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Magister Hukum Program Pascasarjana FAKULTAS HUKUM UI ©Teddy Anggoro.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Magister Hukum Program Pascasarjana FAKULTAS HUKUM UI ©Teddy Anggoro."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Magister Hukum Program Pascasarjana FAKULTAS HUKUM UI ©Teddy Anggoro

2  Usaha Perseorangan  Badan Usaha Persekutuan Firma Commanditaire Vennotschaap  Perseroan Terbatas

3  Apa bentuknya?  Siapa yang bertanggung Jawab?

4  Riset Doing Business 2010 “Reforming Through Difficul Times”  Riset World Bank 2000 “Voice of The Poor: Crying Out for Change”

5  Salomon v. A. Salomon & Co. Ltd., AC 22. (1897). disebutkan bahwa “the notion of non-human juristic entities has a history going back at least to roman times,” Salomon v. A Salomon & Co. Ltd

6  B.C. Hunt dalam bukunya The Development of the Business Corporation in England , 1936 menyatakan bahwa, “the brilliant intellectual achievement of the roman lawyer, the juritic person, a subject of right, and liabilities as is a natural person.”

7  Korporasi sebagai subyek hukum, layaknya pribadi kodrati, tidak lahir secara alamiah layaknya ciptaan Tuhan lainnya, tetapi dia sebagai pengemban hak dan kewajiban dihidupkan oleh manusia dengan otorisasi Negara.

8  Wetboek van Koophandel (WvK) 1848  German Law 1892 “Gesellschaft mit beschrnketer Haftung”  Tradisi Civil Law System

9  Susan Pace Hamill, dalam artikelnya The Story of Limited Liability Company: Combining the Best Feature of a Flawed Business Tax Structure, The University of Alabama School of Law, Foundation Press, 2005, Menyatakan “Amerika Serikat yang pertama kali mengundangkan Limited Liability Company (LLC) Statute adalah Negara bagian Wyoming, yaitu pada tanggal 4 Maret 1977.”

10  William J. Carney dalam artikelnya Limited Liability, Atlanta: Emory University School of Law menyatakan: “USA 1874 dengan diterapkannya Limited Liability Partnership Association oleh Negara bagian Pennsylvania, adapun di Inggris penerapan tanggung jawab terbatas dilakukan pada tahun 1855.”

11  Menggunakan kata “Limited” dalam nama korporasi;  Korporasi sebagai subyek hukum yang penuh;  Anggota yang lama dapat menentukan siapa anggota baru dalam korporasi;  Kematian anggota tidak dapat mengakibatkan ditutupnya korporasi, jika hal tersebut disebutkan tegas dalam anggaran dasar.  Prinsip ini menjadi Universal Principle of Limited Liability Company, termasuk Wyoming LLC Act 1977

12  Kitab Undang-undang Hukum Dagang, original dari Kerajaan Belanda sejak 1848, konsekuensi asas konkordansi;  Undang-Undang No. 4 Tahun 1971, tentang Perubahan KUHD;  Undang-Undang No. 1 Tahun 1995, 7 Maret 1995 (UNIFIKASI)  Undang-undang No. 40 Tahun 2007

13  Artificial Person;  Legal Entity;  Separate Legal Personality;  Limited Liability.

14  Lord Shaw of Dunfermline’s dalam perkara Daimler Co. Ltd. V. Continental Tire & Ruber Co. (G.B.) Ltd [1916] 2 A.C menyatakan bahwa badan usaha mandiri dengan tanggung jawab terbatas sebagai “It is a creation of law convenient for the purposes of management, of holding of property, of the association of individuals in business transaction …”

15  Yang membedakan antara orang pribadi dan badan hukum, menurut Buckley L.J. Daimler Co. Ltd. V. Continental.. adalah " The artificial legal person called the corporation has no physical existence. It exists only in contemplation of law. It has neither body, parts, nor passions. It cannot wear weapons nor serve in wars. It can be neither loyal nor disloyal. It can-not compass treason. It can be neither friend nor enemy. Apart from its corporators it can have neither thoughts, wishes, nor intentions, for it has no mind other than the minds of the corporators. "

16  Ross Grantham, dalam hasil penelitiannya The Limited Liability of Company Director, The University of Queensland, TC Beirne School of Law, Legal Studies Research Paper Series, Research Paper No , 2007, menyatakan “Corporate personality entails that the company is recognised for the purposes of the law as a right and duty bearing entry that is distinct from those natural persons who benefit from the company’s business or through whom, …”

17  Pettet, dalam tulisannya dalam Limited Liability, Gower’s Principles of Modern Company Law 7 th Ed. Menyatakan, “meaning of limited liability in company law is that by virtue of statute a shareholder is not liable to contribute to the assets of the company on a winding up beyond the amount remaining unpaid on his or her shares.”  United Kingdom, dalam Section 74 The Insolvency Act 1986, Limited liability diartikan sebagai “Immunity of shareholders for the company’s debt incurred while it is going concern.”

18  Ross Grantham dalam penelitiannya The Limited Liability of Company Director… bahwa prinsip limited liability adalah “speaks expressly to shareholders,” sedangkan prinsip separate legal personality adalah memberikan secara tidak langsung perlindungan bagi Direksi dan juga perlindungan atas investasi dari pemegang saham dalam bisnis korporasi. Grantham.

19  Frank R. Lopez dalam artikelnya berjudul Corporation Social Responsibility In A Global Economy After September 11: Profit, Freedom and Human Right,,, Mercer Law Review, Vol. 55, 2004, hal. 743 menyatakan : “ the first corporation were created to serve the public. Corporation were created as an extention of either the church or the state. ‘Ecclesiatical’ corporation, for example, were created as a device for the church to hold property. Most early corporation, however, were created to serve the sovereignity of kings and queens.”

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21  Indra Surya dalam Disertasinya yang berjudul Transaksi Benturan Kepentingan di Pasar Modal, FHUI, menyatakan bahwa International Corporation pertama di dunia seperti British East India Company (BEIC), Dutch East Indies Company (DEIC), Hudson Bay Company (HBC), dan Veereenigde Oost Indische Compagnie (VOC), menunjukan bahwa kepentingan korporasi dan kerajaan tidak terpisah.

22  pada tahun 1930an, oleh Lee Drutman diceritakan bahwa, “A Corporation with thousand of employees and millions of costumers, a corporation was receiving public subsidies and encroaching on communities, a more extensive reporting system that measured the impact of the corporation on peoples lives have made sense. This never developed, however, and the profit-generating mentality remained the dominant driving force behind corporation.”

23  Adolph A. Berle, Corporate Powers as Powers in Trust, 44 Harvard Law Review. 1049, 1931,  Michigan Supreme Court Decision, cases Dodge v Ford Motor Co. 170 N.W  Peraih Nobel Milton Friedman, (Social Responsibilities of Business)

24  Benedict Sheehy dalam Scrooge-The Reluctant Shareholder: Theoretical Problems In the Shareholder-Stakeholder Debate, University of Miami Law Review, Vol. 14, 2005, menyatakan ada 4 (empat) alasan, yaitu: (1) hold the residual claims; (2) have the greatest risk; (3) have the greatest incentive to maximize firm value; and (4) have the least protection.

25  Merrick Dodd, For Whom Are Corporate Managers Trustees?, Harvard Law Review, Vol. 45, 1932, (Social Services)  Supreme Court of British Columbia, in cases Teck Corporation Ltd. V. Millar (1973) 33 DLR (3d) 288. Justice Berger opinion, (Interest Employee and Community)

26  Director Primacy Doctrine  Team Production Doctrine  Margaret M. Blair dan Lynn A. Stout

27 IndonesiaAmerika Pendiri, Pemegang Saham, Direksi, Komisaris Member, Organizer, Shareholder, Director Akta Pendirian, Anggaran DasarCertificate of Organization, Operating Agreement Menteri Hukum dan HAMSecretary of State Surat Keputusan Pengesahan Badan Hukum Certificate of Existance Tidak diwajibkan PengumumanTidak diwajibkan pengumuman


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