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PROGRAM PASCASARJANA UNIVERSITAS BRAWIJAYA PENELITIAN INTERDISIPLIN BAHAN KAJIAN MK. Metode Penelitian Interdisiplin dalam Kajian Lingkungan Diabstraksikan.

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Presentasi berjudul: "PROGRAM PASCASARJANA UNIVERSITAS BRAWIJAYA PENELITIAN INTERDISIPLIN BAHAN KAJIAN MK. Metode Penelitian Interdisiplin dalam Kajian Lingkungan Diabstraksikan."— Transcript presentasi:

1 PROGRAM PASCASARJANA UNIVERSITAS BRAWIJAYA PENELITIAN INTERDISIPLIN BAHAN KAJIAN MK. Metode Penelitian Interdisiplin dalam Kajian Lingkungan Diabstraksikan oleh: smno.pdklp.ppsub.mart. 2014

2 INTERDISCIPLINARY ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES GRADUATE SCHOOL UNIVERSITY OF BRAWIJAYA 2014

3 KOMPETENSI UTAMA LULUSAN 1.Kemampuan menganalisis secara sistemik permasalahan riil pembangunan, sumberdaya alam dan lingkungan hidup 2.Kemampuan mensintesis secara konseptual komprehensif untuk menjawab permasalahan realita pembangunan, sumberdaya alam dan lingkungan hidup 3.Kemampuan mendisain program kajian ilmiah untuk menjawab permasalahan realita pembangunan, sumberdaya alam dan lingkungan 4.Kemampuan menyusun skenario implementasi hasil-hasil kajian ilmiah ke dalam proses formulasi kebijakan publik dan penerapannya dalam pembangunan 5.Kemampuan melaksanakan kajian-kajian ilmiah secara efektif untuk ikut menjawab permasalahan realita pembangunan, sumberdaya alam dan lingkungan

4 KOMPETENSI PENDUKUNG LULUSAN 1.Kemampuan menyusun pendekatan ilmiah interdisiplin dan sistemik dalam menganalisis problematik realita pembangunan Sumberdaya Alam dan Lingkungan (SDAL) 2.Kemampuan mengimplementasikan dan menerapkan Metode dan Teknik multi-obyektif dan multidimensional dalam analisis masalah pembangunan yang bersifat multi-goals 3.Mampu memahami sistem informasi dan implementasinya dalam proses pengambilan keputusan pembangunan SDAL 4.Mampu menguasai metode penelitian dan implementasinya dalam kajian-kajian ilmiah yang relevan dengan pembangunan SDAL 5.Kemampuan mengkomunikasikan hasil-hasil kajian ilmiah kepada khalayak dan komunitas pembangunan

5 Masalah Lingkungan & Pembangunan : Bio-fisik Sosial-EKonomi EKOLOGI-LINGKUNGAN METODE RISET INTERDISIPLIN Ilmu-Ilmu Sosial-Ekonomi MKP1MKP2MKP3 RISET TERAPAN MKPSDAL1MKPSDAL2 SOLUSI MASALAH EKOLOGI EKONOMI SOSIAL PEMBELAJARAN KAJIAN SUMBERDAYA LINGKUNGAN & PEMBANGUNAN

6 PENELITIAN INTERDISIPLIN DALAM PSDAL Interdisciplinary research (IDR) adalah “mode of research” yang mengintegrasikan informasi, data, techniques, tools, perspectives, concepts, dan / atau theories dari dua atau lebih disiplin ilmu untuk “to solve problems” yang solusinya berada di luar lingkup suatu disiplin ilmu. Contoh Jurnal Internasional: 1.IJMRA: International Journal of Mixed Research Approach 2.JESS: Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences 3.JIER: Journal Interdisciplinary Environmental Review 4.JIES: Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences 5.JERAD: Journal of Environmental Research And Development 6.Dll.

7 In a mixed model research, quantitative and qualitative approaches are mixed across at least two of the stages of research.

8 KAJIAN INTERDISIPLIN Pembangunan berkelanjutan tidak dapat terwujud hanya dnegan pembangunan ekonomi, tetapi juga diperlukan lingkungan yang baik, kualitas pendidikan yang bagus, dan keadilan manfaat pembangunan bagi semua warna negara. Banyak permasalahan dalam pembangunan- masyarakat yang tidak dapat diselesaikan secara teknis saja, tetapi juga memerlukan pemahaman yang mendalam dan pertimbangan-pertimbangan “humanity, society and nature”.

9 RISET INTERDISIPLIN Interdisciplinary research (IDR) adalah suatu mode riset oleh tim atau individual yang mengintegrasikan informasi, data, techniques, tools, perspektif, konsep, dan /atau theori, dari dua atau lebih disiplin atau bodies of specialized knowledge, untuk mengembangkan pemahaman yang mendasar atau menyelesaikan masalah yang “penyelesaiannya” di luar lingkup suatu disiplin ilmu.

10 Karakteristik IDR yang baik: 1.flexibility, adaptability, creativity 2.curiosity about, and willingness to learn from, other disciplines 3.an open mind to ideas coming from other disciplines and experiences 4.good communication and listening skills 5.an ability to bridge the gap between theory and practice 6.a good team worker : Kesatuan antara mahasiswa pembimbing dan penguji

11 Multi-metodologi Multimetodologi = mixed methods research, adalah suatu pendekatan penelitian yang mengkombinasikan metode pengumpulan dan analisis data kuantitatif dan kualitatif. Istilah 'multimethodology' lebih banyak digunakan dalam “operations research”. Pendekatan ini menjadi populer semenjak tahun 1980-an

12 Mixed-Method Research (MMR) Mengkombinasikan metode-metode kuantitatif dan kualitatif menjadi suatu idea yang bagus. Menggunakan pendekatan multiple ini dapat memperkuat keunggulan masing-masing pendekatan dan mengatasi kelemahannya masing-masing. Pendekatan ini juga dapat menyediakan jawaban yang lebih komprehensif terhadap “research questions”, menerobos keterbatasan suatu pendekatan tunggal.

13 Multi-Method Studies (MMS) Multi-method studies menggunakan berbagai metode pengumpulan data dan analisis data di dalam suatu “single research paradigm”. Misalnya, anda melakukan penelitian kualitatif, dimana anda melakukan observasi sebagai seorang partisipan, dan anda juga melakukan wawancara dengan orang-orang. Atau dalam penelitian kuantitatif anda melakukan survei perilaku siswa, dan anda juga mengumpulkan informasi dari catatan komputer tentang frequensi ‘hits’ dalam penggunaan bahan ajar berbasis web. Dengan kata lain, anda menggunakan metode-metode yang secara luas-kompatibel di dalam suatu paradigm (atau a set of beliefs and values).

14 Proposal penelitian interdisiplin yang baik Specify clearly why an interdisciplinary approach is needed, which type of interdisciplinary approach is envisaged and which disciplines should be involved. Describe how the disciplines involved will be integrated and how this relates to the type of interdisciplinarity involved; demonstrate how the quality of integration will be assured Summarise the interdisciplinary skills of the researchers involved Describe how interdisciplinarity will be reflected in the research questions, research objectives, outputs and outcomes.

15 Bagaimana Eutrofikasi mempengaruhi biomasa dan komposisi spesies algae sistem perairan tawar dan pantai Response of algal biomass to nitrogen and phosphorus availability in aquatic ecosystem. The species composition of algal communities inhabiting the water column to respond to nutrient loading. Coastal marine ecosystems will respond positively to nutrient loading control efforts. Ekosistem Akuatik Dinamika Populasi. BIOLOGI PERAIRAN Eutrophication of freshwater and coastal marine ecosystems a global problem. Val H Smith. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2003, Volume 10, Number 2, Pages

16 To analyze the groundwater quality of Imphal West district, Manipur, India, and assess its suitability for drinking, domestic, and agricultural use. Model analisis multivariate (PCA) sangat bermanfaat Kontaminasi As dan Konsentrasi Na tinggi menjadi kendala bagi pemanfaatannya Dampak kesehatan manusia tidak nyata. Statistik multivariate Dampak kesehatan masyarakat KUALITAS AIR Groundwater quality in Imphal West district, Manipur, India, with multivariate statistical analysis of data Elangbam J. K. Singh, Abhik Gupta and N. R. Singh. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2012

17 Forest is considered as one of the most important and most attractive recreation resources in nature which is the destination of most of the nature tourists. Perencanaan Wanawisata lestari? The 7 forest areas with total area of 6.3 ha are suitable for intensive outdoor recreation and remaining areas of this region (2476 ha) could be used for extensive outdoor recreation. Sumber air menjadi faktor pembatas penghembangan wanawisata. Pengelolaan Hutan Lestari Valuasi Ekologi- Ekonomi Valuasi Wanawisata Ecological Based Planning of Forest Outdoor Recreation Case Study: Traditional Span of Mandj in Lordegan Forests-Iran Beytollah Mahmoudi, Naghmeh Sharifi, Rahim Maleknia, Reza Ahmadeian and Amin Haghsetan Res. Jour. of Environmental and Earth Sciences Vol. 4, (7):

18 Evaluation of an interdisciplinary, experiential service-learning project that combined environmental studies and marketing. Students in environmental studies were able to identify and apply ways in which marketing tools can be employed to promote social causes and effect positive environmental behavioral change. Marketing students applied marketing concepts to a real-life situation, while gaining a greater awareness of environmental issues and the role of businesses in environmental stewardship. Environmental Services valuation Perilaku Konsumen Green Marketing Integrating Marketing and Environmental Studies Through an Interdisciplinary, Experiential, Service-Learning Approach Nila M. Wiese, and Daniel J. Sherman. Journal of Marketing Education April 2011 vol. 33 no

19 The use of food crops such as corn grain to produce ethanol raises major nutritional and ethical concerns. Using food grains to produce biofuels is already causing food shortages for the poor of the world. Growing crops for biofuel not only ignores the need to reduce fossil energy and land use, but exacerbates the problem of malnourishment worldwide. Agroteknologi tanaman serealia. Ekonomi Pangan dan Ekonomi Energi. Ekonomi Sumberdaya Food Versus Biofuels: Environmental and Economic Costs David Pimentel, Alison Marklein, Megan A. Toth, Marissa N. Karpoff and Gillian S. Paul. Human Ecology. Volume 37, Number 1 / February p.1-12

20 Pola-pola akumulasi kesejahteraan dan pengaruhnya terhadap deforestasi hutan oleh smallholder The main factors explaining the relationship between the farming systems and deforestation were: 1.years of residence on the lot, 2.distance of the lot to main market and 3.the amount of day labor hired. Ekonomi RUMAHTANGGA Pengelolaan Hutan PERHUTANAN SOSIAL Smallholder Livelihoods, Wealth and Deforestation in the Eastern Amazon. Pablo Pacheco. Human Ecology. Volume 37, Number 1 / February p Volume 37

21 Urbanization can increase or decrease species richness, depending on several variables. Some of these variables include: taxonomic group, spatial scale of analysis, and intensity of urbanization. Species richness tends to be reduced in areas with extreme urbanization (i.e., central urban core areas). Biodiversitas Urbanisasi. EKOSISTEM PERKOTAAN Effects of urbanization on species richness: A review of plants and animals Michael L. McKinney. Urban Ecosyst (2008) 11:161–176

22 Abstract Phosphorus (P) in rivers in the Mississippi River basin (MRB) contributes to hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico and impairs local water quality. We analyzed the spatial pattern of P in the MRB to determine the counties with the greatest January to June P riverine yields and the most critical factors related to this P loss. Using a database of P inputs and landscape characteristics from 1997 through 2006 for each county in the MRB, we created regression models relating riverine total P (TP), dissolved reactive P (DRP), and particulate P (PP) yields for watersheds within the MRB to these factors. Riverine yields of P were estimated from the average concentration of each form of P during January to June for the 10-yr period, multiplied by the average daily flow, and then summed for the 6-mo period. The fraction of land planted in crops, human consumption of P, and precipitation were found to best predict TP yields with a spatial error regression model (R 2 = 0.48, n = 101). Dissolved reactive P yields were predicted by fertilizer P inputs, human consumption of P, and precipitation in a multiple regression model (R 2 = 0.42, n = 73), whereas PP yields were explained by crop fraction, human consumption of P, and soil bulk density in a spatial error regression model (R 2 = 0.49, n = 61). Overall, the Upper Midwest's Cornbelt region and lower Mississippi basin had the counties with the greatest P yields. These results help to point out specific areas where agricultural conservation practices that reduce losses to streams and rivers and point source P removal might limit the intensity or spatial occurrence of Gulf of Mexico hypoxia and improve local water quality. A Spatial Analysis of Phosphorus in the Mississippi River Basin Linda M. Jacobson, Mark B. David and Laurie E. Drinkwater. JEQ Vol. 40 No. 3, p

23 Abstract Four local-scale sites in areas with similar corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] agriculture were studied to determine the effects of different hydrogeologic settings of the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain (NACP) on the transport of nutrients and pesticides in groundwater. Settings ranged from predominantly well-drained soils overlying thick, sandy surficial aquifers to predominantly poorly drained soils with complex aquifer stratigraphy and high organic matter content. Apparent age of groundwater, dissolved gases, N isotopes, major ions, selected pesticides and degradates, and geochemical environments in groundwater were studied. Agricultural chemicals were the source of most dissolved ions in groundwater. Specific conductance was strongly correlated with reconstructed nitrate (the sum of N in nitrate and N gas) (R 2 = 0.81, p < ), and is indicative of the relative degree of agricultural effects on groundwater. Trends in nitrate were primarily related to changes in manure and fertilizer use at the well-drained sites where aquifer conditions were consistently oxic. Nitrate was present in young groundwater but completely removed over time through denitrification at the poorly drained sites where there were variations in chemical input and in geochemical environment. Median concentrations of atrazine (6- chloro-N-ethyl-N′-(1-methylethyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine), metolachlor (2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6- methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl)acetamide), and some of their common degradates were higher at well-drained sites than at poorly drained sites, with concentrations of degradates generally higher than those of the parent compounds at all sites. An increase in the percentage of deethylatrazine to total atrazine over time at one well-drained site may be related to changes in manure application.. Trends and Transformation of Nutrients and Pesticides in a Coastal Plain Aquifer System, United States Judith M. Denver, Anthony J. Tesoriero and Jeffrey R. Barbaro. JEQ Vol. 39 No. 1, p

24 Abstract In recent years, there has been increasing interest in how changes in agricultural practice associated with the introduction of particular genetically modified (GM) crops might indirectly impact the environment. There is also interest in any effects that might be associated with recombinant and novel combinations of DNA passing into the environment, and the possibility that they may be taken up by microorganisms or other live biological material. From the current state of knowledge, the impact of free DNA of transgenic origin is likely to be negligible compared with the large amount of total free DNA. We can find no compelling scientific arguments to demonstrate that GM crops are innately different from non-GM crops. The kinds of potential impacts of GM crops fall into classes familiar from the cultivation of non-GM crops (e.g., invasiveness, weediness, toxicity, or biodiversity). It is likely, however, that the novelty of some of the products of GM crop improvement will present new challenges and perhaps opportunities to manage particular crops in creative ways. Potential for the environmental impact of transgenic crops Philip J. Dale, Belinda Clarke & Eliana M.G. Fontes. Nature Biotechnology 20, (2002)

25 Abstract Cities are growing inexorably, causing many to think that inevitably their environmental impact will worsen. In this paper, three approaches to understanding the environmental impact of cities are analyzed, namely population impact, Ecological Footprint and sustainability assessment. Although the population impact model provides some perspective on local impact, and the Ecological Footprint model on global impact, only the sustainability assessment approach allows us to see the positive benefits of urban growth and provides policy options that can help cities reduce their local and global impact while improving their live-ability and opportunity, which continue to drive their growth. This approach is then applied in the city of Sydney. The environmental impact of cities Peter Newman. Environment and Urbanization October 2006 vol. 18 no

26 Abstract Exposure to high levels of air pollution can cause a variety of adverse health outcomes. Air quality in developed countries has been generally improved over the last three decades. However, many recent epidemiological studies have consistently shown positive associations between low-level exposure to air pollution and health outcomes. Thus, adverse health effects of air pollution, even at relatively low levels, remain a public concern. This paper aims to provide an overview of recent research development and contemporary methodological challenges in this field and to identify future research directions for air pollution epidemiological studies. Health effects of ambient air pollution – recent research development and contemporary methodological challenges Cizao Ren and Shilu Tong. Environmental Health 2008, 7:56.

27 Abstract To inform family physicians about the health effects of air pollution and to provide an approach to counseling vulnerable patients in order to reduce exposure. MEDLINE was searched using terms relevant to air pollution and its adverse effects. We reviewed English-language articles published from January 2008 to December Most studies provided level II evidence. Outdoor air pollution causes substantial morbidity and mortality in Canada. It can affect both the respiratory system (exacerbating asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) and the cardiovascular system (triggering arrhythmias, cardiac failure, and stroke). The Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) is a new communication tool developed by Health Canada and Environment Canada that indicates the level of health risk from air pollution on a scale of 1 to 10. The AQHI is widely reported in the media, and the tool might be of use to family physicians in counseling high-risk patients (such as those with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or cardiac failure) to reduce exposure to outdoor air pollution. Family physicians can use the AQHI and its health messages to teach patients with asthma and other high-risk patients how to reduce health risks from air pollution. Health effects of outdoor air pollution Approach to counseling patients using the Air Quality Health Index Alan Abelsohn. Canadian Family Physician August 2011 vol. 57 no

28 The significance of the irradiance reductions for building radiation climate A taller tree with a longer clear bole on the south produced more favorable ratios of cooling season to heating season insolation reductions than the tree with the short clear bole on the south. Teori Fotosintesis. Neraca Energi Pohon: Ekologi Pohon URBAN ECOLOGY Effects of individual trees on the solar radiation climate of small buildings Gordon M. Heisler. Urban Ecology. Volume 9, Issues 3– Pages

29 Analisis Vegetasi Plant - Soil – water relationship. URBAN HYDROLOGY Urban vegetation impacts on the hydrology of Dayton, Ohio Ralph A. Sanders. Urban Ecology. Volume 9, Issues 3– Pages The specific role of vegetation in lessening urban impacts on runoff The existing tree canopies alone work to lower potential runoff by about 7%. This could be increased to nearly 12% by modestly increasing canopy coverage of the land surface.

30 Ecosystem Services. Landuse changes. Land Conversion Valuasi ekologi- ekonomi Land use change and its effects on the value of ecosystem services along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico Ecological Economics Vol. 82. No.1. Pages G. Mendoza-González, M.L. Martínez, D. Lithgow, O. Pérez-Maqueo, P. Simonin to analyze land use changes and calculate the value of these changes in terms of lost ecosystem services. Land use change may seem economically profitable. However, after losing ecosystem services, the apparent gains from urban development are lost. Land use and policy making should consider ecosystem service losses so that ecosystems are preserved and society benefited..

31 Teori Partisipasi. Perhutanan Sosial. PERANAN GENDER Factors affecting women's participation in forestry in Turkey Ecological Economics Volume 60, Issue 4, Pages Erdoğan Atmiş, İsmet Daşdemir, Wietze Lise, Ömür Yıldıran Studi ini menganalisis partisipasi perempuan dalam kehutanan The estimated game theoretic model on women's participation indicates that the sharing of forest benefits among women in Turkey is considerably harmonious, while there is scope for improving the Forest Organisation, namely by stimulating participation towards a more effective management of the Turkish forests..

32 Ekologi Hutan Management Hutan. VALUASI EKONOMI Willingness to pay for forest amenities: The case of non-industrial owners in the south central United States Ecological Economics Volume 56, Issue 1. Pages Ronald Raunikar, Joseph Buongiorno Kita menganalisis WTP (willingness to pay) untuk nilai non-kayu (NTV) oleh pengusaha suasta hutan non-industri (NIPF) pada hutan campuran di USA selatan Many NIPF owners maintain a more diverse and natural stand structure than that of a more profitable even-aged industrial plantation. The average NIPF owner was willing to forego 60% of the timber profit for the NTV of their more natural stands compared to a less diverse industrially managed even-aged plantation.

33 Mikrobiologi Lingkungan. Kimia Lingkungan. Pengolahan Limbah Cair….. Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Wastewater Treatment and Water Reclamation Plants in Southern California Amy Townsend-Small, Diane E. Pataki, Linda Y. Tseng, Cheng-Yao Tsai and Diego Rosso. JEQ Vol. 40 No. 5, p Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) is a long- lived and potent greenhouse gas produced during microbial nitrification and denitrification. This treatment a potentially large source of N 2 O in urban areas. Our results suggest that wastewater treatment that includes biological nitrogen removal can significantly increase urban N 2 O emissions..

34 Teknologi aplikasi pupuk. Agrohidrologi. Pencucian unsur hara pupuk dari lahan….. Nitrate Leaching from Nitrogen-Fertilized and Manured Corn Measured with Zero-Tension Pan Lysimeters John M. Jemison and Richard H. Fox JEQ. Vol. 23 No. 2, p Excessive N fertilization increases the potential for nitrate (NO − 3 ) leaching, but no research has evaluated NO − 3 leaching from corn (Zea mays L.) receiving economic optimum N rates (EON). In the nonmanured corn, the 3-yr average amount of NO 3 -N leached was 107 kg ha −1 or 36% of the N applied at EON. Total mass of NO 3 -N in the 1.2-m soil profile following harvest was useful to predict annual flow-weighted average leachate NO 3 -N concentrations, but this is not practical in most soils of the Northeast..

35 Nutrients Root absorption Metal reactions in aquatic environment. Fitoremediasi Air Limbah….. Phytostabilization of iron ore tailings through Calophyllum inophyllum L. Nilima Chaturvedi, N K Dhal, Palli Sita Rama Reddy International Journal of Phytoremediation 12/2012; 14(10): The phytostabilization of waste material generated during mining and processing of iron ore through Calophyllum inophyllum L. have been investigated. Iron ore tailings and its varying composition with garden soil were taken to study plant growth, chlorophyll content and metal uptake pattern of Calophyllum inophyllum L.. Removal of more than 30% of the most of the heavy metal like Fe, Pb, and Cu & Zn has been observed in all the treatments during one year of observation. The overall study clearly suggests that the plant can be used as an efficient tool for restoration of mining wastes and other similarly contaminated sites..

36 Pemupukan fosfat. Penyerapan hara oleh akar tumbuhan. Fitoremediasi tanah yang tercemar….. Phytoremediation of arsenic contaminated soil by Pteris vittata L. I. Influence of phosphatic fertilizers and repeated harvests. Asit Mandal, T J Purakayastha, A K Patra, S K Sanyal International journal of phytoremediation. 14(10): A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of diammonium phosphate (DAP), single superphosphate (SSP) and two growing cycles on arsenic removal by Chinese Brake Fern (Pteris vittata L.) from an arsenic contaminated Typic Haplustept of the Indian state of West Bengal.. Two successive harvests with DAP as the phosphate fertilizer emerged as the promising management strategy for amelioration of arsenic contaminated soil of West Bengal through phyotoextraction by P. vittata..

37 Teori Motivasi dan Partisipasi Sosial Ekonomi Sumberdaya Hutan. PERHUTANAN SOSIAL International Journal of Social Forestry (IJSF), 2010, 3(2): STATUS OF JOINT FOREST MANAGEMENT IN INDIA: SOCIO-ECONOMIC DETERMINANTS OF FOREST PARTICIPATION IN A DYNAMIC OPTIMIZATION SETTING Soumyendra Kishore Datta and Krishanu Sarkar Perlindungan sumberdaya hutan mensyaratkan partisipasi aktif masyarakat sekitar hutan. Partisipasi aktif dalam aktivitas konservasi hutan memerlukan komitmen dan motivasi masyarakat di sekitar dan di dalam hutan. Grant of permanent tenurial right to forest dependent people, mitigating the fear of eviction, extension of various support facilities and ensuring a cohesive trust between forest department and forest protection committees seem most urgent for ensuring meaningful participation.

38 Tata-kelola Usaha Sustainable BUSINESS FIRM. TANGGUNG-JAWAB SOSIAL KORPORASI Corporate social responsibility and corporate governance in Italian SMEs: towards a 'territorial' model based on small 'champions' of CSR? Mara Del Baldo. International Journal of Sustainable Society Vol. 2 No. 3. p Adakah hubungan positif antara budaya tanggung- jawab sosial dg sistem tata-kelola yang ada? Seberapa besar signifikansi korelasi tersebut pada UKM dan usaha sekala besar ?. The concluding reflections trace the features of a territorial model of socially responsible orientation centred on the best practices of SMEs, 'convivial enterprises' who are excellent examples of 'spirited businesses‘.

39 Produksi Bersih Sustainable consumption. SISTEM PENGELOLAAN LINGKUNGAN Designing Environmental Management System for promoting sustainable consumption Shirish Sangle. Int. J. of Sustainable Society, 2008 Vol.1, No.1, pp Ide tentang konsumsi- lestari telah menjadi isu global. Sejaklan dnegan upaya pemerintah untuk mmenerapkan ide ini, diperlukan peran-serta industri dalam menciptakan pola-pola konsumsi yang lebih lestari. Pendekatan untuk mengelola isu-isu kelestarian telah menjadi konstruksi dalam “Environmental Management System (EMS)” berbasis standar ISO The implications of this model for structuring salient elements of EMS are then discussed. The audit would measure the extent to which an organisation has a management system competent to make consumption pattern more sustainable..

40 Green Industry Manajemen Perusahaan ECO-EFFICIENCY Conditional eco-efficiency measure from the perspective of pollution emission firms Feng Yang, Sheng Ang, Liang Liang, Dujun Zhai. Int. J. of Sustainable Society, 2011 Vol.3, No.3, pp Penerapan eko-efisiensi menghadapi kendala sasaran profit dan polusi dari perspektif emisi polusi perusahaan. Different from the previous eco-efficiency measures, our technique admits the selfish motives of pollution emission firms which have little motivation to minimise the pollution emission. As a result, the current approach can be accepted by pollution emission firms for providing feasible strategies in performance improvement..

41 DAMPAK GLOBAL POLUSI UDARA Kerjasama internasional. PENGELOLAAN LINGKUNGAN GLOBAL Atmospheric Pollution as a Global Policy Problem Tapani Vaahtoranta. Journal of Peace Research May 1990 vol. 27 no Polusi udara telah menjadi permasalahan global, pengendaliannya mensyaratkan adanya kolaborasi banyak negara. Kerjasama terkendala oleh fakta bahwa negara- negara di dunia tidak mengalami dampak yang sama dan minat perlindungan lingkungannya juga beragam Three changes in particular contributed to the emergence of atmospheric pollution controls: 1.the imperatives of ecological interdependence, 2.technological developments, and 3.growing public pressure on policy-makers..

42 Polusi lalu-lintas jalan raya Epidemiologi: Analisis regresi KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN Traffic air pollution and mortality from cardiovascular disease and all causes: a Danish cohort study Ole Raaschou-Nielsen, Zorana Jovanovic Andersen, Steen Solvang Jensen, Matthias Ketzel, Mette Sørensen, Johnni Hansen, Steffen Loft, Anne Tjønneland and Kim Overvad. Environmental Health 2012, 11:60 Polusi udara kota akibat lalu-lintas jalan raya telah dihubungkan dg “cardiovascular mortality”, yang diduga diakibatkan oleh paparan polusi udara dan biring lalu-lintas. Karakter personal dan gaya hidup diduga mempengaruhi hubungan tersebut Traffic air pollution is associated with mortality from cardiovascular diseases and all causes, after adjustment for traffic noise. The association was strongest for people with a low fruit and vegetable intake..

43 POLUSI Udara Kota Epidemiologi: Analisis Multivariate KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN Air pollution and infant health: Lessons from New Jersey Janet Currie, Matthew Neidell, Johannes F. Schmieder Journal of Health Economics 28 (2009) 688–703 Kita mengkaji dampak dari tiga kriteria pencemar udara terhadap kesehatan bayi di New Jersey pada 1990 dengan jalan mengkombinasi- kan informasi tempat tinggal ibu dan informasi dari data pemantauan kualitas udara. We find consistently negative effects of exposure to carbon monoxide (CO), both during and after birth, with effects considerably larger for smokers and older mothers. Since automobiles are the main source of carbon monoxide emissions, our results have important implications for regulation of automobile emissions..

44 Ekologi Pohon. Hujan asam HUTAN KOTA Acid Rain, Air Pollution, and Tree Growth in Southeastern New York L. J. Puckett. JEQ Vol. 11 No. 3, p Apakah analisis dendro-ekologis dapat digunakan untuk mendeteksi perubahan hubungan pertumbuhan pohon dg iklim, sebagai akibat dari paparan kronis terhadap komponen- komponen hujan asam dan polusi udara. Temporally, the shift in growth response appears to correspond with the suspected increase in acid rain and air pollution. This change could be the result of physiological stress induced by components of the acid rain-air pollution complex, causing climatic conditions to be more limiting to tree growth..

45 Pencemaran udara. Fisiologi tanaman. The experiment was designed as a split-split plot with six replications.….. Field Testing Soybeans for Residual Effects of Air Pollution and Seed Size on Crop Yield R. K. Howell, L. P. Rose and R. C. Leffel JEQ. Vol. 9 No. 1, p Mean seed weights (g/100 seeds) for four soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], cultivass grown in 1973 and 1974 in cylindrical open-top field chambers that provided carbon- filtered air were significantly greater than from plants grown in nonfiltered air in chambers, or in conventional plots without chambers. Differences in seed size observed for different air qualities did not significantly affect yields. In general, there was no significant yield advantage for plants grown from a selected seed size as compared with the original lot seed..

46 Rekayasa Instrumen pemanasan Teori pembakaran. KONSERVASI ENERGI Emissions and Energy Conservation in Residentdal Oil Heating A.C.S. Hayden, R.W. Braaten & T.D. Brown Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association. Volume 28, Issue 7, 1978 Emisi dari pembakaran minyak pada peralatan pemanas di permukiman dapat dikurangi dengan jalan memperbaiki efisiensi siklis dan “steady running”. Teknik-teknik yang mereduksi kebutuhan pemanasan (thermostat cut-back) atau mereduksi kehilangan panas dapat mereduksi emisi SO 2 dan NO sebanding dengan hemat bahan bakar. Improved burner performance, with combustion at low excess air, offers the largest fuel savings, with commensurate reductions in SO 2 and NO, and greater reductions in CO and particulates..

47 Kualitas Udara Indoor & outdoor Dinamika partikulat dalam udara ambient. PENCEMARAN UDARA Indoor/Outdoor Air Pollution Exposure Continuity Relationships Marc Halpern Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association. Volume 28, Issue 7, pages Hubungan kontinyuitas pencemaran udara indoor-outdoor dikaji untuk menemukan parameter utamanya. Hipotesis keseimbangan homeostatis antara pencemar indoor dan outdoor diuji dg menggunakan indeks kontaminan partikulat Pb. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of considering parameters other than outdoor pollutant levels in determining indoor air quality.

48 Solar Radiation budget. Ekofisiologi tumbuhan. The role of trees and grass in reducing regional and local temperatures in urban areas. ….. The effect of tree shade and grass on surface and globe temperatures in an urban area D. Armson, P. Stringer, A.R. Ennos. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening Volume 11, Issue 3. Pages The process of urbanisation alters the thermal balance of an area resulting in an urban heat island effect where cities can be several degrees centigrade warmer than the surrounding rural landscape. This increased heat can make cities uncomfortable places and, during heat waves, can pose serious health risks. Grasses and trees can effectively cool surfaces and so can provide regional cooling, helping reduce the urban heat island in hot weather. Grasses has little effect upon local air or globe temperatures, so should have little effect on human comfort, whereas tree shade can provide effective local cooling..

49 Analisis citra dan Fotografi. Analisis Kenyamanan Lingkungan MANAJEMEN HUTAN KOTA Analysing recreational values and management effects in an urban forest with the visitor-employed photography method Erik Heyman Urban Forestry & Urban Greening Volume 11, Issue 3. Pages Pengelolaan hutan kota memerlukan “trade-offs” antara konservasi biodiversitas dengan promosi nilai-nilai wisata-kota. Kajian preferensi membuktikan bahwa masyarakat lebih menyenangi hutan- kota semi-terbuka dnegan sedikit tumbuhan-bawah dibandingkan dngan hutan-kota yang masif dengan tumbuhan bawah yang rapat. This study has shown that the visitor employed photography method can be used as a quantitative method to evaluate perceptions about forest vegetation and management in urban woodlands, and could serve as a valuable complement to conventional methods in preference research.

50 Teori persepsi dan preferensi kONSUMEN Valuasi jasa-jasa lingkungan. PERENCANAAN KOTA Perceptions of parks and urban derelict land by landscape planners and residents Urban Forestry & Urban Greening Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages Mathias Hofmann, Janneke R. Westermann, Ingo Kowarik, Elke van der Meer Persepsi masyarakat dan pelaku usaha belum diintegrasikan dalam proses perencanaan kota Perencanaan RTH kota berbasis persepsi masyarakat dan kualitas lahan dan lingkungan.

51 Analisis Persepsi, sikap dan perilaku. Analisis pengambilan keputusan publik Perilaku Konsumen Attitude and willingness toward participation in decision-making of urban green spaces in China Xi-Zhang Shan Urban Forestry & Urban Greening Volume 11, Issue 2. Pages Urban green spaces serve a variety of residents with various perceptions, preferences and demands. Their effective governance and precision provision increasingly require public input. Due to the unique political regime, public decision- making in China has long been controlled by governments with the public neglected.. The positive attitudes and strong willingness toward participation despite socioeconomic variations, fitting into a global trend of increasing civic consciousness and strengthening the theoretical base of public participation. This positive findings lay a sound social foundation for the participatory decision- making in decision- making of urban green spaces..

52 Kesehatan Ibu & Anak. KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN Ekologi Kuantitatif An ecological quantification of the relationships between water, sanitation and infant, child, and maternal mortality June J Cheng, Corinne J Schuster-Wallace, Susan Watt, Bruce K Newbold and Andrew Mente Environmental Health 2012, 11:4 Akses air bersih dan sanitasi berhubungan erat dnegan kesehatan ibu, anak dan kelahiran. Seberapa jauh upaya perbaikan akses air bersih dan sanitasi mempengaruhi mortalitas ibu, anak dan bayi ?. Our analyses suggest that access to water and sanitation independently contribute to child and maternal mortality outcomes. If the world is to seriously address the Millennium Development Goals of reducing child and maternal mortality, then improved water and sanitation accesses are key strategies..

53 Abstrak Salah satu ruangan yang berpotensi tinggi untuk mengalami masalah polusi udara dalam ruang adalah ruang perpustakaan. Di antara berbagai polutan yang memiliki peran penting terhadap kesehatan adalah terdapatnya kapang di dalam udara ruangan. Gangguan kesehatan akibat kapang di dalam ruangan perpustakaan dapat dialami oleh orang-orang yang beraktivitas di dalam perpustakaan, misalnya petugas perpustakaan, dosen, dan mahasiswa. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah melakukan identifikasi terhadap kapang di dalam udara ruang perpustakaan di tiga fakultas (FA, FB, dan FC) di lingkungan Universitas “X”. Desain penelitian yang digunakan adalah cross sectional. Data yang dikumpulkan meliputi keberadaan kapang, serta kualitas fisik dan kimiawi udara dalam ruang. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa suhu udara dalam ruang di ketiga perpustakaan berada di atas standar peraturan. Intensitas cahaya sangat rendah di perpustakaan FB dan FC, sementara konsentrasi debu di perpustakaan FA sangat tinggi. Di perpustakaan FA ditemukan kapang pathogen, yaitu Aspergillus fumigatus, sementara di perpustakaan FB ditemukan Scopulariopsis candida, dan Fusarium verticilloides di perpustakaan FC. Secara umum, kualitas fisik, kimiawi, dan mikrobiologi udara dalam ruang di ketiga perpustakaan telah melebihi ambang batas.. KUALITAS UDARA DALAM RUANG PERPUSTAKAAN UNIVERSITAS ”X” DITINJAU DARI KUALITAS BIOLOGI, FISIK, DAN KIMIAWI Laila Fitria, Ririn Arminsih Wulandari, Ema Hermawati, Dewi Susanna MAKARA, KESEHATAN, VOL. 12, NO. 2, DESEMBER 2008: 76-82

54 Abstract Permasalahan yang saat ini menjadi isu di lingkungan perumahan adalah peningkatan pencemaran udara dan kebisingan. Sumber kebisingan yang dominan di lingkungan perumahan adalah berasal dari lalulintas kendaraan bermotor. Jumlah kendaraan bermotor di Indonesia semakin tahun semakin meningkat, akibatnya lingkungan perumahan di Perkotaan menjadi bising. Kebisingan sendiri terkait dengan kepadatan lalulintas. Kondisi ini ditambah dengan penyediaan sarana jalan yang tidak memadai menjadikan lingkungan perumahan menjadi jalan pintas dari dan ke jalan umum. Hal ini semakin menimbulkan kebisingan di lingkungan perumahan. Penelitian yang dilakukan di Kota Yogyakarta dan DKI Jakarta memperlihatkan bahwa tingkat kebisingan yang terjadi di lingkungan perumahan telah berada diatas ambang baku mutu yang disyaratkan. Kebisingan yang terjadi di lingkungan perumahan sudah saatnya memerlukan penanganan yang serius, mengingat pengaruh buruk dari kebisingan terhadap kesehatan manusia pada akhirnya akan mempengaruhi kualitas hidup masyarakat. Berbagai penanganan kebisingan telah banyak dilakukan terutama terkait pada 3 (tiga) hal, yaitu pada sumber suara, media suara dan penerima. Penanganan secara arsitektural lebih tepat ditujukan pada penanganan media perambatan suara. Pengolahan ‘jalan’ bunyi yang dalam hal ini bertujuan untuk mengurangi kebisingan yang diterima oleh penerima dapat dilakukan dengan cara: Pertama, memperpanjang jalannya media perambatan dengan cara menjauhkan antara sumber suara dengan penerimanya. Ke dua, memberi penghalang antara sumber dengan penerima, penghalang dapat berupa dinding penghalang, barier tanaman, maupun fasa di bangunan itu sendiri. Penanganan secara non Arsitektural dapat dilakukan dengan cara membuat kendaraan bermotor yang lewat lingkungan perumahan menurunkan kecepatannya sampai kurang lebih 20 km/jam.. TINGKAT KEBISINGAN PADA PERUMAHAN DI PERKOTAAN Moch Fathoni Setiawan. Jurnal Teknik Sipil dan Perencanaan. Vol 12, No 2 (2010)

55 Abstract Karbon monoksida (CO) merupakan salah satu zat polusi udara yang bersifat racun dan dihasilkan dari sektor transportasi dan industri. Sensor gas MQ-135 memiliki kepekaan yang relatif tinggi, low cost dan relatif lebih tahan lama dapat digunakan sebagai alternatif dalam pengukuran polusi udara. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk membuat rancang bangun alat pengukur konsentrasi gas Karbon Monoksida (CO) menggunakan sensor gas MQ-135 berbasis Mikrokontroler dengan komunikasi serial USART dan untuk mengetahui output pengukuran berdasarkan regresi jika dibandingkan dengan alat ukur standar ECOM J2KN. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah membuat hasil rancangan alat rancang bangun alat pengukur konsentrasi gas karbon monoksida (CO) dengan mikrokontroler ATMega32, sensor gas MQ-135, IC MAX 232, serta konektor DB9. Sumber tegangan yang digunakan 18 V kemudian difilter oleh LM7805 menjadi 5 V untuk tegangan referensi ADC mikrokontroler. Sedangkan tampilan hasil pengukuran ditampilkan dengan menggunakan LCD dan Interface pada Laptop dengan program visual basic 6.0. Analisis data digunakan uji regresi. Penelitian dilakukan menggunakan bahan penghasil asap yang bersumber dari kertas yang dibakar kemudian diukur kadar CO-nya dan dikalibrasi menggunakan, ECOM J2KN. Dari hasil penelitian dan berdasarkan hasil uji regresi diperoleh koefisien determinasi (R 2 ) sebesar 0,949. Hal ini berarti bahwa terdapat faktor yang mempengaruhi hasil konsentrasi gas CO selain resistansi sensor sebesar 5,1%. Faktor tersebut antara lain suhu gas, kelembaban gas, dan tekanan gas. Komunikasi serial yang dipakai adalah jenis serial USART dengan mode Asynchronous data dengan baud rate Kata kunci: Sensor gas MQ-135, Mikrokontroler, komunikasi serial USART Rancang Bangun Alat Pengukur Konsentrasi Gas Karbon Monoksida(CO) Menggunakan Sensor Gas MQ-135 Berbasis Mikrokontroller Dengan Komunikasi Serial USART Elly Indahwati, Nurhayati Jurnal Teknik Elektro Vol 1, No 1 (2012).

56 Abstract Metal containing wastes/byproducts of various industries, used consumer goods, and municipal waste are potential pollutants, if not treated properly. They may also be important secondary resources if processed in eco-friendly manner for secured supply of contained metals/materials. Bio-extraction of metals from such resources with microbes such as bacteria, fungi and archaea is being increasingly explored to meet the twin objectives of resource recycling and pollution mitigation. This review focuses on the bioprocessing of solid wastes/byproducts of metallurgical and manufacturing industries, chemical/petrochemical plants, electroplating and tanning units, besides sewage sludge and fly ash of municipal incinerators, electronic wastes (e-wastes/PCBs), used batteries, etc. An assessment has been made to quantify the wastes generated and its compositions, microbes used, metal leaching efficiency etc. Processing of certain effluents and wastewaters comprising of metals is also included in brief. Future directions of research are highlighted. Bio-processing of solid wastes and secondary resources for metal extraction – A review Jae-chun Lee, Banshi Dhar Pandey. Waste Management 32 (2012) 3–18

57 Abstract We investigated the relationships between the light environment beneath a forest canopy and stand attributes, i.e., culm density and total basal area, in a stand of bamboo, Phyllostachys pubescens. Mazel exHouz. based on a thinning experiment. A 15 m × 15 m plot was established in the stand and 10 successive thinning regimes were performed, so that thinning ratio by the number of culm for each thinning was approximately 5%. The digital hemispherical photographs were taken before and after each thinning, and the sky factor was computed as a measure of light environment from the photographs. The light environment became brighter and homogeneous as the thinning regimes progressed. The culm density was a good predictor of the light environment, and the relationship between sky factor and culm density could be well expressed by an exponential equation. Because of the larger culm sizes and total leaf area, the change in light environment with thinning was more sensitive in the P. pubescens stand than Phyllostachys bambusoides Sieb. et Zucc. stands examined in previous studies. This suggested that species characteristics should be carefully considered when elaborating culm density control for Improving light environment in bamboo stands. Relationships of light environment to stand attributes in a stand of bamboo, Phyllostachys pubescens Akio Inoue, Haruka Tateishi, Kotaro Sakuta, Kazukiyo Yamamoto, Nobuya Mizoue, Fumiaki Kitaharad. Ecological Engineering 38 (2012) 135– 139

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