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Mikhania C.E., S.Farm, M.Si, Apt. - Basitrasin - Kloramfenikol - Neomisin - Kanamisin dsb 1944 Streptomisin (Selman Waksman) 1940 Garam Penisilin (Chain.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Mikhania C.E., S.Farm, M.Si, Apt. - Basitrasin - Kloramfenikol - Neomisin - Kanamisin dsb 1944 Streptomisin (Selman Waksman) 1940 Garam Penisilin (Chain."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Mikhania C.E., S.Farm, M.Si, Apt

2 - Basitrasin - Kloramfenikol - Neomisin - Kanamisin dsb 1944 Streptomisin (Selman Waksman) 1940 Garam Penisilin (Chain dkk.)  stabilitas baik 1928 Penisilin (Alexander Flemming)  stabilitas buruk

3  Antibiotik adalah golongan senyawa baik alami maupun sintetik yg memiliki efek menekan atau menghentikan suatu proses biokimia di dalam organisme khususnya bakteri  Antibiotik dapat berasal dari mahkluk hidup atau sintesis

4 Berdasar mekanisme kerjanya antibiotik dibagi menjadi : 1. Inhibitor metabolisme sel : golongan sulfonamida 2. Inhibitor sintesis dinding sel : betalaktam (penisilin), karbapenem 3. Perusak dinding sel : polimiksin 4. Perusak sintesis protein : golongan aminoglikosida (gentamisin, neomisin, dsb) 5. Inhibitor sintesis protein : tetrasiklin, doksisiklin 6. Pengganggu metabolisme asam nukleat : ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, dsb

5 Berdasar spektrum kerjanya antibiotik dibagi menjadi : Spektrum sempit  bekerja pada 1 jenis bakteri atau golongan bakteri saja. Contoh : INH aktif terhadap mikrobakteri Spektrum sedang  efektif terhadap bakteri gram positif dan sebagian gram negatif. Misal : ampisilin Spektrum luas  efektif terhadap bakteri secara luas. Misal : kloramfenikol, tetrasiklin

6  Bentuk : hablur atau serbuk  Warna : putih kecuali tetrasiklin (kuning), basitrasin, tirotrisin (putih abu-abu)  Rasa : tidak berasa kecuali kloramfenikol, oksitetrasiklin, karbomisin (pahit)  Bau : tidak berbau kecuali golongan penisilin (bau bawang)  Bersifat asam : klortetrasiklin, penisilin  Bersifat basa : streptomisin

7  Reaksi warna dan pengendapan  Pengamatan bentuk kristal  Melting point  Spektrofotometri  IR  Kromatografi  KLT

8  Pemerian : A white, greyish-white or yellowish-white, fine, crystalline powder or fine crystals, needles or elongated plates  Kelarutan : slightly soluble in water, freely soluble in alcohol and in propylene glycol

9  Zat + NaOH dipanaskan terbentuk warna kuning  Zat + pereaksi Cuprifil dipanaskan  endapan warna merah bata  Zat + KMnO 4 + NaOH terbentuk warna hijau lama-lama coklat  Zat + piridin + KOH (padat) dipanaskan terbentuk warna merah coklat  Zat + H 2 SO 4 pekat terbentuk warna kuning muda Reaksi Kristal  Sampel + aseton + air

10 A. Melting point : 149 °C to 153 °C. B. Examine by infrared absorption spectrophotometry, comparing with the spectrum obtained with chloramphenicol CRS. C. Examine the chromatograms obtained in the test for related substances. The principal spot in the chromatogram obtained with 1 μ l of the test solution is similar in position and size to the principal spot in the chromatogram obtained with reference solution (a). D. Dissolve about 10 mg in 1 ml of alcohol (50 per cent V/V) R, add 3 ml of a 10 g/l solution of calcium chloride R and 50 mg of zinc powder R and heat on a water-bath for 10 min. Filter the hot solution and allow to cool. Add 0.1 ml of benzoyl chloride R and shake for 1 min. Add 0.5 ml of ferric chloride solution R1 and 2 ml of chloroform R and shake. The aqueous layer is coloured light violet-red to purple.

11  Pemerian : Yellow, crystalline powder  Kelarutan : Very slightly soluble in water, soluble in ethanol (96 per cent) and in methanol, sparingly soluble in acetone. It dissolves in dilute acid and alkaline solutions.  Substance produced by certain strains of Streptomyces aerofaciens or obtained by any other means.

12 Reaksi Penegasan  Zat + H 2 SO 4 pekat terbentuk warna merah ungu (anggur), kemudian diencerkan terbentuk warna kuning  Zat + FeCl 3 terbentuk warna coklat merah  Zat + HNO 3 pekat terbentuk warna jingga kuning  Zat + Aqua brom terbentuk endapan kuning  Zat + Pereaksi Nessler terbentuk warna hitam dengan segera  Zat + Pereaksi Marquis terbentuk warna merah anggur Reaksi Kristal  Sampel + aseton + air

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14 A. KLT  fase diam : oktadesil silica gel F 254, fase gerak : Mix 20 volumes of acetonitrile R, 20 volumes of methanol R and 60 volumes of a 63 g/l solution of oxalic acid R previously adjusted to pH 2 with concentrated ammonia R, deteksi di UV 254 nm B. To about 2 mg add 5 ml of sulphuric acid R. A violet-red colour develops. Add the solution to 2.5 ml of water R. The colour becomes yellow. C. Dissolve about 10 mg in a mixture of 1 ml of dilute nitric acid R and 5 ml of water R. Shake and add 1 ml of silver nitrate solution R2. Any opalescence in the solution is not more intense than that in a mixture of 1 ml of dilute nitric acid R, 5 ml of water R and 1 ml of silver nitrate solution R2.

15  Pemerian : A white or almost white powder, hygroscopic  Kelarutan :very soluble in water, practically insoluble in ethanol.  Diproduksi dari Streptomyces griseus

16 Reaksi Pendahuluan  Kelarutan : periksa kelarutan zat sesuai monografi  Zat dilarutkan dalam metanol + H 2 SO 4 terbentuk  endapan Reaksi Penegasan  Zat + H 2 SO 4 terbentuk warna coklat merah  Zat + pereaksi Nessler terbentuk endapan hitam atau abu-abu hitam  Zat + pereaksi Roux terbentuk warna merah coklat yang akan cepat hilang  Zat + pereaksi Frohde terbentuk warna hijau tetapi agak lama

17 A. TLC B. Dissolve 5 mg to 10 mg in 4 ml of water R and add 1 ml of 1 M sodium hydroxide. Heat in a water-bath for 4 min. Add a slight excess of dilute hydrochloric acid R and 0.1 ml of ferric chloride solution R1. A violet colour develops. C. Dissolve 0.1 g in 2 ml of water R, add 1 ml of a-naphthol solution R and 2 ml of a mixture of equal volumes of strong sodium hypochlorite solution R and water R. A red colour develops. D. Dissolve about 10 mg in 5 ml of water R and add 1 ml of 1 M hydrochloric acid. Heat in a water-bath for 2 min. Add 2 ml of a 5 g/l solution of a-naphthol R in 1 M sodium hydroxide and heat in a water-bath for 1 min. A faint yellow colour develops.

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