan metode Cost (biaya) atau metode Equity (Ekuitas).

14 14 Investasi dalam saham biasa Konsolidasi melibatkan penggabungan untuk pelaporan keuangan aktiva, kewajiban, pendapatan dan beban individual untuk dua atau lebih perusahaan yang berhubungan istimewa seakan-akan mereka adalah satu perusahaan.

15 15 Konsolidasi umumnya merupakan pengendalian oleh suatu perusahaan (induk perusahaan/parent) terhadap perusahaan lainnya (anak perusahaan/subsidiary)

16 16 Metode ekuitas digunakan untuk pelaporan eksternal jika investor mempunyai pengaruh signifikan dalam kebijakan operasi dan keuangan investee dan konsolidasi tidak sesuai. Metode ekuitas tidak dapat digunakan sebagai pengganti konsolidasi jika konsolidasi sesuai. Metode ekuitas digunakan utamanya untuk pelaporan investasi selain pada anak perusahaan, metode ini paling sering digunakan jika suatu perusahaan mempunyai kepemilikan 20 – 50 % pada saham perusahaan lain.

17 17 Metode biaya digunakan dalam pelaporan investasi dalam efek ekuitas yang tidak diperdagangkan jika konsolidasi dan metode ekuitas tidak sesuai untuk digunakan. Untuk efek ekuitas yang diperdagangkan, jika konsolidasi dan metode tidak sesuai untuk digunakan, investasi biasanya dicatat menggunakan metode biaya dan disesuaikan dengan nilai pasar.

18 18 Kriteria untuk menentukan besarnya pengaruh suatu perusahaan Representation on the investee’s Board of Directors Participation in the investee’s policy- making process Material intercompany transactions. Interchange of managerial personnel. Technological dependency. Extent of ownership in relationship to other ownership percentages.

19 19 { Dalam bbrp kasus pengaruh/pengendalian dapat terjadi dg kepemilikan kurang dari 20%. Kepemilikan Investor atas saham beredar Investee 0%20%50%100% Nilai wajar (cost Method) Equity Method Consolidated Financial Statements Ukuran signifikansi suatu investasi

20 20 { Pengaruh siknifikan umumya diasumsikan berkisar antara 20% - 50% kepemilikan. Kepemilikan Investor atas saham beredar Investee Ukuran siknifikan suatu investasi 0%20%50%100% Equity Method Consolidated Financial Statements Nilai wajar (cost Method)

21 21 { Laporan keuangan thd suatu perusahaan yg berhubungan harus di konsolidasi. Hak pemilikan Investor atas saham yg beredar Investee Ukuran siknifikan suatu investasi 0%20%50%100% Equity Method Consolidated Financial Statements Nilai wajar (cost Method)

22 22 Cost Method/Metode biaya ABC Company membeli 20 % saham biasa XYZ seharga $100,000 pd awal tahun tapi tidak berpengaruh signifikan atas XYZ. Investasi pd XYZ saham biasa $100,000 Kas $100,000

23 23 Cost Method Selama periode berjalan, laba XYZ $50,000 digunakan untuk bayar deviden $20,000. Kas ($20,000 X.20) $4,000 Pendapatan deviden $4,000

24 24 The Equity Method— Pengaruh signifikan ( %) Dilaporkan oleh Investee: –Laba/rugi bersih –Pengumuman deviden Pengaruh pada Investor: –Mencatat pendapatan/kerugian dari investasi, meningkatkan/menur unkan akun investasi. –Mencatat aktiva(kas/piutang), menurunkan akun investasi

25 25 The Equity Method—Equity Accrual ABC Company menguasai signifikan XYZ Company dg membeli 20 % saham biasa XYZ Company laba pada tahun berjalan XYZ $60,000. Jurnal laba atas Investasi ABC di XYZ Investasi pd saham biasa ($60,000 X.2) $12,000 pendapatan dari Investee $12,000

26 26 Equity pengakuan Dividends Jika XYZ mengumumkan pembayaran deviden $20,000 jurnal yg dibuat ABC Kas ($20,000 X.20) $4,000 Investasi pd saham Biasa XYZ $4,000

27 27 Efek ekuitas Tujuannya agar dapat mengendalikan atau mempengaruhi secara signifikan operasi dari perusahaan target. Efek metode ekuitas

28 28 Different Accounting Treatments Classification of Securities Types of Securities Disclosure on the Balance Sheet Treatment of Temporary Changes in Value Held to maturityDebtAmortized costNot recognized Available for saleDebt/equityFair market valueReported in stockholders’ equity TradingDebt/equityFair market valueReported on the income statement Equity methodEquityHistorical cost Not recognized adjusted for changes in the assets of the investee

29 29 Purchases of Debt Securities On May 1, Douglas Company purchases $100,000 in U.S. Treasury notes at 104¼, including brokerage fees. Interest is 9% payable semiannually on January 1 and July 1. The debt securities are classified by the purchaser as trading securities. Accrued interest on May 1 is $3,000, calculated as follows: $100,000 x.09 x 4/12 = $3,000

30 30 Purchases of Debt Securities May 1 Investment in Trading Securities104,250 Interest Receivable3,000 Cash107,250 Purchase date: Asset Approach ContinuedContinued

31 31 Purchases of Debt Securities May 1 Investment in Trading Securities104,250 Interest Revenue3,000 Cash107,250 Purchase date: Revenue Approach ContinuedContinued

32 32 Purchases of Debt Securities Receipt of semiannual payment: July 1 Cash4,500 Interest Receivable3,000 Interest Revenue1,500 Asset Approach July 1 Cash4,500 Interest Revenue4,500 Revenue Approach

33 33 Purchase of Equity Securities Purchased 10,000 shares of Dave’s Deli common shares at $2 per share. Treated as available-for-sale because management has no intention of holding these securities for a a long period of time and will sell them as soon as it is economically advantageous

34 34 Available-for-Sale Investment in Available-for- Sale Securities—AB Company 2,000 Cash 2,000 Purchase of Equity Securities Citty Co. purchased 1,000 shares of AB Company common shares at $2 per share.

35 35 Citty Co. purchased 100,000 shares of AB Company common shares at $2 per share. Purchase of Equity Securities Assume that the 100,000 shares purchased represents 20 percent of the outstanding voting stock of AB Company. This investment gives the investor significant influence over AB Company.

36 36 Purchased 100,000 shares of Dave’s Deli common shares at $2 per share. Trading Securities Investment in Trading Securities— AB Company Common Stock 2,000 Cash 2,000 Purchase of Equity Securities

37 37 PV of Debt Securities On January 1, 2004, Silmaril Technologies purchased 5-year, 10% bonds with a face value of $100,000 and interest payable semiannually on January 1 and July 1. The market rate on bonds of similar quality and maturity is 8%.

38 38 PV of Debt Securities Present value of principal: FV = $100,000; N = 10; I = 4%$ 67,556 Present value of interest payments: PMT = $5,000; N = 10; I = 4% 40,554 Total present value of the bonds$108,110 Investment in Trading Securities108,100 Cash108,100

39 39 Interest Revenue for Debt Securities (Trading) When the first interest payment is received from Silmaril, the following entry would be made: July 1 Cash5,000 Interest Revenue5,000

40 40 Interest Revenue for Debt Securities (Held-to-Maturity) When the first interest payment is received from Silmaril, the following entry would be made: July 1 Cash5,000 Interest Revenue4,324 Investment in Held-to- Maturity Securities676 $108,110 x.04

41 41 Interest Revenue for Debt Securities (Held-to-Maturity) When the second interest payment is received, the interest revenue is determined by the yield times the bond carrying value. Jan 1 Cash5,000 Interest Revenue4,297 Investment in Held-to- Maturity Securities703 $107,434 x.04

42 42 Determining the Appropriate Accounting Method 0% 20%50%100% No significant influence Significant influence Control Ownership Percentage Account for as trading or available-for-sale Equity method Equity method and consolidation procedures

43 43 Determining the Appropriate Accounting Method In the absence of persuasive evidence to the contrary, equity securities are classified as trading or available for sale when ownership is less than 20 percent. Summary

44 44 Determining the Appropriate Accounting Method The equity method is used when ownership is such that the investor has the ability to significantly influence or control the investee’s operations. Summary

45 45 Determining the Appropriate Accounting Method Ownership Interest Control or Degree of Influence Accounting Method Applicable Standard More than 50%ControlEquity methodAPB Opinion #18 and consolidationFASB Exposure proceduresDraft 20% to 50%SignificantEquity methodAPB Opinion #18 influence Less than 20%No Account for asFASB Statement significanttrading or No. 115 influenceavailable for sale

46 46 AB Company announces dividends of $0.25 per share. Assume that Citty Co. owns 1,000 shares Cash 250 Dividend Revenue250 Revenue for Equity Securities Classified as Trading and AFS

47 47 Revenue for Equity Securities Classified as Trading and AFS AB Company announces dividends of $0.25 per share. Assume that Citty Co. owns 100,000 which represents 50 percent of the outstanding voting stock. Cash 25,000 Investment in AB Company Stock25,000

48 48 Revenue for Equity Securities Classified as Trading and AFS AB Company reports an income of $250,000 for the year. Again, assume that Citty Co. owns 50 percent of the outstanding voting stock. Investment in AB Company Stock 125,000 Income from Investment in AB Company Stock125,000

49 49 Equity Method: Purchase For More than Book Value The net assets of Stewart Inc. was $500,000 at the time Phillips Manufacturing Co. purchased 40% of the common shares for $250,000 on January 1, The market value of the net assets of Stewart Inc. would be $625,000, which is $125,000 more than the book value. Only $50,000 of this is attributed to depreciable assets. $250,000 ÷.40

50 50 Equity Method: Purchase For More than Book Value The average remaining life of the depreciable assets is 10 years and the special operating license is to be amortized over 20 years. Additional depreciation ($50,000 x 0.40)/10$2,000 License amortization ($75,000 x 0.40)/20 1,500 $3,500

51 51 Equity Method: Purchase For More than Book Value Stewart Inc. declared and paid dividends of $70,000 to common stockholders during 2005, and it reported net income of $150,000 for the year ended December 31, 2005.

52 52 Equity Method: Purchase For More than Book Value Investment in Stewart Inc. Common Stock Acquisition cost250,000 Share of earnings60,000 Dividends 28,000 Additional depreciation2,000 Additional amortization1, ,00031,500 Balance278,500

53 53 Accounting for Temporary Changes in Value of Securities Classification of Security Disclosed at Report FMV Trading Fair market value Income statement Held-to- maturity Amortized cost Not recognized Available- for-sale Fair market value Stockholder’s equity Change On

54 54 Eastwood Inc. purchased the following securities on March 23, Trading securities: –Purchase price (Security #1)$ 8,000 –Value end of year (#1)$ 7,000 –Purchase price (#2)$ 3,000 –Value end of year (#2)$ 3,500 Available-for-sale securities: –Purchase price (#3)$ 5,000 –Value end of year (#3)$ 6,100 Accounting for Temporary Changes in Value of Securities ContinuedContinued

55 55 Available-for-sale securities: –Purchase price (#4)$12,000 –Value end of year (#4)$11,500 Held-to-maturity securities: –Purchase price (#5)$20,000 –Value end of year (#5)$19,000 Accounting for Temporary Changes in Value of Securities ContinuedContinued

56 56 Accounting for Temporary Changes in Value of Securities Investment in Trading Securities11,000 Investment in Available-for-Sale Securities17,000 Investment in Held-to-Maturity Securities20,000 Cash48,000 Initial Purchase Entry ContinuedContinued

57 57 December 31, 2005: Unrealized Loss on Trading Securities500 Market Adjustment—Trading Securities500 By the end of the year, the value of the trading securities decreased from $11,000 to $10,500. Accounting for Temporary Changes in Value of Securities ContinuedContinued

58 58 December 31, 2005: Market Adjustment—Available-for-Sale Securities600 Unrealized Increase/Decrease in Value of Available-for-Sale Securities600 By the end of the year, the value of the available-for-sale securities increased from $17,000 to $17,600. Accounting for Temporary Changes in Value of Securities

59 59 FASB No. 115 puts an end to “cherry-picking.” This is the practice of selectively selling securities whose prices have increased, while keeping those that have experienced losses or have maintained their historical cost. Accounting for Temporary Changes in Value of Securities

60 60 Partial Balance Sheet for Eastwood Inc. Assets Invest. in trading securities$11,000 Market adjustment—trading sec. (500) $10,500 Invest. in available-for-sale sec.$17,000 Market adjustment ,600 Invest. in held-to-maturity sec. 20,000 $48,100 Stockholders’ Equity Add unrealized increase in available-for-sale securities $ 600 Accounting for Temporary Changes in Value of Securities

61 61 Partial Income Statement for Eastwood Inc. Other expenses and losses: Unrealized loss on trading securities$500 Accounting for Temporary Changes in Value of Securities

62 62 Sale of Securities On April 1, 2005, the investment in Silmaril’s debt securities is sold for $103,000, which includes accrued interest of $2,500. Interest revenue of $2,105 ($105,248 x.08 x 3/12) would be recorded. On January 1, the debt securities had a carrying value of $105,248. The required amortization for the three-months’ premium between January 1 and April 1 is $395.

63 63 Sale of Securities Entry to record accrued revenue and to amortize premium: Apr. 1Interest Receivable2,500 Investment in Held-to Maturity Securities395 Interest Revenue2,105 Entry to record sale: Apr. 1 Cash103,000 Realized Loss on Sale of Securities4,353 Interest Receivable2,500 Investment in Held-to Maturity Securities104,853

64 64 Transferring Securities Between Categories Transferred Treatment of Change in Value From tradingAny unrealized change in value not previously recognized will be recognized in net income in the current period. To tradingAny unrealized change in value not previously recognized will be recognized in net income in the current period. From held to maturity to available for sale Recognize any unrealized change in value in a stockholders’ equity account. ContinuedContinued

65 65 Transferring Securities Between Categories Transferred Treatment of Change in Value From available for sale to held to maturity Any unrealized change in value recorded in a stockholders’ equity account is to be amortized over the security’s remaining life using the effective-interest method. Statement of Financial Standards No. 115, par. 15d

66 66 Assume: Cost of trading security$3,000 Fair market value, end of 20063,600 Fair market value at transfer date3,800 Transferring Securities Between Categories ContinuedContinued

67 67 Transferring Securities Between Categories Investment in Available-for-Sale Securities3,800 Market Adjustment--Trading Securities 600 Unrealized Gain on Transfer of Securities 200 Investment in Trading Securities3,000

68 68 Transferring Securities Between Categories Assume: Cost of available-for-sale security$12,000 Fair market value, end of ,700 Transfer from the available- for-sale category to the trading security category. ContinuedContinued

69 69 Investment in Trading Securities10,300 Market Adjustment--Trading Securities1,300 Unrealized Loss on Transfer of Securities 1,700 Unrealized Increase/Decrease in Value of Available-for- Sale Securities1,300 Investment in Available-for- Sale Securities12,000 Transferring Securities Between Categories

70 70 Assume: Cost of held-to-maturity security20,000 Fair market value, Dec. 31, ,700 Record a transfer from held-to-maturity to the available-for-sale category. Transferring Securities Between Categories ContinuedContinued

71 71 Investment in Available-for- Sale Securities 20,400 Unrealized Increase/ Decrease in Value of Available-for-Sale Securities400 Investment in Held-to- Maturity Securities 20,000 Transferring Securities Between Categories

72 72 Assume: Cost of available-for-sale securities$5,000 Fair market value, end of 20066,500 Fair market value at transfer date5,900 Record a transfer from available- for-sale to held-to-maturity. Transferring Securities Between CategoriesContinuedContinued

73 73 Investment in Held-to-Maturity Securities 5,900 Unrealized Increase/Decrease in Value of Available-for-Sale Securities600 Investment in Available-for- Sale Securities5,000 Market Adjustment— Available-for-Sale Securities 1,500 Transferring Securities Between Categories

74 74 Cash Flows from Gains and Losses on Available-for-Sale Caesh Company began with a $1,000 investment on January 1, Cash sales$1,700 Cash expenses(1,400) Purchases of investment securities(600) Sale of investment securities (costing $200)170 ContinuedContinued

75 75 Cash Flows from Gains and Losses on Available-for-Sale The market value of the remaining securities was $500 on December 31, ContinuedContinued Sales$1,700 Expenses (1,400) Operating income$ 300 Realized loss on sale of securities (30) Net income$ 270

76 76 Cash Flows from Gains and Losses on Available-for-Sale Caesh Company will report a $100 unrealized increase in the value of it available-for-sale portfolio. This $100 unrealized increase is reported as an increase in Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income. ContinuedContinued

77 77 Cash Flows from Gains and Losses on Available-for-Sale The statement of cash flows for Caesh Company for 2005 appear as follows: Operating activities: Net income$ 270 Plus realized loss on sale of securities 30$ 300 Investing activities: Purchase of investment securities$(600) Sale of investment securities 170(430) Financing activities: Initial investment by owner 1,000 Net increase in cash$ 870

78 78 Classification and Disclosure Trading securities –The change in net unrealized holding gain or loss that is included in the income statement. Available-for-sale securities –Aggregate fair value, gross unrealized holding gains and gross unrealized holding losses, and amortized cost basis by major security type. –The proceeds from sales of available-for-sale securities and the gross realized gains and losses on those sales and the basis on which cost was determined in computing realized gains and losses. ContinuedContinued

79 79 Available-for-sale securities (continued): –The change in net unrealized holding gain or loss on available-for-sale securities that has been included in stockholders’ equity during the period. Held-to-maturity securities: –Aggregate fair value, gross unrealized holding gains and gross unrealized holding losses, and amortized cost basis by major security type. –The company should disclose information about contractual maturities. Classification and DisclosureContinuedContinued

80 80 Transfers of securities between categories: –Gross gains and losses included in earnings from transfers of securities from available-for- sale into the trading category. –For securities transferred from held-to-maturity, the company should disclose the amortized cost amount transferred, the related realized or unrealized gain or loss, and the reason for transferring the securities. Classification and Disclosure

81 81 The End chapter 14

82 82


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