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PENELUSURAN MASALAH PENELITIAN ILMU KEPERAWATAN Prof. Dr. Nursalam, M.Nurs (Hons) Pengurus AIPNI Ketua Dewan Redaksi Jurnal Ners Reviewer IWCJ nursalam-MASALAH.

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Presentasi berjudul: "PENELUSURAN MASALAH PENELITIAN ILMU KEPERAWATAN Prof. Dr. Nursalam, M.Nurs (Hons) Pengurus AIPNI Ketua Dewan Redaksi Jurnal Ners Reviewer IWCJ nursalam-MASALAH."— Transcript presentasi:

1 PENELUSURAN MASALAH PENELITIAN ILMU KEPERAWATAN Prof. Dr. Nursalam, M.Nurs (Hons) Pengurus AIPNI Ketua Dewan Redaksi Jurnal Ners Reviewer IWCJ nursalam-MASALAH

2 METODOLOGI PENELITIAN (MMP) SKRIPSI – TESIS - DESERTASI Mencari kebenaran: (Korespondensi & Koherensi) 1. KEILMUAN - BIDANG 3. MASALAH (F1-F2) 4. RUMUSAN MASALAH & KERANGKA KONSEP 5. TUJUAN II. METODOLOGI D-S-V-I-A 1.DESAIN 2.POPULASI, SAMPEL & SAMPLING,BESAR SAMPEL 3.VARIABEL & DEFINISI OPERASIONAL 4.PENGUMPULAN DATA (INSTRUMENT, WAKTU & TEMPAT, PROSEDUR) 5.ANALISIS DATA I. M A S A L A H III. PENULISAN - HASIL 6. TOPIK / TEMA JUDUL 2. KASUS nursalam-MASALAH

3 1. SEARCHING OF RESEARCH PROBLEM ---- Phenomena 1. SEARCHING OF RESEARCH PROBLEM ---- Phenomena nursalam-MASALAH

4 AREA TOPIK RISET KEPERAWATAN 1. ANAK 2. MATERNITAS 3. MEDIKAL BEDAH 4. JIWA 5. KOMUNITAS & KELUARGA 6. GERONTIK 7. MANAJEMEN DAN PENDIDIKAN

5 A GOOD TOPIC? N-O-C-T  NOVELTY  ORIGINALITY  CONTRIBUTION ON THEORY AND PRACTICE  TRENDS / PREVALENCY nursalam-MASALAH

6 LANGKAH PENELUSURAN MASALAH & PENULISAN ARTIKEL VIA RISET

7 nursalam-MASALAH SEARCHING NURSING RESEARCH PROBLEM (P-34) NURSING SCIENCE: MATERNITY, PEDIATRIC, etc. 2. CASE SELECTION: INC, Hospitalisation stress,, etc. 3. NURSING PROBLEM: NANDA / GORDON (F1-F2) IDEA Prolonged 1st Stage of labour BRAINSTROMING Factors that cause the prolonged? LITERATURE REVIEW Factors: 5P, the dominant one is psyche: husband support - has not been studied VARIABLES 5P (power, passage, passanger, psychological, provider...) Anxiety, straining strength, age, parity, family support, Admission time, stress etc. 5. AIM AND OBJECTIVES (BLOOM + Objective + (V-V) ……. To explain the effect of husband support on acceleration of cervix dilatation for inpartum mother 4. RESEARCH QUESTIONS (Q-S-S) What is the effect of husband support on acceleration of cervix dilatation 1st stage of Labour for inpartum mother? 1. TOPIC F-I-N-E-R FRAMEWORK TITLE 6. EFFECT OF HUSBAND SUPPORT ON ACCELERATION OF CERVIX DILATATION FOR INPARTUM MOTHER “Prolonged 1st stage of labour

8 FACT _ WHY..... MALNUTRITION ? 1. SEARCHING OF RESEARCH PROBLEM ---- Phenomena 1. SEARCHING OF RESEARCH PROBLEM ---- Phenomena nursalam-MASALAH

9 WHY..... TRADITIONAL MEDICINE nursalam-MASALAH

10 WHY..... ENVIRONMENT nursalam-MASALAH

11 WHY..... HEALTH BEHAVIOR nursalam-MASALAH

12 DISASTER MANAGEMENT HOW? nursalam-MASALAH

13 13 STRESS nursalam-MASALAH

14 CONTOH..... PENGGALIAN MASALAH PENELITIAN KEP MATERNITAS KEPERAWATAN MATERNITAS Askep Ibu Prenatal Askep Ibu Intranatal Askep Ibu Postnatal Askep pada BBLR Askep Ibu Resiko Tinggi Kehamilan Askep dgn ggn reproduksi Anamnesa ibu hamil Pemeriksaan Kehamilan Senam Hamil Penyuluhan pada Ibu Hamil Leopold-I Askep pd Ibu Akseptor KB nursalam-MASALAH

15 Lanjutan KEPERAWATAN MATERNITAS Askep Ibu Prenatal Askep Ibu Intranatal Askep Ibu Postnatal Askep pada BBLR Askep Ibu Resiko Tinggi Kehamilan Askep dgn ggn reproduksi Askep pd Ibu Akseptor KB Pengkajian Kala-I Pengkajian Kala- II Pengkajian Kala- III Pengkajian Kala- IV Kemajuan buka cervix Perubahan Fisik Tanda Persalinan Perubahan Psikologis Perawatan Perdarahan Perawatan Plasenta Bounding Attachment Abs. Perdarahan Manajemen nyeri Persiapan persalinan Pimpinan persalinan Penghitungan skore Apgar nursalam-MASALAH

16 Lanjutan KEPERAWATAN MATERNITAS I Askep Ibu Prenatal Askep Ibu Intranatal Askep Ibu Postnatal Askep pada BBLR Askep Ibu Resiko Tinggi Kehamilan Askep dgn ggn reproduksi Askep pd Ibu Akseptor KB PengkajianintervensiImplementasiEvaluasi InvolutioLaktasiTanda VitalLuka perinium Breast careMobilisasiDiet Ibu menyusui Manajemen laktasi Diagnosa Higiene VulvaSenam kala nifas nursalam-MASALAH

17 POST PARTUM Involusi Uteri Senam nifas Pijat oxytocin ? ? Post Partum Blue stress Dukungan keulaurga ? Lain Produksi ASI ? ?? Luka perineum ? ? ? ? Merawat bayi ? ? ? ? SPIDER WEB PNC (POST NATAL CARE) nursalam-MASALAH

18 INPARTUM Power: Nutrisi Nutrition status Pregnant excercise ? ? Psychological stress Family support ? others Passanger ? ?? Passage ? ? ? ? Provider ? ? ? ? SPIDER WEB INPARTUM (1ST STAGE OF LABOUR ) nursalam-MASALAH

19 Central Theme Blood glucose DM Diabetic wound Treatment ? ? ? Incomplient of diet & treatment Ammount Type ? Schedule Stress / Give up ? ?? Blood glucose ? ? Activity : type (DM excercise, walking, etc) ? ? ? ? ? ? ? SPIDER WEB DIABETES MELLITUS nursalam-MASALAH

20 PATIENT SATISFACTION The Problems Scope of Wards Operating theater Over All Patients Effect on Patient GP. Not performed In appropriate accomodation Hospital don’t know what px-expect Patient Safety Research service not important Hospital Policy not research based Nurses don’t believe Research result Nurse don’t do research Nurse don’t do Properly Nobody takes any interest No case conference No name tag Nurse Poor Relationship with health team Never H.E-when Pt.discharge Poor Relationship With Community Service No response on complain No programme to visit Community Argument over finding Different trust SPIDER WEB TOPIC / PROBLEM: PATIENT SATISFACTION nursalam-MASALAH

21 2. WRITE CHAPTER LITERATURE REVIEW THEORITICAL REVIEW (USE OF NURSING THEORIES & OTHER RELEVANT THEORY) THEORITICAL MAPPING (RESEARCH ORIGINALITY)

22 nursalam-MASALAH KAJIAN MASALAH – REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Research should be built on the work of others The “Literature” is all the written sources relevant to your topic Primary source – Written by the person who originated, or is responsible for generating, the ideas published Secondary source – Summarizes or quotes content from primary sources – Paraphrase the works of primary authors Meta-analysis or systematic reviews Your work should mostly contain primary sources. Citations should be of primary sources not secondary sources Generally, try to keep cited references to within 5 years

23 nursalam-MASALAH

24

25 3. DEVELOP A A. FRAMEWORK (QUANTITATIVE) B. RESEARCH QUESTION (QUALITATIVE) 3. DEVELOP A A. FRAMEWORK (QUANTITATIVE) B. RESEARCH QUESTION (QUALITATIVE)

26 nursalam-MASALAH FRAMEWORK DEVELOPMENT 1. ROY: ADAPTATION MODEL 2. OREM: SELF CARE 3. CARING: WATSON & SWANSON 4. KINGS: OPEN SYSTEM MODEL 5. LEININGER: SUNRISE MODEL 6. etc.

27 What is the link between nursing theory and the research process? Theory provides direction for nursing research Relationships of components in a theory help to drive the research questions for understanding nursing Chinn and Kramer (2004), indicate a spiral relationship between the two nursalam-MASALAH

28 Nursing also utilizes non-nursing theories nursalam-MASALAH

29 MEMILIH TEORI & MEMBERIKAN RASIONAL Implementasi terdahulu dapat dijadikan sebagai masukan untuk menetapkan intervensi saat ini. Mengidentifikasi faktor-faktor yang dapat ditindaklanjuti untuk ditargetkan dalam intervensi. Mengidentifikasi hambatan yang terjadi serta fasilitas yang memadai. a. Menganalisis impelementasi sebelumnya nursalam-MASALAH

30 b. Mengkaji Beberapa Teori Mengkaji beberapa teori (keperawatan dan non keperawatan yang relevan) dan komponen utamanya yang mungkin sesuai dengan situasi yang dihadapi Mengidentifikasi faktor-faktor penentu yang mempengaruhi suatu perubahan perilaku atau pemberian intervensi dapat mempengaruhi hasil yang diinginkan nursalam-MASALAH

31 c. Kajian Literatur (Literature Review) What do you know from the literature about this change mechanism? What if any theories have been employed for this type of change? Consider the strength of this evidence What have others interested in this mechanism/strategy previously used? How well has this mechanism/strategy produced change? nursalam-MASALAH

32 1. COMFORT THEORY (Kolcaba) © Kolcaba (2007) Enhanced Comfort Health Care Needs Nursing Interventions Intervening Variables Health Seeking Behaviors Institutional Integrity Best Practices Best Policies Internal Behavior Peaceful Death External Behaviors nursalam-MASALAH

33 Self-care Self-care capabilities (self-care agency) Therapeutic self-care demand Nursing Agency (supportive Educative) R R R R R < FIG. OREM – SELF CARE DEFICIT 2. SELF CARE (OREM Deficit Conditioning factors nursalam-MASALAH

34 3.CARING The Structure of Caring The structure of caring as linked to the nurse’s philosophical attitude, informed understandings, message conveyed, therapeutic actions, and intended outcome. (from Swanson, K. M. [1993]. Nursing as informed caring for well-being of others. Image: The Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 25 [4], ) Philosoohical attitudes towards persons (in general) and the designated client (in specific) Informed understanding of the clinical condition (in general) and the situation and client (in specific) Message conveyed to client Maintaining belief Being with Knowing Doing for Enabling Therapeutic actions Intended outcome Client well- being ( ) nursalam-MASALAH

35 4. Human Interaction for Goal Attainment (King) NURSE PATIENT PERCEPTION ACTION JUDGMENT REAC TION INTERAC TION TRANSACTION PERCEPTION JUDGMENT ACTION FEEDBACK nursalam-MASALAH

36 TECHNOLOGIC AL FACTORS Religious and philosophical factors Kinship and social factors Cultural values and lifeways Political and legal factors Economic factors Educational factors Influences care patterns and expressions Health (well being) Diverse health systems Professional system Of Individuals, families, group and institutions Diverse health systems Nursing care decisions and actions cultural care preservation/ maintenance cultural care accommodation/ negotiation cultural care repatterning/ restructuring Culture congruent care Nursing 5. SUNRISE (LEININGER) nursalam-MASALAH

37 Father or intimate partner Mother d c b a Infant d c b a

38 Word of mouth Personal needs Past experience Expected service Perceived service Service Quality Dimensions: (RATER) Reliability Assurance Tangibles Empathy Responsiveness Service Quality Assessment 1. Expectations exceeded ESPS (Unacceptable quality) 7. SERVEQUAL PERCEIVED SERVICE QUALITY (Parasuraman) 7. SERVEQUAL PERCEIVED SERVICE QUALITY (Parasuraman) nursalam-MASALAH

39 Appraisal 8. MODEL OF PERCEIVED UNCERTAINTY IN ILLNESS Stimulati frame Symptom pattern Event familiarity Even congruency Model of perceived uncertainty in illness. (from Mishel, M. H. [1988, Winter]. Uncertainty in illnes. Image: The Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 20, 226) Structure providers Credible authority Social support Education Coping: buffering strategies Adaptation Coping: Mobilizing Strategies Affect- control strategies Interference Illusion Opportunity Danger Cognitive capacities (+) (-) Uncertainty nursalam-MASALAH

40 9. Lazarus & Folkman (1984) & MBI (1996) 9. Lazarus & Folkman (1984) & MBI (1996) nursalam-MASALAH

41 How do you expect to get from CURRENT EBP PRACTICE Where are you now? Where do you want to be? Potential Barriers to change? Possible facilitators to Change? =HOW to get to desired outcomes, EBP nursalam-MASALAH

42 5 Steps to EBP 1. Ask the burning clinical question 2. Collect the most relevant and best evidence 3. Critically appraise the evidence 4. Integrate all evidence with one’s clinical expertise, patient preferences, and values in making a practice decision or change 5. Evaluate the practice decision or change

43 nursalam-MASALAH Forming A Good Questions: EVIDENCE BASED - PICO P = Patient population or disease of interest (age, gender, ethnicity, with a certain disorder hepatitis) I = Intervention or range of interventions of interest (exposure to disease, prognostic factor A, risk behavior) C = Comparison, you want to compare the intervention against (no disease, placebo or no intervention, prognostic factor B, absence of risk factor) O = Outcome of interest (accuracy of diagnosis, rate of occurrence of adverse outcome) In (P) immobile acute care patients, what is the effect of (I) turning every 2 hours on (O) prevention of pressure ulcers compared with (C) not turning patients every 2 hours?

44 d. Memberikan Rasional pada Teori yang Dipilih DeterminanTeori/modelKomponen program intervensi Rasional Rasa nyamanTheory of Comfort (Kolcaba) Pengembangan nurse-led clinic untuk mengatasi nyeri neuropati Kolcaba menjelaskan kebutuhan pelayanan kesehatan sebagai suatu kebutuhan akan kenyamanan dengan menentukan desain tindakan comfort melaui nurse-led clinic diharapkan dapat meningkatkan kenyamanan pasien yang mengalami nyeri neuropati nursalam-MASALAH

45 Kemandirian pasien Self care deficit theory (Orem) Supportive-educative system: melatih teknik purse lips breathing pada pasien dengan PPOK Teori Orem menjelaskan tentang bagaimana seseorang dapat meningkatkan kemandirian seseorang dalam memenuhi kebutuhannya, dengan mengajarkan teknik purse lips breathing pasien dapat melakukan sendiri saat sesak untuk meningkatkan pernapasannya. Kemampuan adaptasi Adaptation model (Roy) Penggunaan polyethylene wrap pada BBLR Caring terhadap adaptasi pada pasien HIV Teori Roy menjelaskan upaya individu untuk dapat beradaptasi dengan situasi atau lingkungan sekitar. BBLR diupayakan untuk dapat beradapasi dengan suhu ruangan yang berbeda dengan ketika masih dalam kandungan. nursalam-MASALAH

46 Adaptation Model Person as adaptive system. (From Roy, C. [1984]. Introduction to nursing: An adaptation model [2 nd ed., p. 30]. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.) Feedback InputEffectorsOutput Control processes Stimuli Adaptation level Coping mechanisms  Regulator  Cognator Physiological function Self-concept Role function Interdependence Adaptive and ineffective response nursalam-MASALAH

47 STRESSOR (Enviromental stimuli –External) Role Function Sell-Concept Interdepen- dence Physiological Mode Behavior -Predisposing (Demographics) --Enabling --Reinforcing Treatment Regimen Severity of Deseast functional status psychological state Interpersonal Relations IMMUNE STATUS MODEL - ADAPTASI DARI ROY (Nursalam, 2007) Caring ? INDIVIDU Psychosocial RESP. PERCEPTION (COGNATOR) RESP. BIOLOGICAL nursalam-MASALAH

48 Psychosocial Functioning Quality of Life Physical Health HEALTH Psychosocial Moderators Coping Pattern s Person Factors Pre tx: Critical Factors Potential Co-Factors Neuro- Endocrine Mediator s Immunological Mediators Perceived Stress PNI nursalam-MASALAH

49 (Thorton & Andersen, 2006) PNI nursalam-MASALAH

50 Internal stimuli External stimuli Intact pathways and apparatus for Perceptual/ information processing Learning Judgeme nt Emotion Processes for Selective attention, coding, and memory Imitation, reinforcement, insight Defenses to seek relief, affective appraisal & attachement Psychomotor choice of response Effectors Response COGNATOR CARINGCARING Perceptio n Problem Solving & Decision Making PAKAR ADAPTIF nursalam-MASALAH

51 Internal stimuli Neural Chemical Intac Chemical Neural External stimuli Intact Pathways to & from CNS Spinal cord;brainstem and autonomic reflexes Responsiveness of endocrine glands Perception Effectors Hormonal output Short term memory Long term memory Responsiveness of target organs or tissues Automatic reflex response Body response Effectors Psychomotor choice of response Circulation REGULATOR nursalam-MASALAH

52 Biologis: IO, UP Sosial (interaksi) Nursalam (2007) Th-1 (CD4 ) Respons SpiritualRespons Sosial RESPONS PERSEPSI (KOGNISI) HOSTHOST CARING (PAKAR) Psikologis (coping) Respons Penerimaan diri Harapan Tabah Hikmah Emosi Cemas Interaksi Denial Anger Bargaining Depression-Acceptance Adrenal (Cortisol ) HPA-AXIS Th-2 (CD4 ) Sel Plasma Ab- HIV NK-cellCTL IFN-  KOPINGKOPING PENERAPAN TOERI ROY & PNI TERHADAP RESPON ADAPTASI BIOPSIKOSIOSPIRITUAL PADA PASIEN HIV AIDS RESPONS BIOLOGIS DabbaMcEnwee2001DabbaMcEnwee2001 IL2,IFN-  Spiritual (mengambil hikmah) nursalam-MASALAH

53 Counseling for patient with Stress – pre op Learning process (cognator) Cognition - Emotion Pituitary (ACTH) - endorphin Stress Hypotalamus (CRF) Adrenal Cortex (Cortisol ) IMMUNE RESPONSE MODULATION (CD 4 ; cytokin; IgG) Perception (+) Coping (+) Adrenal medulla (Catecolamines FRAMEWORK (p.403– ADAPTATION & PNI) HPAHPA AXIS ADAPTATIONADAPTATION Vital signs (T, P, R, PB)

54 Pencapaian peran ibu Becoming a Mother (Mercer) Mengajarkan teknik kangaroo mother care Teori Mercer sebagai acuan untuk mencapai peran seorang ibu dapat digunakan untuk mendasari KMC dalam upaya mendekatkan ikatan antara ibu dan bayi serta melatih ibu untuk merawat bayinya dengan penuh kasih sayang Interaksi sosial Interpersonal relation (Peplau) Intervensi cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) pada pasien menarik diri Teori peplau menjelaskan tentang kemampuan dalam memahami diri sendiri dan orang lain sehingga tepat untuk mengatasi masalah keperawatan menarik melalui fase orientasi, fase identifikasi, fase resolusi, fase eksplorasi yang sesuai dengan dengan tahapan CBT yaitu tahap orientasi, tahap kerja, dan tahap terminasi nursalam-MASALAH

55 Holistic Care Caring (Swanson) Penerapan caring dalam meningktkan mutu dan keselamatan pasien Teori ini menekankan peran caring dalam meningkatkan pelayanan berfokus pada pasien (kepuasan) dan mencegah terjadinnya adverse event (dekubitus, medication error, plebitis, pneumonia, infeksi daerah operasi, dan jatuh). nursalam-MASALAH

56 e. Identifikasi kesenjangan Memetakan keadaan pasien saat ini dan memetakan teori secara ideal Mengidentifikasi adanya kesenjangan yang terjadi antara keadaan pasien dengan teori. Menganalisis apa yang perlu dilakukan untuk mengatasi kesenjangan tersebut. nursalam-MASALAH

57 4. WRITE AIM AND OBJECTIVES

58 nursalam-MASALAH RUMUS TUJUAN BLOOM + Tuj. Penlitian + (V – V) (C2-C6) DESKRIPSI PERBEDAAN HUBUNGAN PENGARUH SEBAB-AKIBAT Menjelaskan Menganalisis Mengidentifikasi Mempelajari Mengukur dll

59 nursalam-MASALAH TUJUAN (adaptasi & PNI) - konseling Khusus 1. Menjelaskan pengaruh konseling terhadap coping pasien 2. Menjelaskan pengaruh konseling terhadap penurunan respons stres 3. Menjelaskan pengaruh konseling terhadap penurunan tanda tanda vital 4. Menjelaskan pengaruh penerapan caring terhadap modulasi respons imun (cortisol,CD4; cytokin; Ig) Umum: Menjelaskan pengaruh konseling terhadap penurunan TTV dan modulasi respons imun pada pasien pre Operasi

60 nursalam-MASALAH TUJUAN PENELITIAN (UMUM & KHUSUS) TUJUAN UMUM Menjelaskan (Bloom) pengaruh (tujuan) penyuluhan (v.i) terhadap perubahan perilaku ibu untuk datang ke Posyandu (v.d) …. TUJUAN KHUSUS 1.Menganalisis pengaruh penyuluhan terhadap pengetahuan ibu 2. Menganalisis pengaruh penyuluhan terhadap sikap ibu setelah mendapatkan penyuluhan 3. Menganalisis pengaruh penyuluhan terhadap rutinitas datang ke Posyandu

61 nursalam-MASALAH CONTOH JUDUL Menjelaskan (dihilangkan) PENGARUH PENYULUHAN TERHADAP PERUBAHAN PERILAKU IBU DATANG KE POSYANDU Atau PENYULUHAN KES DALAM PERUBAHAN PERILAKU IBU DATANG KE POSYANDU

62 nursalam-MASALAH 5. JUDUL / TOPIK PENELITIAN 1.SINGKAT DAN JELAS 2.TIDAK MELEBIHI 12 KATA 3.TERGAMBAR TUJUAN DAN VARIABEL PENELITIAN (DESAIN, SAMPEL, TEMPAT)

63 nursalam-MASALAH TITLE TO EXPLAIN (TAKE OUT) EFFECT OF PRE OP COUNSELING IN NURSING CARE ON REDUCING STRESS RESPONSE, VITAL SIGNS AND IMMUNE RESPONSE MODULATION FOR PATIENT WITH PRE OP OR PRE OP COUNSELING IN NURSING CARE ON REDUCING STRESS RESPONSE, VITAL SIGNS, AND IMMUNE RESPONSE MODULATION FOR PATIENT WITH PRE OP Oleh: Nursalam NIM D Oleh: Nursalam NIM D

64 nursalam-MASALAH MANFAAT PENELITIAN Manfaat teoritis penyuluhan sebagai stimulus dalam proses pembelajaran dalam merubah kognisi seseorang berdasarkan konsep Adaptasi (Roy) dan PNI (Ader) Manfaat praktis Merubah perilaku pasien secara positif untuk datang ke POSYANDU dalam mencegah sakit pada anak BALITA.

65 nursalam-MASALAH 6. WRITE CHAPTER 1 (INTRODUCTION) 6. WRITE CHAPTER 1 (INTRODUCTION) 1.1 BACKGROUND (MSKS / MKSS) 1.2 SEARCHING RESEARCH PROBLEM 1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 1.4 AIM AND OBJECTIVE (BASED ON FRAMEWORK) 1.5 BENEFIT

66 nursalam-MASALAH CHAPTER 1,2,3: ALREADY BAB 1 S/D BAB 3 SUDAH TERJAWAB CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1. Background (MSKS / MKSS) Paragraph 1: problems (F1 & F2) Paragraph 2: scale of the problems Paragraph 3: chronological Paragraph 4: Solution 2. Research questions 3. Aim and objectives 4. Benefit (theoretically & Practice) CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW CHAPTER 3: FRAMEWORK AND HYPOTHESIS CHAPTER 4: RESEACH METHODS

67 nursalam-MASALAH 7. WRITE CHAPTER 4 ( RESEARCH METHODS) 7. WRITE CHAPTER 4 ( RESEARCH METHODS) D –DESIGN (non experiment & experiment) S – SAMPLE (POPULATION, SAMPLING, SAMPLE SIZE) V – VARIABLE (independent, dependent, ) I – INSTRUMENT (Observation, questionnaire, scale, in vivo – vitro, in depth interview) A – ANALYSIS (T-S-S-V)

68 nursalam-MASALAH 8. MEMULAI RISET (pengumpulan data dst) 8. MEMULAI RISET (pengumpulan data dst)

69 nursalam-MASALAH 9. MENULIS HASIL DAN MEMASUKAN KE JURNAL 9. MENULIS HASIL DAN MEMASUKAN KE JURNAL

70 nursalam-MASALAH

71 BAGAIMANA PENULISAN NASKAH dlm JURNAL YG BAIK ? Suhadi Ibnu (2013) nursalam-MASALAH

72 Jurnal Publikasi (berkala) ilmiah yang memuat informasi tentang kegiatan dan hasil kegiatan bidang IPTEKS tertentu Berfungsi mengkomunikasikan aktivitas dan hasil pengembangan IPTEKS Sarana komunikasi ilmiah antara pihak-pihak yang terlibat di bidang IPTEKS yang sama/sejenis nursalam-MASALAH

73 Ciri-ciri Artikel dalam Jurnal Ilmiah Mempunyai bentuk, struktur, dan isi dengan sifat tertentu Penulisannya mengikuti kaidah, pola, dan teknik tertentu Kaidah, pola, dan teknik penulisan (mungkin) dipengaruhi gaya selingkung yang ditetapkan Dewan Penyunting. nursalam-MASALAH

74 Sifat Artikel Ilmiah  Objektif  Rasional  Kritis  Pembaharu dan up-to-date nursalam-MASALAH

75 Muatan Jurnal (Menurut Peraturan Dirjen Dikti No.49/DIKTI/Kep/2011 Artikel Utama Artikel Hasil Penelitian Artikel Telaah Review Buku Baru Case Report Obituari nursalam-MASALAH

76 Contoh: ARTIKEL HASIL PENELITIAN 1. Judul 2. Nama Penulis 3. Abstrak dan Kata kunci 4. Bagian Pendahuluan 5. Bahan dan Metode 6. Hasil dan Pembahasan 7. Simpulan dan Saran 8. Daftar Rujukan (5 thn terakhir) KUANTITATIF nursalam-MASALAH

77 Judul Nama penulis Abstrak Pendahuluan Metode (fenomenologi, grounded theory, etnografi, study kasus, biografi) Hasil dan Pembahasan Simpulan dan Saran Daftar Pustaka KUALITATIF nursalam-MASALAH

78 Format Artikel Penelitian (Cout: MGW) JUDUL Penulis bstrak: ata kunci: Pendahuluan (tanpa sub judul) BAHAN & METODE HASIL BAHASAN SIMPULAN DAN SARAN DAFTAR RUJUKAN nursalam-MASALAH

79 1. JUDUL 1.SINGKAT DAN JELAS 2.TIDAK MELEBIHI 10 (Inggris) - 12 KATA (Indonesia) 3.TERGAMBAR TUJUAN DAN VARIABEL PENELITIAN (DESAIN, SAMPEL, TEMPAT) Model Asuhan keperawatan terhadap respons kognisi dan biologis pada penderita HIV AIDS (jurnal Ners, vol. 6 no Prediktor beban merawat dan tingkat depresi pada caregiver dlm merawat Lansia dgn dimensia di masyarakat. (jurnal ners, vol. 8 no Contoh :

80 2. Abstrak dan Kata Kunci: I-M-R-A-D I: Masalah dan/atau tujuan penelitian M: Metode/pendekatan R-A:Hasil penelitian D: Discussion & Conclusion Dua versi: B. Indonesia dan Inggris nursalam-MASALAH

81 Contoh: ABSTRACT (by Nursalam, Kadek, Mishabatul, Effendy) – JNEP (2014) SLEEP HYGIENE BEHAVIOR AMONG BALINESE ADOLESCENT Introduction: Sleep hygiene is very important for predicting the quality and quantity of sleep in adolescent students. Studies in recent yearsshowed thenumber ofadolescentswhoget sleep disturbancesdue topoor sleepbehaviorincreased by 72,9%, however only a few study explored the sleep hygiene behaviour particularly from developing country setting. The purpose of this study was to know sleep hygiene in adolescent students in Bali. Method: Design used in this study was descriptive analytic with cross-sectional approach. The population was all students of class X and XI in PGRI Negara High School. Total sample was 46 respondents. Data were collected by using questionnaires modification Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale (ASHS) and it was analyzed by using multiple linear regression test with level of significance <0,05. Result: The result showed that sleep hygiene for adolescents Balinese in terms of most of the physiological aspect of sleep hygiene behaviors to have enough category(50,00%). Reviewed from the cognitive aspect showed on less category(71,74%). Most have sleephygiene behavior with good category(41,32%) on the emotional aspect. The sleep environment aspect showed on lessc ategory(45,65%). The daytime sleep aspect, most have sleep hygiene behavior with enough category(50,00%) and the sleep stability aspect on less category(43,48%). Discussion and conclusion: It can be concluded that most of Balinese adolescents has sleep hygiene with less to moderate category. Further studies should be done related intervention to improve sleep quality. Keywords : sleep hygiene, Balinese, adolescent nursalam-MASALAH

82 3. Bagian Pendahuluan (MKSS) Berisi: Masalah penelitian Kronologis Skala masalah Solusi (usulan peme cahan) Tujuan nursalam-MASALAH

83 4. BAHAN DAN METODE PENELITIAN: D-S-V-I-A Desain Populasi, sampel, sampel size, sampling Variabel Instruments & bahan Analysis Etchical clearance??? – wajib utk Jurnal International (Untuk penelitian kualitatif: Mengikuti kaidah penelitian kualitatif) nursalam-MASALAH

84 5. HASIL (WHAT) & PEMBAHASAN NOITEMPENJELASAN Bagian Deskriptif (Isi) Kalimat Pengantar Gambaran Lokasi Penelitian Data Umum: Penyajian karakteristik pasien yg diteliti (tidak ditampilkan) Data Khusus: Penyajian variabel yg diteliti secara rinci(tabel, gambar dll) Setiap Tabel / gambar harus dijelaskan di bawahnya, meliputi: 1) Amati data yg ada 2) Hubungan pokok yg akan diuji 3) Mencari angka-angka yg menyimpang 4) Tulis hasil uji statistik nursalam-MASALAH

85 PEMBAHASAN PERLU PENJABARAN PERTANYAAN “WHY & HOW” 1.Isi: F-T-O : Fakta (hasil penelitian); Teori; dan Opini (pendapat peneliti) 2.Menganalisa makna penemuan penelitian (hasil dihubungkan dgn. pertanyaan penelitian: membandingkan dgn. temuan sebelumnya (apakah memperkuat; berlawanan; atau sama sekali baru) 3.Setiap pertanyaan dijelaskan (didukung dgn. referensi yg memadai) 4.Menghubungkan dgn ilmu – teori yg ada; fakta di lapangan 5.Perlu dituliskan hasil temuan dan keterbatasan 6.Penulisan secara wajar (tidak berlebihan) menuliskan makna hasil penelitian nursalam-MASALAH

86 6. SIMPULAN DAN SARAN Isi kesimpulan: 1) Menjawab masalah atau tujuan (khusus) penelitian / membuktikan hipotesis 2) Didasarkan pada hasil dan pembahasan 3) Memberikan makna dari temuan 4) Menggunakan bahasa yang jelas dan singkat 5) Meminimalkan / meniadakan hasil-hasil angka statistik Saran harus operasional dan dapat diterapkan Dituliskan berdasarkan kesimpulan yang masih belum sesuai dengan tujuan penelitian ataupun adanya kesenjangan dengan fakta dan standar Ditujukan untuk kepentingan masayarakat (konsumen) dan perkembangan ilmu pengetahuan (i.e. perlu dilakukan penelitian lebih lanjut) S A R A N nursalam-MASALAH

87 1. Tergantung pada kinerja pengelola berkala 2. Keseriusan penulis artikel dlm mendukung pengelola berkala agar dapat terakreditasi dengan mengikuti aturan penulisan/gaya selingkung berkala ilmiah 3. Harus ada kerjasama yang baik antara penulis dan penerbit/pengelola berkala 4. Substansi artikel yang berkualitas 5. Meminamilisasi penghambat penerbitan (biaya, tidak adanya artikel yang bermutu dan layak untuk diterbitkan) SIMPULAN KIAT-KIAT KEBERHASILAN nursalam-MASALAH

88 “You don’t have to be great to get started, but you have to get started to be great” Les Brown


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