Presentasi sedang didownload. Silahkan tunggu

Presentasi sedang didownload. Silahkan tunggu

Global Economy is moving from a “production- oriented” paradigm toward an emphasis on converting information to knowledge “The future belongs to the knowledge.

Presentasi serupa


Presentasi berjudul: "Global Economy is moving from a “production- oriented” paradigm toward an emphasis on converting information to knowledge “The future belongs to the knowledge."— Transcript presentasi:

1

2 Global Economy is moving from a “production- oriented” paradigm toward an emphasis on converting information to knowledge “The future belongs to the knowledge worker”

3 PERTEMUAN VIII

4 HR Management Development System Sasaran dan Strategi Organisasi Sasaran dan Strategi HRD Management Development Manpower Recruitment Organization Design & Dev. HR Dev. Process HR Development Systems and Practices Bagaimana seharusnya struktur organisasi dirancang/ dikembangkan. Bagaimana analisa jabatan harus dilakukan termasuk identifikasi kompetensi standard untuk tiap jabatan. Bagaimana job description harus dibuat? Bagaimana memaintain konsistensi dan efektifitasnya> Bagaimana seharusnya MPP dilakukan? Termasuk rekrutmen baru, pengembangan karir, dan suksesi.. Apa saja strategi yang bisa dilakukan : internal, agency, in- campus, etc. Bagaimana cara memaintain akurasi dan efektifitas-nya. Bagaimana melakukan performance gap analysis baik untuk jabatan sekarang/ akan datang untuk individu, dan kebutuhan organisasi. Bagaimana cara mengembangkan program pengembangan karyawan dari sisi technical, managerial, dan personal? Menentukan metoda pengembangan yang tepat untuk tiap jenis kebutuhan? Memonitor dan mengevaluasi proses pengembangan karyawan. HR DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM & PRACTICES Memastikan tersedianya SDM pada kualitas, kuantitas, dan waktu yang tepat Memastikan organisasi yang efektif dan efisien. Mengembangkan “ management talent pool” Memperbesar pool karyawan dengan ketrampilan teknis yang diperlukan.

5 Kunci sukses evaluasi kinerja Fokuskan pada perilaku, bukan kepada orangnya. Tidak dipengaruhi oleh perbedaan status. Hindari melakukan kesalahan penilaian. Menjadi pendengar aktif menguasai teknik komunikasi. Mencari sumber informasi kinerja karyawan. Evaluasi adalah sebuah proses berkelanjutan.

6 IMPLIKASI MANAJERIAL PENILAIAN KINERJA Manajer mengenali dan mengambil manfaat dari penilaian kinerja. Manajer terlibat dalam instrumen penilaian yang tepat. Penilaian kerja memasukkan ukuran aktivitas dan hasilnya. Mengetahui keterbatasan metode penilaian kerja yang digunakan. Manajer mengetahui dampak bagi pengembangan SDM lainnya. Manajer bersikap positif terhadap hasil penilaian kinerja. Sebelumnya, manajer menginformasikan pekerja tentang penilaian. Manajer mendokumentasikan hasil penilaian secara lengkap. Manajer mempraktekkan komunikasi yang efektif selama penilaian.

7 FINANSIALNON FINANSIAL LANGSUNG - UPAH - GAJI - KOMISI - BONUS TAK LANGSUNG - PROGAM ASURANSI - BANTUAN SOSIAL UNTUK KARYAWAN - TUNJANGAN PENSIUN KESEHATAN, BEA SISWA, DLL - KETIDAKHADIRAN YANG DIBAYAR : HARI BESAR, IZIN BESAR, IZIN SAKIT, CUTI HAMIL, DLL PEKERJAAN - TUGAS YANG MENARIK - TANTANGAN - TANGGUNG JAWAB - PELUANG DAN PENGAKUAN - PERASAAN AKAN PENCAPAIAN - PELUANG ADANYA PROMOSI LINGKUNGAN KERJA - KEBIJAKAN YG SEHAT - SUPERVISI YANG KOMPETEN - REKAN KERJA YANG MENYENANGKAN - SIMBOL STATUS - KONDISI LINGKUNGAN YANG NYAMAN - WAKTU LUANG - KOMPENSASI KAFETARIA - MINGGUAN KERJA YANG DIPADATKAN - SHARING PEKERJAAN

8 Isu pokok : Bagaimana gaji dari sebuah organisasi dibandingkan dengan gaji yantg diterima oleh karyawan dari perusahaan sejenis? Tingkat gaji dipengaruhi oleh : upah minimal, kompensasi oleh perusahaan sejenis, serikat pekerja, kondisi ekonomi dan pasar tenaga kerja, kondisi finansial perusahaan. Level gaji dianalisa melalui survey gaji dan upah. Isu pokok : Bagaimana organisasi menempatkan suatu nilai relatif terhadap harga/ nilai dari pekerjaan mereka? Struktur gaji dipengaruhi : deskripsi pekerjaan, spesifikasi pekerjaan, standar pekerjaan, faktor yang dikompensasikan, pertimbangan dari pengevaluasi. Struktur gaji ditetapkan melalui evaluasi pekerjaan : metode ranking, metode klasifikasi, perbandingan faktur dan metode poin.

9 GAJI INDIVIDU Isu pokok : Bagaimana organisasi menempatkan suatu nilai pada keahlian dan kontribusi karyawan? Tingkat gaji dipengaruhi oleh : 1. Upah minimal 2. Kompensasi oleh perusahaan serupa 3. Serikat pekerja 4. Kondisi finansial perusahaan

10 PERTEMUAN IX

11 Determinan kepuasan karyawan KEAHLIAN PENGALAMAN PELATIHAN UPAYA USIA SENIORITAS PENDIDIKAN LOYALITAS KINERJA MASA LALU KINERJA SEKARANG MASUKAN-2 PEKERJAAN PRIBADI YANG DIRASAKAN MASUKAN-2 DAN HASIL DARI ORANG LAIN YANG DIJADIKAN REFERENSI TINGKAT KESULITAN RENTANG WAKTU BESAR TANGGUNG JAWAB GAJI YANG DIDAPAT, DIBANDINGKAN DENGAN GAJI ORANG LAIN (REFERENSI) GAJI YANG DITERIMA KARAKTERISTIK PEKERJAAN YANG DIRASAKAN JUMLAH YANG DIANGGAP SEHARUSNYA DITERIMA A = B : KEPUASAN A > B : KETIDAKPUASAN A < B : KETIDAKADILAN, KETIDAKNYAMANAN DAN RASA BERSALAH JUMLAH YANG DITERIMA

12 POIN PENTING DARI DETERMINAN KEPUASAN KARYAWAN Setiap karyawan berbeda dalam : - menganggap penting arti kompensasi - preferensi mengenai jumlah, jenis dan waktu.  Pekerjaan dan faktor lingkungan berpengaruh terhadap kebijakan kompensasi  Karyawan mempunyai opini tentang keadilan dan tipe kompensasi

13 IMPLIKASI DARI DETERMINAN KEPUASAN KARYAWAN BEKERJA KERAS UNTUK MENGHASILKAN PERSEPSI KARYAWAN BAHWA KERJANYA AKAN DIHARGAI DIBERI IMBALAN UNTUK PRODUKSINYA TERSEBUT NILAI YANG DIBERIKAN KARYAWAN TERHADAP IMBALAN MENGHARGAI GAJI YANG MEMOTIVASINYA UNTUK BEKERJA PERSEPSI KARYAWAN BAHWA USAHANYA MENGARAH PADA KINERJA

14 TUJUAN KOMPENSASI SISTEM KOMPENSASI KOMPENSASI MEMPEROLEH PERSONALIA YANG QUALIFIED MEMPERTAHANKAN LOYALITAS KARYAWAN MENJAMIN KEADILAN MENGHARGAI PRILAKU/ PRESTASI MENGENDALIKAN BIAYA MEMENUHI PERATURAN LEGAL *KETERKAITAN ANTAR KOMPENSASI DENGAN KERJA *KOMPENSASI HARUS MEMADAI *KRITERIA KOMPENSASI HARUS JELAS *KETEPATAN PERLAKUAN TERHADAP BERBAGAI INDIVIDU *LEBIH MENGUNTUNGKAN DIBANDINGKAN PERUSAHAAN KOMPETITOR PUNYA ARTI PENTING MEMPUNYAI TINGKATAN FLEKSIBILITAS VISIBLE PERENCANAAN COST BENEFIT YG MATANG KARAKTERISTIK

15 SEVEN KEY PRINCIPLES Reward usually work better than punishment Intrinsic rewards usually are more effective than extrinsic rewards. The timing of rewards is important to their effectiveness. Conflicting sources; behavior that results in both reward and punishment produces conflict. Avoidance of negative outcomes and their associated feelings and perceptions are important determinants of behavior. Feeling and perceptions become associated with outcomes. Rewards are perceived in comparison to others.

16 Relevansi sistem gaji dalam perusahaan Membantu menentukan proyeksi cost benefit perusahaan. Alat manajemen yang sangat penting - Salah satu penghargaan terhadap kualifikasi dan spesifikasi pekerjaan. - Motivasi - Tanggung jawab  Berhubungan dengan persepsi karyawan tentang perusahaan, bentuk loyalitas dan perilaku kerja karyawan dapat meningkatkan produktivitas.  Daya saing eksternal : - Memimpin kompetisi - Menyesuaikan dengan kompetisi - Ketinggalan dalam kompetisi.

17 HR Roles in Building a Competitive Organization FUTURE/STRATEGIC FOCUS PEOPLE DAY TO DAY/OPERATIONAL FOCUS PROCESS Management of Strategic Human Resource Management of Transformation and Change Management of Firm Infrastructure Management of Employee Contribution

18 PERTEMUAN X

19 PERUBAHAN.. MENGAPA... kita tidak bisa menghindari PERUBAHAN... ?

20 System Shifting

21 PERUBAHAN.. ! Kita harus dapat menerima kenyataan Kita harus dapat menerima kenyataan bahwa setiap saat kita akan mengalami bahwa setiap saat kita akan mengalami PERUBAHAN.. PERUBAHAN.. Kita harus menjadi “Organisasi yg Cerdik” dan belajar mengelola perubahan tersebut untuk kebaikan kita sendiri Kita harus menjadi “Organisasi yg Cerdik” dan belajar mengelola perubahan tersebut untuk kebaikan kita sendiri

22 Konsep Kemampuan Manusia (Human Capability Concept – DR Elliot Jaques) Pertumbuhan Alami Kemampuan Bekerja Manusia Current Potential Capability (PC) Complexity of mental Processing (CMP) Time Progression (age) AC 1 PC 2 = AC 2 PC 1 PC 3 Current Applied Capability (AC)

23 Competency Development Program (CDP) What it is? CDP is an approach to help people build knowledge and skills and practice required behaviors as reflected in the standard of performance. What is the Objective? To implement a development program that will enable managerial and professional personnel to achieve required standards of performances for competencies associated with both the current and future jobs in cigarette business.

24 Why Do Needs Assessment? Question: Why is needs assessment information critical to the development and delivery of an effective HRD program?

25 Needs Assessment Figuring out what is really needed Not always an easy task Needs lots of input Takes a lot of work “Do it now or do lots more later” First step in both the ISD and HRD process models

26 Product Development Model (PDM) Analyze Design Develop Produce Pilot Evaluate Deliver Improve

27 The HRD Process: A DImE

28 PERTEMUAN XI

29 Comparing the HRD Process Model to the PDM/ISD Model HRD Process Model Assess Design Implement Evaluate PDM/ISD Model Analyze need Design training Develop Produce pilot Evaluate pilot Deliver training Improve

30 Various Types of Needs Performance Diagnostic Factors that can prevent problems from occurring (see p. 130) Analytic Identify new or better ways to do things Compliance Mandated by law or regulation

31 Traps in Needs Assessment – 2 Using Questionnaires Hard to control input, often high developmental costs, hard to write properly Using soft data (opinions) only Need performance and consequence data Using hard data only Easily measured data is provided, but critical, hard-to-measure data is missing

32 Levels of Assessment Organization Where is training needed and under what conditions? Task What must be done to perform the job effectively? Person Who should be trained and how?

33 Strategic/Organizational Analysis A broad, “systems” view is needed Need to identify: Organizational goals Organizational resources Organizational climate Environmental constraints

34 Why Strategic Assessment is Needed Ties HRD programs to corporate or organizational goals Strengthens the link between profit and HRD actions Strengthens corporate support for HRD Makes HRD more of a revenue generator Not a profit waster

35 Sources of Strategic Information Mission statement HRM inventory Skills inventory Quality of Working Life indicators Efficiency indexes System changes Exit interviews

36 How to Collect Information For a Task Analysis Job descriptions Task analysis Performance standards Perform job Observe job Ask questions Analysis of problems

37 PERTEMUAN XII

38 A Sample Task Analysis Process Develop job description Identify job tasks What should be done What is actually done Describe KSAOs needed Identify potential training areas Prioritize potential training areas

39 Task Analysis for HRD Position 1. List tasks1. Observe behaviorList four characteristics of behavior Classify behavior 2. Select verbKnowledge of action verbs Grammatical skills 3. Record behaviorState so understood by others Record neatly 2. List subtasks 1. Observe behaviorList all remaining acts Classify behavior 2. Select verbState correctly Grammatical skills 3. Record behaviorNeat and understood by others 3. List knowledge 1. State what must be knownClassify all information 2. Determine complexity of skill Determine if a skill represents a series of acts that must be learned in a sequence Job title: HRD ProfessionalSpecific duty: Task Analysis TasksSubtasksKnowledge and Skills Required SOURCE: From G. E. Mills, R. W. Pace, & B. D. Peterson (1988). Analysis in human resource training and organizational development (p. 57). Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. Reprinted by permission.

40 Person Analysis Determines training needs for specific individuals Based on many sources of data Summary Analysis Determine overall success of the individual Diagnostic Analysis Discover reasons for performance

41 Performance Appraisal Relied on heavily in person analysis Hard to do Vital to company and individual Should be VERY confidential Based too often on personal opinion

42 41 The Employee Appraisal Process

43 Performance Appraisal Process Determine basis for appraisal Job description, MBO objectives, job standards, etc. Conduct the appraisal Determine discrepancies between the standard and performance Identify source(s) of discrepancies Select ways to resolve discrepancies

44 Prioritizing HRD Needs There are never enough resources available Must prioritize efforts Need full organizational involvement in this process Involve an HRD Advisory Committee.

45 Identifying and Measuring Employee Performance Performance Management System Processes used to identify, encourage, measure, evaluate, improve, and reward employee performance. Performance What an employee does and does not do. Quantity of output Quality of output Timeliness of output Presence at work Cooperativeness Job Criteria Important elements in a given job

46 PERTEMUAN XIII

47 Linkage Between Strategy, Outcomes, and Organizational Results

48 Types of Performance Information Trait-based Information Behavior-based Information Results-based Information Job Performance?

49 Potential Performance Criteria Problems ObjectivityObjectivity DeficiencyDeficiencyContaminationContamination Performance Criteria

50 Performance Standards Expected levels of performance Benchmarks Goals Targets Characteristics of Well-defined Standards Realistic Measurable Clearly understood

51 Uses of Performance Appraisal (cont’d) Performance Appraisal Giving Performance Feedback Administering Wages and Salaries Identifying Strengths and Weaknesses

52 Uses of Performance Appraisal (cont’d) Criticisms of Performance Appraisal Focus is too much on the individual and does little to develop employees. Employees and supervisors believe the appraisal process is seriously flawed. Appraisals are inconsistent, short-term oriented, subjective, and useful only at the extremes of performance.

53 Conflicting Roles for Performance Appraisal

54 Who Conducts Appraisals Supervisors who rate their subordinates Employees who rate their supervisors Team members who rate each other Outside sources Employees’ self-appraisal Multisource (360° feedback) appraisal

55 PERTEMUAN XIII

56 Employee Rating of Managers Advantages Helps in identifying competent managers Serves to make managers more responsive to employees Can contribute to the career development of managers Disadvantages Negative reactions by managers to employee ratings Subordinates’ fear of reprisals may inhibit them from giving realistic (negative) ratings Ratings are useful only for self-improvement purposes

57 Traditional Performance Appraisal: Logic and Process

58 Performance Appraisal Methods

59 Team/Peer Ratings Advantages Helps improve the performance of lower- rated individuals Peers have opportunity to observe other peers. Peer appraisals focus on individual contributions to teamwork and team performance. Disadvantages Can negatively affect working relationships. Can create difficulties for managers in determining individual performance. Organizational use of individual performance appraisals can hinder the development of teamwork

60 Sample Performance Appraisal Form

61

62 Comparative Methods (cont’d) Forced Distribution Performance appraisal method in which ratings of employees are distributed along a bell-shaped curve. Drawbacks Assumes a normal distribution of performance. Resistance by managers to placing individuals in the lowest or highest groups. Providing explanation for placement in a higher or lower grouping can be difficult. Is not readily applicable to small groups of employees.

63 Forced Distribution on a Bell-Shaped Curve

64 Customer Service Skills (BOS)

65 PERTEMUAN XIV

66 Management by Objectives Specifying the performance goals that an individual and his or her manager agree to try to attain within an appropriate length of time. Key MBO Ideas Employee involvement creates higher levels of commitment and performance. Encourages employees to work effectively toward achieving desired results. Performance measures should be measurable and should define results.

67 The MBO Process Job Review and Agreement Development of Performance Standards Guided Objective Setting Continuing Performance Discussions

68 Feedback as a System Action Based on Evaluation DataData Evaluation of Data Feedback System

69 Appraisal Interview Hints

70 Unique Generation “If you think you’re good, you’re dead. success in the past has no implication for success in the future (Michael Hammer)”.


Download ppt "Global Economy is moving from a “production- oriented” paradigm toward an emphasis on converting information to knowledge “The future belongs to the knowledge."

Presentasi serupa


Iklan oleh Google