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1 Ass. wr. wb. PENELITIAN = RESEARCH Malang Ass. wr. wb. PENELITIAN = RESEARCH Malang- 2014

2 KEPMENDIKBUD No. 212/U/1999 PENELITIAN adalah kegiatan taat kaidah dalam upaya untuk menemukan kebenaran dan/atau menyelesaikan masalah dalam ilmu pengetahuan, teknologi dan/atau kesenian.

3 PENELITIAN, RESEARCH: Kamus Oxford (1995): Research = careful study esp in order to discover new facts or information Kamus Webster (1966): Research = careful or diligent search; to search or investigate exhaustively; to search again or anew. Kamus besar Bahasa Indonesia (2001): Penelitian adalah: 1.Pemeriksaan yang teliti 2.Kegiatan pengumpulan, pengolahan, analisis, dan penyajian data yang dilakukan secara sistematis dan objektif untuk memecahkan suatu persoalan atau menguji suatu hipotesis untuk mengembangkan prinsip-prinsip umum.

4 Woody (dalam Danim, 2002): Penelitian merupakan metode untuk menemukan kebenaran, disamping itu juga merupakan suatu pemikiran kritis. Pearson (dalam Whitney, 1960): Penelitian adalah pencarian atas sesuatu secara sistematik dan dilakukan terhadap masalah-masalah yang dapat dipecahkan. Burnd dan Grove (1993): research = is diligent systematic inquiry or investigation to validate and refine existing knowledge and generate new knowledge. Penny (1975): PENELITIAN ADALAH PEMIKIRAN YANG SISTEMATIK MENGENAI BERBAGAI JENIS MASALAH YANG Pemecahannya memerlukan pengumpuylan dan penafsiran fakta-fakta. Hillway (1956): “a method of study by which, through the careful and exhaustive of all ascertainable evidence bearing upon a definable problem, we reach a solution to the problem. Kerlinger (1986): penelitian adalah suatu penyelidikan yang sistematis, terkendali, empiris, dan kritis mengenai fenomnena-fenomena alam yang dibimbing oleh teori dan hipoptesis mengenai hubungan-hubungan yang diduga ada di antara fenomena- fenomena tersebut.

5 Jenis-jenis penelitian: Kline (1980): 1.Perdasarkan Tujuan: 1.1. Penelitian Dasar 1.2. Penelitian Terapan 1.3. Penelitian Evaluasi 2. Berdasatkan Metode: 2.1. Penelitian Historis 2.2. Penelitian Deskriptif 2.3. Penelitian Perkembangan Penelitian Kasus atau Studi Lapangan 2.5. Penelitian Korelasional 2.6. Penelitian Tindakan 2.7. Penelitian Komparatif 2.8. Penelitian Eksperimental 2.9. Penelitian Kualitatif 3. Berdasarkan tingkat penjelasan: 3.1. Penjelasan deskriptif 3.2. Penjelasan Asosiatif 3.3. Penjelasan Kausalitas.

6 Danim (2002): Ada dua jenis metode penelitian, yaitu: 1. Metode penelitian kuantitatif 2. Metode penelitian kualitatif Tipe-tipe penelitian kuantitatif:Tipe Penelitian Kualitatif: 1.Penelitian Deskriptif1. Penelitian Fenomenologi 2.Penelitian Perkembangan2. Penelitian Grounded 3.Penelitian Tindakan3. Penelitian Etnografi 4.Penelitian Perbandingan-Kausal4. Penelitian Historis 5.Penelitian Korelasional5. Penelitian KAsus 6.Penelitian Eksperimental Semu6. Penelitian Fisolofis 7.Penelitian Eksperimental7. Penelitian Kritik Sosial

7 Uma Sekaran (1992): Karakteristik utama penelitian ilmiah: 1.Tujuan Penelitian: jelas, pasti dan terarah 2.Keseriusan Penelitian: ketelitian, kehati-hatian, kepastian 3.Dapat Diuji: hipotesis yang dapat diuji dg metode statistik tertentu 4.Dapat direplikasi: temuan penelitian akan sama kalau diulang pada kondisi yang sama 5.Presisi dan keyakinan: presisi mencerminkan derajat kepastian dari temuan p[enelitian terhadap kejadian yg dipelajari. Keyakinan menunjukkan kemungkinan dari kebenaran estimasi yang dilakukan. 6.Obyektivitas: kesimpulan penelitian harus didasarkan pada data yang aktual 7.Berlaku Umum: dapat-tidaknya hasil penelitian diterapkan pada berbagai keadaan. 8.Efisien: kerangka penelitian yang melibatkan sedikit variabel yg dapat menjelaskan suatu kejadian

8 John W Best (1982): Sebelas karakteristik penelitian: 1.Penelitian dirancang dan diarahkan untuk mencari jawaban atas suatu permasalahan 2.Kerja penelitian dititik-beratkan pada pengembangan cara-cara membuat generalisasi, prinsip dan teori-teori 3.Penelitian didasarkan atas pengalaman hasil observasi atau kejadian empiris 4.Penelitian memerlukan observasi dan deskripsi yang akurat 5.Penelitian bertujuan untuk menemukan data yg baru dari sumber primer, bukan sekedar data yg sudah ada sebelumnya 6.Penelitian memerlukan rancangan yg teliti dan hati-hati melalui prosedur yg tepat dg menggunakan analisis yang rasional 7.Penelitian memerlukan keahlian 8.Penelitian menekankan pada logika dan obyektivitas yg tinggi 9.Penelitian menuntut kesabaran dan tidak dilakukan dg tergesa-gesa 10.Kerja penelitian memerlukan pencatatan dan pelaporan yang hati-hati dan teliti 11.Kerja penelitian kadang-kadang memerlukan keberanian

9 Nazir (1988): Kriteria Penelitian Ilmiah: 1.Berdasarkan pada fakta yang nyata, bukan kira-kira 2.Bebas dari prasangka, berdasarkan pada alasan dan buykti yang lengkap dengan metode epembuktian yg obyektif 3.Menggunakan Analisis, solusi permasalahan dicari dengan analisis yang logis. 4.Menggunakan hipotesis, untuk menuntun jalan pikiran peneliti dalam mencapai hasil penelitiannya 5.Menggunakan ukuran yang obyektif, dengan alat ukur yang obyektif pula 6.Menggunakan teknik kuantifikasi, untuk data yang masih memungkinkan dikuantifikasikan

10 Penelitian Terapan = Applied Research = Practical Research : Penyelidikan yang hati-hati, sistematis dan terus-menerus terhadap suatu masalah dengan tujuan untuk digunakan dengan segera bagi keperluan tertentu. Ciri-ciri penelitian terapan: 1.Kegiatan untuk menemukan kebenaran yang obyektif, bukan kegiatan spekulasi, atau untung-untungan 2.Memerlukan metode yang tepat dan dilaksanakan secara cermat 3.Menggunakan teori-teori yang “applied” untuk menyusun kerangka konsep penelitian, dan pembahasan 4.Memerlukan analisis yang tajam, rasional, kritis, dan obyektif, 5.Data lengkap dan objektif, 6.Tidak cukup dengan menyajikan data, tetapi harus diadakan pengolahan data, baik secara kuantitatif maupun kualitatif. 7.

11 METODE PENELITIAN KUALITATIF Newman (1997): enam ciri utama penelitian kualitatif: 1.The context is critical, mengutamakan konteks sosial 2.The value of the case study, menggunakan pendekatan studi kasus 3.Researcher integrity 4.Grounded theory, membangun teori dari data, induktif 5.Process and sequence, mencermati proses dan urutan perintiwanya 6.Interpretation, interpretasinya mendalam: i. The first order intrerpretation ii. The second order interpretation iii. The third order interpretation, menhubungkan dengan teori-teori umum.

12 Lincoln dan Guba (1985): 14 karakteristik penelitian kualitatif: 1.Natural setting 2.Human instruments 3.Utilization of tacit knowledge 4.Qualitative methods 5.Purposive sampling 6.Inductive data analysis 7.Grounded theory 8.Emergent design 9.Negotiated outcomes 10.Case study reporting mode 11.Idiographic interpretation 12.Tentative application 13.Focus determined boundaries 14.Special criteria for trustworthiness.

13 APA PENELITIAN KUALITATIF ITU ? Strauss dan Corbin (1997): qualitative research adalah penelitian yang menghasilkan temuan yang tidak dapat dicapai dg menggunakan prosedur statistik atau dengan cara kuantifikasi lainnya. Bogdan dan Taylor (1975): prosedur penelitian yang bertujuan mengumpulkan dan menganalisis data deskriptif berupa tulisan, ungkapan lisan dari orang dan perilakunya yang dapat diamati. Kirk dan Miller (1986): penelitian kualitatif merupakan tradisi dalam ilmu sosial yang secara fundamental bergantung pada pengamatan pada amanusia dalam kawasannya sendiri dan berhubungan dengan orang-orang tersebut menurut bahasa dan peristilahannya Penelitian kualitatif bertujuan mengumpulkan data dalam setting alamiah, yang akan digunakan untuk menyusun teori melalui analisis data secara induktif.

14 JENIS PENELITIAN KUALITATIF Bogdan dan Biklen (1982): 1.Interpretative research 2.Verstehen 3.Hermeneutics 4.Ethnomethodology 5.Ethnography 6.Cognitive research 7.Field research 8.Idealist research 9.Subjectivist 10.Phenomenological research 11.Symbolic interactionism 12.Naturalistic 13.Constructivism 14.Grounded research 15.Studi Kasus 16.Perspektif ke dalam 17.Ekologis 18.Deskriptif.

15 Danim (2000): tujuh jenis penelitian kualitatif: 1.Penelitian Fenomenologi 2.Penelitian Grounded 3.Penelitian Etnografi 4.Penelitian Historis 5.Penelitian Kasus 6.Inquiry Filosofis: fundasional, filosofis, etik 7.Teori kritik sosial

16 Beberapa Istilah lain 1.Policy Research: menjawab masalah sosial yang bersifat fundamental dan hasilnya dimanfaatkan oleh pembuat kebijakan untuk menjawab masalah-masalah fundamental dan mendesak 2.Philosophycal Inquiry: menekankan analisis intelektual yang dipandu dengan pertanyaan filosofis dan mempertimbangkan ide dan isu-isu dari semua perspektif, eksplorasi yang luas dan mendalam 3.Critical Social Theory: menemukan pemahaman mengenai cara seseorang berkomunikasi dan dalam mengembangkan makna simbolik dalam masyarakat. 4.Developmen Research: mempelajari pola pertumbuhan dan perkembangan subyek tertentu, baik secara terus-menerus atau secara periodik yang mendalam untuk menyempurnakan, memperbaiki atau mengembangkan sesuatu yang telah ada 5.Evaluation research: mengukur suatu program, produk atau aktivitas tertentu, dengan maksud untuk memperbaikinya 6.Verstehen: menggunakan pola pikir divergensi, kreatif, inovatif untuk memperoleh pemahaman yang mendasar dan mendalam 7.Descriptive Research: mengungkap suatu maslaah atau keadaan tertentu sebagaimana adanya sehingga dapat memberikan gambaran secara tepat tentang keadaan sebenarnya dari obyek yang diselidiki dalam ranghka memecahkan masalah tertentu yang spesifik.

17 8. Action Research: untuk medeskripsikan, konsepsi, pengambilan keputusan secara kritis berdasarkan rekaman, pemantauan dan evaluasi terhadap tindakan dan hasil tindakan. 9.Phenomenological Research: untuk memahami respon dari suatu unit tertentu secara utuh termasuk interaksinya dengan lingkungan sekitarnya 10.Historical Research: merekonstruksi kondisi masa lampau secara obyektif, sistematis, dan akurat guna merumuskan kesimpulan yang lebih kuat dan akurat 11.Field Research: penelitian dilakukan secara langsung di lokasi penelitian untuk dapat memahami secara mendalam lingkungan masyarakat atau obyek tertentu baik melalui wawancara maupun pengamatan 12.Penelitian Kasus: tujuannya untuk mempelajari secara mendalam suatu fenomena tertentu sehingga diperoleh gambaran yang menyeluruh dan utuh pada keadaan sekarang apa adanya. 13. Penelitian Etnografi: penelitian dimaksudkan untuk memahami mudaya atau aspek kebudayaan dalam kehidupan sosial masyarakat 14.Interaksionisme Simbolik: untuk memahami makna perilaku manusia dalam kehidupan: motif, wawasan, internalisasi nilai. 15.Naturalist Inquiry: penelitian untuk memahami fenomena interaksi, perilaku, yang pengkajiannya dalam latar belakang alamiah. 16.Grounded Research: penelitian untuk memahami permasalahan yang muncul dalam suatu fenomena tertentu untuk menyusun, mengembangkan, dan merekonstruksikan teori berdasarkan data yang digali dari bawah secara langsung, induktif.

18 PENELITIAN KUANTITATIF VS KUALITATIF Penelitian KuantitatifPenelitian Kualitatif 1. Ilmu-ilmu kerasIlmu-ilmu lunak 2. Fakus ringkas dan sempitFokus kompleks dan luas 3. ReduksionistikHolistik dan menyeluruh 4. ObyektifSubyektif atau prspektif etnik 5. Penalaran logis dan deduktifPenalaran dialektif-induktif 6. Basis pengetahuan: Hubungan sebab-akibat Basis pengetahuan: Makna dan temuan 7. Menguji teoriMengembangkan/ membangun teori 8. Kontrol atas variabelSumbangsih tafsiran 9. InstrumenKomunikasi dan observasi 10. Elemen dasar analisis: angkaElemen dasar analisis: kata-kata 11. Analisis statistik atas dataInterpretasi individual 12. GeneralisasiKeunikan

19 POSITIVIST vs. NATURALIST Lincoln and Guba (1985) Axiom AboutParadigma PositivistikParadigma Naturalistik Ontologi: Nature of realityReality is single, tangible and fragmentable Realities are multiple, constructed, holistic Epistemologi: relationship of knower and known Knower and known are independent, a dualisme Know the known are interactive, inseparable Possibility of generalizationTime and context-free generalization Only time and context bound working hypotheses ( idiographic statement) are possible Possibility of causal linkages There are real causes, temporally precedent to or simultaneous with their effect All intities are in state of mutual simultaneous shaping so that it is impossible to distinguiosh causes from effects Aksiologi: To role of values in inquiry Inquiry is value freeInquiry is value bound

20 ASUMSI PARADIGMA KUANTITATIF DAN KUALITATIF AsumsiQuestionsKuantitatifKualitatif Asumsi ontologis What is the nature of reality? Reality is objective and singular, apart from the researcher Reality is subjective and multiple as seen by participant in a study Asumsi epistemolog is What is the relationship of the researcher to that researched? Reality is independent from that being researched Researcher interact with that being researched Asumsi aksiologis What is the role of values? Value-free and unbiasedValue-bound and biased Asumsi rhetoris What is the language of research? Formal; based on set definitions; impersonal voice; use of accepted quantitative words Informal; evolving; decisions; personal voice; accepted qualitative words Asumsi metodologi s What is the process of the research? Deductive process; cause and effect; static design categories isolated before study; context-free; genaralization leading to prediction, explanation, and understanding; accurate and reliable through validity and reliability Inductive process; mutual simultaneous shaping of factors; emerging design categories identified during research process; context bound; patterns, theories developed for understanding; accurate and reliable through verification.

21 PERMASALAHAN PENELITIAN Kamus Oxford (1995): problem is a thing that is difficult to deal with or understand ; a question to be answered or solved; esp. by reasoning or calculating. Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia (2001): masalah diartikan sebagai sesuatu yang harus diselesaikan (dipecahkan); soal, persoalan. Permasalahan: hal yang menjadikan masalah; hal yang dimasalahkan; persoalan Pertanyaan berarti sesuatu yang ditanyakan; soal; permintaan keterangan; perbuatan bertanya. Masalah adalah faktor yang dapat menyebabkan tidak tercapainya tujuan. “Ada permasalahan” berarti ; “ada kesenjangan” antara das Sollen dan das Sein; ada perbedaan antara “apa yang seharusnya” dan “apa yang ada dalam kenyataan” Antara harapan dan kenyataan Antara “apa yang diperlukan” dan “apa yang tersedia”

22 BAGAIMANA MEMILIH MASALAH PENELITIAN Dalam dunia nyata banyak masalah yang harus diselesaikan dengan segera dalam waktu tertentu. Namun tidak semua maslaah tersebut dapat diangkat menjadi maslaah penelitian. Oleh karena itu perlu dilakukan identifikasi masalah Ada beberapa cara yang dapat ditempuh: 1.Analisis literatur, terutama publikasi hasil-hasil penelitian yang relevan, rekomendasi tindak lanjut hasiul penelitian 2.Kerja dan kontak profesional bidang keilmuan, forum-forum ilmiah 3.Pernyataan pemegang otoritas, baik ilmuwan maupun birokrasi 4.Pengamatan sepintas atas sutau kejadian atau peristiwa tertentu 5.Pengalaman pribadi peneliti dalam bidang tertentu yang menarik untuk diteliti

23 BEBERAPA PERTIMBANGAN DALAM PEMILIHAN MASALAH 1.Pertimbangan ilmiah 2.Pertimbangan non-ilmiah 3.Pertimbangan dari sudut pandang peneliti Pertimbangan ilmiah: 1.Apakah maslaah tersebut dapat diteliti secara ilmiah? Yaitu masalah yang realitasnya dapat diamati dan datanya tersedia dan dapat dikumpulkan 2.Apakah masalah tersebut memberikan manfaat dalam pengembangan ilmu pengetahuan? 3.Dengan metode bagaimana masalah dapat diteliti? Pertimbangan non-ilmiah: 1.Apa manfaat hasil penelitian bagi kepentingan praktis atau masyarakat? 2.Apakah masalah terlalu peka untuk diteliti? Resistensi sosial, budaya, ideologi Pertimbangan peneliti: 1.Penguasaan teori dan metodologi 2.Minat peneliti terhadap masalaah 3.Kemampuan pengumpulan dan analisis data 4.Ketersediaan waktu, dana dan sumberdaya

24 Beberapa ciri khusus masalah penelitian: 1.Masalah penelitian hendaknya dapat mencerminkan kebutuhan yang dirasakan 2.Masalah penelitian merupakan kenyataan yang betul-betul ada yang merupakan hasil dari proses identifikasi masalah 3.Masalah penelitian relevan, dalam arti merupakan permasalahan yang betul-betul baru dan dapat dilaksanakan dengan baik dan benar.

25 PERUMUSAN MASALAH PENELITIAN. 1.Merumuskan masalah berarti mendeskripsikan dengan jelas masalah yang dihadapi 2.Perumusan masalah merupakan proses penyederhanaan maslaah yang rumit dan kompleks, menjadi maslaah yang dapat diteliti 3.Perumusan masalah adalah merumuskan kaitan- kaitan antara kesenjangan pengetahuan ilmiah atau teknologi yang akan diteliti dengan kesenjangan pengetahuan ilmiah yang lebih luas. 4.Rumusan maslaah penelitian biasanya terdiri atas beberapa kalimat pertanyaan yang dibuat secara jelas dan tegas yang dapat mengarahkan solusi atau alternatif solusinya.

26 Beberapa hal yang perlu diperhatikan DALAM merumuskan masalah penelitian adalah: a. Rumusan masalah dinyatakan secara singkat, jelas dan padat b. Rumusan masalah akan lebih baik jika menggunakan kalimat tanya c. Rumusan masalah akan lebih baik jika bersifat menghubungkan dua variabel (atau faktor, atau indikator) atau lebih d. Rumusan maslaah hendaknya berisi implikasi adanya data untuk pemecahan masalah e. Rumusan masalah hendaknya relevan dengan judul dan perlakuan yang akan diteliti

27 PERUMUSAN MASALAH DALAM PENELITIAN KUALITATIF 1.Rumusan maslaah penelitian bersifat tentatif yang dapat berubah dan disempurnakan. 2.Maslaah penelitian ada di lapangan, dan perumusan masalah merupakan upaya untuk menemukan teori dari dasarnya (grounded theory) 3.Rumusan maslaah sering disebut “fokus penelitian” yang dirumuskan dalam bentuk “pertanyaan penelitian”.

28 PERTANYAAN PENELITIAN. 1.Pertanyaan penelitian – Permasalahan Penelitian – Fokus penelitian 2.Pertanyaan yang harus dijawab melalui penelitian 3.Pertanyaan penelitian menekankan pada fakta dan pengumpulan informasi 4.Pertanyaan penelitian dapat dirinci menjadi “Pertanyaan penyelidikan” (Investigative question) 5.Pertanyaan pengukuran (measurement question): pertanyaan yang diajukan kepada para responden

29 Arikunto (1998): 12 langkah dalam penelitian: 1.Memilih masalah 2.Studi pendahuluan 3.Merumuskan masalah 4.Merumuskan anggapan dasar 5.Merumuskan hipotesis 6.Memilih pendekatan 7.Menentukan variabel dan sumber data 8.Menentukan dan menyusun instrumen 9.Mengumpulkan data 10.Analisis data 11.Menarik kesimpulan 12.Menulis laporan

30 Husein Umar (1999): Sembilan Langkah dalam penelitian: 1.Mendefinisikan dan merumuskan maslaah 2.Melakukan studi kepustakaan 3.Memformulasikan hipotesis 4.Menentukan Model 5.Mengumpulkan data 6.Mengolah dan menyajikan informasi 7.Menganalisis dan menginterpretasi 8.Membuat generalisasi dan kesimpulan 9.Membuat laporan

31 ETIKA DALAM PENELITIAN Etika merupakan norma atau standar perilaku yang menjadi pedoman moral perilaku seseorang dan huungannya dengan orang lain Tujuan etika dalam penelitian adalah untuk menjamin agar tidak ada seorangpun yang dirugikan atau mendapat dampak negatif dari kegiatan penelitian. Cooper dan Emory (1996): kegiatan-kegiatan tidak etis dapat berupa: 1.Pelanggaran persetujuan tentang kerahasiaan 2.Salah menyajikan hasil dan temuan penelitian 3.Menipu orang 4.Menagih biaya yang tidak wajar 5.Menghindari tanggung-jawab hukum 6.Dan lainnya

32 O’Sullivan dan Ressel (1989): Tiga pedoman etika thd responden: 1.Memulai pengumpulan data dengan menjelaskan kepada responden mengenai manfaat yang diharapkan dari penelitian. 2.Menjelaskan kepada responden bahwa hak- haknya dan kesejahteraannya dilindungi secukupnya dan bagaimana caranya 3.Memastikan bahwa pewawancara mendapat persetujuan dari responden.

33 Primary Research Primary research (also called field research) involves the collection of data that doesn't already exist. This method of research is always used as the first technique, this can then lead on to Field research.Field research The term is widely used in market research.market research

34 Methods of collection primary data Observation: Looking at and recording what people do and how they behave. Today, store cameras can be used to observe consumer behaviourconsumer behaviour Experiments: Market researchers can use experimental techniques. e.g. test marketing, blind taste teststest marketing Surveys: Involves asking questionnaires to respondents Consumer panels: A select group of consumers that the company regularly surveys to identify changing attitudes

35 Secondary research Secondary research (also known as desk research) involves the summary, collation and/or synthesis of existing research rather than primary research, where data is collected from, for example, research subjects or experiments. The term is widely used in market research and in medical research.market researchmedical research The principle methodology in medical secondary research is the systematic review, commonly using meta-analytic statistical techniques, although other methods of synthesis, like realist reviews and meta-narrative reviews, have been developed in recent years.systematic review

36 Analytic frame Analytic frame is a detailed sketch or outline of some social phenomenon, representing initial idea of a scientist analyzing this phenomenon.social phenomenon Charles C. RaginCharles C. Ragin defines it as one of the four building blocks of social research (the other three being ideas (social theories), evidence (data) and images (new ideas synthetised from existing data). social researchsocial theoriesdata

37 Thus analytic frames are used to elaborate on starting ideas and they would usually consist of a list of some key elements found in most of the analysed phenomena (for example, social movements).social movements Two specific types of analytic frames are case and aspect based frames. Framing by case refers to researchers using concepts to classify the phenomena they study, while framing by aspect refers to using concepts to characterize the phenomena. For example, a scientists describing a restaurant, a bus, a coffeehouse and a waiting room as a noninteraction places is assigning them into the same category, thus framing them by case.

38 Framing by aspect is going further and differentiating between cases in a given category (how exactly is noninteraction achieved in those places, what forms of SOCIAL INTERACTION are permitted in those places, etc.). Frames can be also divided into fixed, fluid or flexible. Fixed frame are those which won't change in later research states - they are common in QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH, and are used to test and prove or falsify a HYPOTHESIS.

39 Flexible frames are common in COMPARATIVE RESEARCH, where they show which factors may be more relevant in specific research context, helping to explore the problem without making specific hypothesis. Fluid frames are used when researcher wants to limit the influence of the existing, more established theories; they are thus subject to much change and the researcher can use several frames switching between them depending on the gathered data. Fluid frames are most common in the QUALITATIVE RESEARCH.

40 Analytic induction Analytic induction refers to a systematic examination of similarities between various social phenomena in order to develop concepts or ideas.social phenomena Social scientists doing social research use analytic induction to search for those similarities in broad categories and then develop subcategories. For example, social scientist may examine the category of 'marijuana users' and then develop subcategories for 'uses marijuana for pleasure' and 'uses marijuana for health reasons'.social researchmarijuana If no relevant similarities can be identified, then either the data needs to be reevaluated and the definition of similarities changed, or the category is too wide and heterogeneous and should be narrowed down. (Ragin 1994)heterogeneous

41 In the earlier sociological papers (from 1940s and 1950s) this term could also be used to mean the search for "universals" in social life, where "universal" meant an invariant, complete, positivistic propriety (i.e. "all black males between 35 and 40 vote for Democrats"). (Ragin 1994) positivistic This principle was formulated in 1934 by Florian Znaniecki. He formulated it to identify universal propositions and causal laws. He contrasted it with enumerative research, which provided mere correlations and could not account for exceptions in statistical relationships. This procedure was refined by Alfred Lindesmith (1947) and Donald Cressey (1950) in their respective studies of opiate addiction and embezzlers, and was used by Howard S. Becker (1963) in his study of marijuana users. (Taylor & Bogdan 1998) Eventually it became one of the classic research methods in ethnography.Florian Znanieckienumerative researchAlfred LindesmithDonald Cressey Howard S. Beckerethnography

42 Znaniecki wrote that this procedure, known to natural sciences (if never named so) involves "inducing laws from a deep analysis of experimentally isolated instances" and can be contrasted with defining and using terms in advance of research.natural sciences Therefore it is a method involving inductive reasoning (rather than deductive).inductive reasoningdeductive Analytic induction allows for modification of social concepts and their relationships throughout the process of doing research, with the goal of most accurately representing the reality of the situation.social concepts

43 Cohort study A cohort study is a form of longitudinal study used in medicine and social science.longitudinal studymedicinesocial science It is one type of study design.study design In medicine, it is usually undertaken to obtain evidence to try to refute the existence of a suspected association between cause and disease; failure to refute an hypothesis strengthens confidence in it. Crucially, the cohort is identified before the appearance of the disease under investigation. The study groups, so defined, are observed over a period of time to determine the frequency of new incidence of the studied disease among them.

44 The cohort cannot therefore be defined as a group of people who already have the disease. Distinguishing causality from mere correlation cannot usually be done with results of a cohort study alone. A cohort is a group of people who share a common characteristic or experience within a defined time period (e.g., are born, leave school, lose their job, are exposed to a drug or a vaccine, etc.).cohort Thus a group of people who were born on a day or in a particular time period, say 1948, form a birth cohort. The comparison group may be the general population from which the cohort is drawn, or it may be another cohort of persons thought to have had little or no exposure to the substance under investigation, but otherwise similar.

45 Alternatively, subgroups within the cohort may be compared with each other. The largest cohort study in women is the Nurses' Health Study.Nurses' Health Study Started in 1976, it is tracking over 120,000 nurses and has been analyzed for many different conditions and outcomes. Some cohort studies track a group of children from their birth, and record a wide range of information (exposures) about them. The value of a cohort study depends on the researchers' capacity to stay in touch with all members of the cohort. Some of these studies have continued for decades. An example of a cohort study that has been going on for more than 50 years is the Framingham Heart Study.Framingham Heart Study

46 An example of an epidemiologic question that can be answered by the use of a cohort study is: does exposure to X (say, smoking) correlate with outcome Y (say, lung cancer)? Such a study would enroll a group of smokers and a group of non-smokers (the unexposed group) and follow them for a set period of time and note differences in the incidence of lung cancer between the groups at the end of this time. In this example, a statistically significant increase in the incidence of lung cancers in the smoking group as compared to the non-smoking group is evidence in favor of the hypothesis. However, rare outcomes, such as lung cancer, are generally not studied with the use of a cohort study, but are rather studied with the use of a case-control study.case-control

47 Shorter term studies are commonly used in medical research as a form of clinical trial, or means to test a particular hypothesis of clinical importance.clinical trial Such studies typically follow two groups of patients for a period of time and compare an endpoint or outcome measure between the two groups. Randomized controlled trialsRandomized controlled trials, or RCTs are a superior methodology in the hierarchy of evidence, because they limit the potential for bias by randomly assigning one patient pool to an intervention and another patient pool to non-intervention (or placebo). This minimises the chance that the incidence of confounding variables will differ between the two groups.

48 Nevertheless, it is sometimes not practical or ethical to perform RCTs to answer a clinical question. To take our example, if we already had reasonable evidence that smoking causes lung cancer then persuading a pool of non-smokers to take up smoking in order to test this hypothesis would generally be considered quite unethical. A "prospective cohort" defines the groups before the study is done, while a "retrospective cohort" does the grouping after the data is collected.prospective cohortretrospective cohort

49 Constructive research Constructive research is perhaps the most common computer science research method. This type of approach demands a form of validation that doesn’t need to be quite as empirically based as in other types of research like exploratory research. computer scienceexploratory research Nevertheless the conclusions have to be objectively argued and defined. This may involve evaluating the “construct” being developed analytically against some predefined criteria or performing some benchmark tests with the prototype.benchmarkprototype

50 The term “construct” is often used in this context to refer to the new contribution being developed. Construct can be a NEW THEORY, ALGORITM, MODEL, SOFTWARE, or A FRAMEWORK.

51

52 The following phrases explain the above figure. The “fuzzy info from many sources” tab refers to different info sources like training materials, processes, literature, articles, working experience etc.fuzzyprocesses In the “solution” tab, “theoretical framework” represents a tool to be used in the problem solving. The “practical relevance” tab it refers to empirical knowledge creation that offers final benefits.empirical The “theoretical relevance” tab it gives the new theoretical knowledge that needs scientific acceptance: the back arrow to “theoretical body of knowledge” tab. knowledge

53 Steps to be followed in “practical utility” tab (a): Set objectives and tasks Identify process model Select case execution Interview case organization Prepare simulation Run simulation Interpret simulation results Give feedback Steps to be followed in “epistemic utility” tab (b):epistemic Constructive researchresearch Case research Surveys Qualitative and quantitative methods TheoryTheory creating Theory testing

54 Cross-sectional study Cross-sectional studies (also known as Cross-sectional analysis) form a class of RESEARCH METHOD that involve observation of some subset of a population of items all at the same time. The fundamental difference between cross-sectional and LONGITUDINAL STUDIES is that cross-sectional studies take place at a single point in time and that a longitudinal study involves a series of measurements taking over a period of time. Cross-sectional studies are used in most branches of science, in the social sciences and in other fields as well.

55 Cross-sectional studies in medicine Cross-sectional studies can be thought of as providing a "snapshot" of the frequency and characteristics of a disease in a population at a particular point in time. This type of data can be used to assess the prevalence of acute or chronic conditions in a population. However, since exposure and disease status are measured at the same point in time, it may not always be possible to distinguish whether the exposure preceded or followed the disease. The cross-sectional survey--which, like a snapshot, "freezes" a specific moment in time--aims at finding the same kind of relationships that might be shown by the "moving picture" of the cohort study, but at far less cost.

56 In a cross-sectional survey, a specific group is looked at to see if a substance or activity, say smoking, is related to the health effect being investigated--for example, lung cancer. If a significantly greater number of smokers already have lung cancer than those who don't smoke, this would support the hypothesis that lung cancer is caused by smoking. Cross-sectional analysis studies the relationship between different variables at a point in time. For instance, the relationship between income, locality, and personal expenditure. Unlike time series, cross-sectional analysis relates to how variables affect each other at the same time.

57 Longitudinal study A longitudinal study is a correlational research study that involves repeated observations of the same items over long periods of time, often many decades.correlational Longitudinal studies are often used in psychology to study developmental trends across the life span. The reason for this is that unlike cross-sectional studies, longitudinal studies track the same people, and therefore the differences observed in those people are less likely to be the result of cultural differences across generations.cross-sectional studies

58 Longitudinal studies are also used in medicine to uncover predictors of certain diseases. Because longitudinal studies are OBSERVATIONAL, in the sense that they observe the state of the world without manipulating it, it has been argued that they may have less power to detect CAUSAL RELATIONSHIPS than do EXPERIMENT. But because of the repeated observation at the individual level, they have more power than cross-sectional observational studies, by virtue of being able to exclude time-invariant unobserved individual differences, and by virtue of observing the temporal order of events.

59 Longitudinal studies allow social scientist to distinguish short from long-term phenomena, such as POVERTY. If the poverty rate is 10% at a point in time, this may mean that 10% of the population are always poor, or that the whole population experiences poverty for 10% of the time. It is not possible to conclude which of these possibilities is the case using one-off cross-sectional studies.

60 Types of longitudinal studies include cohort studies and panel studies. COHORT STUDIES sample a cohort, defined as a group experiencing some event (typically birth) in a selected time period, and studying them at intervals through time. PANEL STUDIES sample a cross-section, and survey it at (usually regular) intervals. A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY is a longitudinal study that looks back in time. For instance a researcher may look up the medical records of previous years to look for a trend

61 Operations research Operations research or operational research (OR) is an interdisciplinary science which uses scientific methods like mathematical modeling, statistics, and algorithms to help with decision making in complex real-world problems which are concerned with coordination and execution of the operations within an organization.mathematical modelingstatisticsalgorithms The nature of the organization is immaterial. The eventual intention behind using this science is to elicit a best possible solution to a problem scientifically, which improves or optimizes the performance of the organization.

62 The terms operations research and management science are often used synonymously. When a distinction is drawn, management science generally implies a closer relationship to the problems of business management.management sciencebusiness management Operations research also closely relates to Industrial engineering. Industrial engineering takes more of an engineering point of view, and industrial engineers typically consider OR techniques to be a major part of their toolset. Industrial engineering

63 Some of the primary tools used by operations researchers are statistics, optimization, stochastics, queueing theory, game theory, graph theory, decision analysis, and simulation.statisticsoptimizationstochastics queueing theorygame theorygraph theory decision analysissimulation Because of the computational nature of these fields, OR also has ties to computer science, and operations researchers regularly use custom- written or off-the-shelf software.computer science

64 Operations research is distinguished by its ability to look at and improve an entire system, rather than concentrating only on specific elements (though this is often done as well). An operations researcher faced with a new problem is expected to determine which techniques are most appropriate given the nature of the system, the goals for improvement, and constraints on time and computing power. For this and other reasons, the human element of OR is vital. Like any other tools, OR techniques cannot solve problems by themselves.

65 Scope of operations research A few examples of applications in which operations research is currently used include: 1.Designing the layout of a factory for efficient flow of materialsfactory 2.Constructing a telecommunications network at low cost while still guaranteeing QoS (quality of service) or QoE (Quality of Experience) if particular connections become very busy or get damagedtelecommunications networkQoSQoE 3.Road traffic management and 'one way' street allocations i.e. allocation problems. 4.Determining the routes of school buses (or city buses) so that as few buses are needed as possible 5.Designing the layout of a computer chip to reduce manufacturing time (therefore reducing cost)computer chipmanufacturing

66 6. Managing the flow of raw materials and products in a supply chain based on uncertain demand for the finished productssupply chain 7. Efficient messaging and customer response tactics 8. Roboticizing or automating human-driven operations processes 9. Globalizing operations processes in order to take advantage of cheaper materials, labor, land or other productivity inputs 10. Managing freight transportation and delivery systems (Examples: LTL Shipping, intermodal freight transport)freighttransportationLTL Shippingintermodal freight transport 11. Scheduling: Personnel staffing Manufacturing steps Project tasksroject tasks Network data traffic: these are known as queuing models or queuing systems. Sports events and their television coverage Blending of raw materials in oil refineries Operations research is also used extensively in government where evidence- based policy is used.evidence- based policy

67 Systems thinking Systems thinking is an approach to analysis that is based on the belief that the component parts of a system will act differently when isolated from its environment or other parts of the system.analysiscomponent system environment Because the whole is greater than the sum of its parts, (the relationship between the parts is what should be under observation) any atomistic analysis, is considered reductionistic. Standing in contrast to Descartes's, and others', reductionism, it proposes to view systems in a holistic manner. Descartesothers'reductionismholistic

68 Consistent with systems philosophy, systems thinking concerns an understanding of a system by bringing the linkages and interactions to bear between the elements that comprise the entirety of the system.systems philosophy It depicts all human-activity systems as open systems, that they are affected by the environment in which they exist.

69 Systems thinking attempts to illustrate that, in complex systems, events are separated by distance and time; hence, small catalytic events can cause large changes in a system. complex systems Acknowledging that a change in one area of a system can adversely affect another area of the system, it promotes organizational communication at all levels in order to avoid the silo effect.organizational communicationsilo effect

70 Both systems thinkers and futurists consider that:futurists a "system" is a dynamic and complex whole, interacting as a structured functional unit;system informationinformation flows between the different elements that compose the system; a system is a community situated within an environment; information flows from and to the surrounding environment via semi-permeable membranes or boundaries systems are often composed of entities seeking equilibrium but can exhibit oscillating, chaotic, or exponential growth or decay behavior. exponential growthdecay

71 What is a system? A system is any set (group) of interdependent or temporally interacting parts. Parts are generally systems themselves and are composed of other parts, just as systems are generally parts or holons of other systems. temporallyholons Systems thinking techniques may be used to study any kind of system — natural, scientific, human, or conceptual.scientifichuman

72 The Systems approach rests on two tenets: "The Whole is more than the sum of the parts" — AristotleAristotle The development ethic. Examples Systems thinking often involves considering a "system" in different ways: Rather than trying to improve the braking system on a car by looking in great detail at the composition of the brake pads (reductionist), the boundary of the braking system may be extended to include not only the components of the car, but the driver, the road and the weather, and considering the interactions between them.weather

73 Looking at something as a series of conceptual systems according to multiple viewpoints. A supermarket could be considered as a "profit making system" from the perspective of management, an "employment system" from the perspective of the staff, and a "shopping system" — or perhaps an "entertainment system" — from the perspective of the customers.employment As a result of such thinking, new insights may be gained into how the supermarket works, why it has problems, or how changes made to one such system may impact on the others.

74 Methods The application of Systems thinking has been grouped into three categories based on the techniques used to tackle a system: HARD SYSTEMS — involving simulation, often using computers and the techniques of operations research. Useful for problems that can justifiably be quantified.computersoperations research However it cannot easily take into account unquantifiable variables (opinions, culture, politics, etc), and may treat people as being passive, rather than having complex motivations.

75 SOFT SYSTEMS — For systems that cannot easily be quantified, especially those involving people holding multiple and conflicting frames of reference. Useful for understanding motivations, viewpoints, and interactions and addressing qualitative as well as quantitative dimensions of problem situations. Soft systems are a field that utilizes foundation methodological work developed by Peter Checkland, Brian Wilson and their colleagues at Lancaster University.Peter Checkland Morphological analysisMorphological analysis is a complementary method for structuring and analysing non-quantifiable problem complexes.

76 Evolutionary systemsEvolutionary systems — Bela H. BanathyBela H. Banathy developed a methodology applicable to the design of complex social systems. This technique integrates critical systems inquiry with soft systems methodologies. Evolutionary systems, similar to dynamic systems are understood as open, complex systems, but with the capacity to evolve over time.dynamic systems Banathy uniquely integrated the multidisciplinary perspectives of systems research (including chaos, complexity, cybernetics), cultural anthropology, evolutionary theory, and others.multidisciplinarychaoscomplexitycybernetics cultural anthropologyevolutionary theory

77 Applications Systems thinking is increasingly being used to tackle a wide variety of subjects in fields such as: Computing,omputing Engineering,ngineering Epidemiology,pidemiology Information science,nformation science Health,ealth Manufacture,anufacture Management, andanagement Environment.nvironment

78 References Charles C. RaginCharles C. Ragin, Constructing Social Research: The Unity and Diversity of Method, Pine Forge Press, 1994, ISBN ISBN Steven J. TaylorSteven J. Taylor, Robert Bogdan, Introduction to Qualitative Research Methods, John Wiley & Sons, 1998, ISBN Robert BogdanISBN Epidemiology for the Uninitiated by Coggon, Rose, and Barker, Chapter 8, "Case-control and cross-sectional studies", BMJ(British Medical Journal) Publishing, 1997 Research Methods Knowledge Base by William M. K. Trochim, Web Center for Social Research Methods, copyright 2006


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