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Nuristighfari Masri Khaerani.,M.Psi.,Psi Kamis, 29 September 2011 Program Studi Psikologi Fishum UIN Sunan Kalijaga Yogyakarta.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Nuristighfari Masri Khaerani.,M.Psi.,Psi Kamis, 29 September 2011 Program Studi Psikologi Fishum UIN Sunan Kalijaga Yogyakarta."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Nuristighfari Masri Khaerani.,M.Psi.,Psi Kamis, 29 September 2011 Program Studi Psikologi Fishum UIN Sunan Kalijaga Yogyakarta

2 Scientific Principles in Psychology

3 A. Sikap Ilmiah B. Pengumpulan Bukti : Tahapan dalam Proses Ilmiah C. Dua Pendekatan dalam Memahami Perilaku D. Membuat Definisi dan Mengukur Variabel-variabel

4 a. Curiosity: why b. Skepticism: show me your evidence c. open-mindedness: conclusions are supported by fatcs

5 1. Observasi awal/ pertanyaan: (why) 2. Mengumpulkan Informasi dan Membangun Hipotesis: Menguji apakah terdapat studi, teori, & informasi lain yg dapat membantu menjawab pertanyaan  formulasi penjelasan sementara 3. Menguji Hipotesis: melalui riset 4. Analisis Data dan Membuat Kesimpulan Sementara:

6 5. Melaporkan Hasil Temuan kepada Komunitas Ilmuwan: jurnal, konferensi, buku 6. Riset Lanjut dan Membangun Teori a theory: is a set of formal statements that explains how and why certain events are related to one another 7. Hipotesis Baru, berdasar teori: menggunakan teori untuk mengembangkan hipotesis baru

7 1. Hindsight (After The Fact Understanding)  Metode yg paling umum digunakan untuk memahami perilaku  Kelemahan: peristiwa lalu seringkali dapat dijelaskan dalam banyak cara & tidak ada cara pasti untuk mengetahui penjelasan mana (apabila ada) yang tepat

8 2. Understanding through Prediction, Control, and Theory Building  Understanding: “what cause what”, pemahaman  prediksi dan kontrol perilaku Theory Building is the strongest test of scientific understanding

9 Karakteristik Teori yang Baik  Menggabungkan pengetahuan dalam kerangka yang luas; mengorganisasi informasi sehingga menjadi bermakna  Mampu uji, menggeneralisasikan dugaan baru dimana akurasinya dapat dievaluasi dengan cara mengumpulkan bukti-bukti baru  Prediksi yang berdasar teori didukung penemuan- penemuan riset baru  law of parsimony : jika dua teori sama-sama dapat menjelaskan dan memprediksi fenomena dengan sama baiknya, teori yang paling sederhana-lah yang dipakai

10 Variabel: karakter, sifat, faktor, aspek Contoh? Definisi operasional variabel? Specific procedures used to produce or measure it Menerjemahkan konsep abstrak ke dalam konsep yang observable dan measurable

11 1. Self Reports & Reports by Others Data dpt diperoleh : wawancara, questionaire, dll akurasi diperoleh : kemampuan & kemauan untuk merespon secara jujur social desirability bias : tendency to respond in a socially acceptable manner Reports by Other : orangtua, sahabat, guru researchers  try to maximize participants honesty in reporting other people

12 2. Observations of Behavior unobtrusive measures : record behavior in a way that keep participants unaware that they are being observed 3. Psychological Test esensi: sebagian besar self-reports personality test : present a series of ambiguous stimuly performance test : ex. Tes IQ 4.Physiological Measurement heart rate, blood pressure, dll

13 Ethical Principles in Research

14 a.Beneficience seeking to benefit other people b. Responsibility professional with utmost care c.Integrity being honest & accurate d.Justice semua pihak mendapat keuntungan e. Respect menghargai hak & martabat

15 1. Freedom from coercion peneliti tdk boleh ‘memaksa’ calon peserta utk mengikuti penelitian. (Ex : memaksa mhs utk ikut penelitian sbg ‘syarat’ dr universitas) 2. Informed consent gambaran utuh penelitian : tujuan & prosedur penelitian, keuntungan, risiko, berhak berubah pikiran dan menarik diri dr penelitian tanpa ‘hukuman’, jaminan terhadap privacy 3. Debriefing subjek berhak mengetahui hasil penelitian

16 Animals are subjects in perhaps 7 – 8% of Psychological Studies (APA’s CARE, 2005)  Animals be treated humanely & the potential importance of the risks to which they are exposed  Animal research is still debated both outside & within the psychological community  Before animal research can be conducted, it must be reviewed and approved by ethics review boards that include nonscientist

17 Methods of Research

18 Definition: seeks to identify how humans and other animals behave, particularly in natural setting  Case studies is an in-depth analysis of an individual, group, or event kelebihan: kasus jarang, may challenge the validity of a theory, can be a vibrant source of new ideas that may subsequently be examined using other research methods kelemahan: poor method for determining cause-effect relations, generalisasi, objektifitas data & interpretasi

19  Naturalistic Observation the researches observes behavior as it occurs in natural setting uses extensively to study animal behavior Contoh pada setting manusia?

20  Survey Research information about a topic is obtained by administering questionaires or interviews to many people kunci utama: a. populasi: all the individual that we are interested in drawing a conclusion about b. sampel: which is a subset of individuals draws from the larger population representative sample is one that reflects the important characteristics of the population

21 a research method that measures the strength of the relation between variables Komponen  Measure one variable (X) in a quantitative - mesure each variable  Measure a second variable (Y) in numerical unit  Statistically determines whether X and Y are related

22 Correlation and Causation a. Correlation research does not allow us to draw such a conclusion The direction of causality could be just the opposite In correlational research, you must consider the possibility that variable X has caused variable Y, that X caused Y or that both variables have influenced each other (bidirectionality problem)

23 b. The association may be artificial (spurious-not genuine)  although X ; Y statistically related, it may be that neither variable has any causal effect on the other we cannot draw causal conclusions from correlational data  this in the major disadvantage of correlational research

24 The Correlation Coefficient The numerical expression of the strength of a relationship between two variables Positive correlation : the higher scores on one variable are associated with higher scores on a second variable Negative correlation : occurs when higher scores on one variable are associated with lower scores on a second variable

25 Benefit:  Help establish whether relation found in the laboratory generalize to the outside world  Can be conducted before experiments to discover association that can the be studied under controlled laboratory conditions  For practical or ethical reason, some questions cannot be studied with experiments but can be examined correlationall  Correlational data allow us to make predictions

26 Experiments are powerfull tool for examining cause- and effect relations Three essential characteristics: 1. The researcher manipulates one or more variables 2. The researcher measures whether this manipulation influences other variables 3. The researchers attempts to control extraneous factors that might influence the outcome of the experiment

27 The logic behind this approach is straight-forward  Start out with equivalent groups of participants  Treat them equally in all respects except for the variable that is of particular interest  Isolate this variable and manipulate it  Measure how the groups respond If this groups respond differently, then the most likely explanation is that these differences were causes by the manipulated variable

28 Independent variable : the factor that is manipulated by the experimenter Dependent variable : the factor that is measured by the experimenter and may be influenced by the independent variable

29 Experimental & Control Groups Experimental Groups : the group that receives a treatment or an active level of the independent variable A control group : is not exposed to the treatment or receives a zero-level of the independent variable

30 Two Basic Ways to Design an Experiment Random assignment : a procedure in which each participant has an equal likelihood of being assigned to anyone group within an experiment Counterbalancing : a procedure in which the order of conditions is varied so that no condition has an overall advantage relative to the others

31 Threats to The Validity of Research

32 Internal Validity : represents the degree to which an experiment supports clear causal conclusions  Confounding of variables two variables are intertwined in such a way that we cannot determine which one has influenced a dependent variable  Demand Characteristic are cues that participants pick up about the hypothesis of a study or about how they are supposed to behave

33  Placebo Effect people receiving a treatment show a change in behavior because of their expectations, not because the treatment it self had any spesific benefit  Experimenter Expectancy Effect the subtle and enintentional ways researchers influence their participants to respond in a manner that is consistent with the researcher’s hypothesis the double-blind procedure, in which both participant and experimenter are kept blind as to which experimental condition the participant is in

34  Replicating and Generalizing the Findings External Validity: the degree to which the result of a study can be generalized to the other populations, settings, and conditions. Replications: is the procees of repeating a study to determine whether the original findings can be duplicated

35 Analyzing and Interpreting Data

36 Descriptive Statistic: allow us to and describe the characteristics of a set summarize (or distribution) of data Type: 1. Measure of Central Tendency mode: is the most frequently occuring score in a distribution median: the point that divides a distribution of scores in half when those scores are arranged in order from lowest to highes mean: is the arithmatic average of a set of scores

37 2. Measures of Variability capture the degree of variation, or spread, in a distribution of scores range: the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution standard deviation: takes into account how much each score in a distribution differs from the mean

38 Inferentia Statistics : tell us how likely it is that our findings are merely a chance occurrence Statistical significance: means that it is very unlikely that a particular finding occurred by chance alone

39 Meta-analysis: a statictical procedure for combining the results of different studies that examine the same topic researches must decide which studies to include and describe their common limitations many researchers consider meta-analysis to be the most objective way to integrate the findings of multiple studies and reach overall conclusions about behavior

40 1. Buat Judul Penelitian 2. Tentukan variabel dependent & independent 3. Tentukan metodologi yang digunakan


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