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TRAIT-THEORY The Five-Factor Model :

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1 TRAIT-THEORY The Five-Factor Model :
Applications and Evaluation of Trait Approaches to Personality

2 Penelitian tentang Personality Traits
Penelitian yang dilakukan mengkhususkan pada domain-domain dari traits Hasil : Konsep-konsep kepribadian dan skala kuesioner yang didesain untuk mengukurnya Dalam Bahasa Inggris  terdapat lebih dari kata yang menggambarkan personality traits Fokus perhatian : mengorganisir traits ke dalam struktur yang koheren

3 “Big Five” Trait Dimensions
Perbedaan individual dapat dilihat dalam lima dimensi bipolar “Big Five” trait dimensions  memiliki kedalaman dan tingkat abstraksi dalam menggambarkan traits individu

4 “Big Five” Trait Dimensions
Tiga hal yang menjadi landasan “Big Five” Trait Dimensios : Analisis faktor terhadap sejumlah besar kelompok istilah bahasa untuk trait Riset lintas budaya untuk menguji universalitas dari dimensi-dimensi trait Hubungan antara kuesioner mengenai trait dengan rating dan kuesioner lain

5 The Five-Factor Theory
Paul T. Costa, Jr. dan Robert R. McCrae Five-factor theory menyatakan bahwa lima trait utama yang ditemukan ini lebih dari sekedar deskripsi perbedaan manusia Trait adalah sesuatu yang benar-benar ada, dimana masing-masingnya dilihat sebagai struktur psikologis yang dimiliki oleh manusia dalam kadar yang berbeda-beda Traits berpengaruh dalam perkembangan psikologis masing-masing individu

6 The Five-Factor Theory
The five factor are basic dispositional tendencies that are possessed universally by all individuals The factors have a biological basic The basic five dispositional tendencies are not influenced directly by the environment

7 The Five-Factor Theory
“Personality traits, like temperaments, are endogenous dispositions that follow intrinsic paths of development essentially independent of environmental influences” (McCrae, 2000, p.173)

8 The proposed theoretical five factor model emphasizes the biological basis of basic tendencies and the development of there tendencies essentially independent of environmental influences (intrinsic maturation) There is evidence of stability of general trait structure and level, the evidence being stronger for stability during adulthood, than during childhood and adolescence

9 The Approach of Five-Factors Theory
Bawaan biologis (nature) berperan penting dalam menentukan kepribadian  pengalaman dari lingkungan sosial (nurture) memberikan pengaruh yang tidak besar Trait tidak hanya semata-mata deskripsi dari perbedaan individual  traits juga merupakan faktor kausal yang mempengaruhi kehidupan setiap individu  Setiap individu memiliki tingkatan tertentu untuk setiap faktor

10 This model has considerable integrative potential, connecting a biological view of traits and environmental influences with the observable personality variable

11 Approach of The Five-Factor Model
Try to find basic units of personality by analyzing the words that people use to describe people’s personalities Procedure of research : to have individuals rate themselves or others on a wide variety of traits carefully sampled from the dictionary  the ratings are then factor-analyzed to see which traits go together

12 The Big Five Trait Factors
Trait Scales Neuroticism (N) Extraversion (E) Openness (O) Agreeableness (A) Conscientiousness (C) All five factors were shown to possess considerable reliability and validity and to remain relatively stable throughout adulthood (McCrae & Costa, 1990, 1992, 1994, 2003)

13 Characteristics of the High Scorer Characteristics of the Low Scores
Traits Characteristics of the Low Scores Worrying, nervous, emotional, insecure, inadequate, hypochodriacal NEUROTICISM (N) Calm, relaxed, unemotional, hardy, secure, self-satisfied Sociable, active, talkactive, person-oriented, optimistic, fun-loving, affectionate EXTRAVERSION (E) Reserved, sober, unexuberant, aloof, task-oriented, retiring, quiet Curious, broad interests, creative, original, imaginative, untraditional OPENNESS (0) Conventional, down-to-earth, narrow interests, unartistic, unanalytical Soft-hearted, good-natured, trusting, helpful, forgiving, gullible, straightforward AGREEABLENESS (A) Cynical, suspicious, ruthless, uncooperative, vengeful, rude, irritable, manipulative Organized, reliable, hard-working, self-disciplined, punctual, scrupulous, neat, ambitious, presevering CONSCIENTIOUSNESS (C) Aimless, unreliable, lazy, careless, lax, negligent, weak-willed, hedonistic

Assesses adjustment vs emotional instability. Identifies individuals prone to psychological distress, unrealistic ideas, excessive cravings or urges, and maladaptive coping responses EXTRAVERSION (E) Assesses quantity and intensity of interpersonal interaction, activity level, need of stimulation, and capacity of joy OPENNESS (O) Assesses proactive seeking and appreciation of experience for its own sake, tolerate for and exploration of the unfamiliar AGREEABLENESS (A) Assesses the quality of one’s interpersonal orientation along a continuum from compassion to antagonism in thoughts, feelings, and actions CONSCIENTIOUSNESS (C) Assesses the individual’s degree of organization, persistence, and motivation in goal-directed behavior. Contrast dependable, fastidious people with those who are lackadaisical and sloppy

15 Illustration the Meaning of the Factors :
Neuroticism  contrasts emotional stability with a broad range of negative feeling, including anxiety, sadness, irritability and nervous tension Openness to experience  describe the breadth, depth and complexity of an individual’s mental and experiential life Extraversion and agreeableness  both summarize traits that are interpersonal, they capture what people do with each other and to each other Conscientiousness  describes task and goal-directed behavior and socially required impulse control

16 The Big Five Factors and Its Facets
NEO-PI-R (NEO-Personality Inventory Revised), Costa & McCrae (1985, 1989, 1992) NEO-PI : focused only on the three factors of Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Openness NEO-PI-R : added the actors of agreeableness & conscientiousness to conform to the five-factors model

17 The Big Five Factors and Its Facets
Each of the Big Five factors consists of six specific facets Facets are the more specific traits r components that make up each of the broad Big Five factors NEO-PI-R : each facet is measured by 8 items

18 The Big Five Factors More Specific Facets Extraversion
Gregariousness, Activity level, Assertiveness, Excitement Seeking, Positive Emotions, Warmth Agreeableness Straightforwardness, Trust, Altruism, Modesty, Tendermindedness, Compliance Conscientiousness Self-discipline, Dutifulness, Competence, Order, Deliberation, Achievement striving Neuroticism Anxiety, Self-consciousness, Depression, Vulnerability, Impulsiveness, Angry hostility Openness to new experience Fantasy, Aesthetics, Feelings, Ideas, Actions, Values

19 Application Vocational guidance Personality diagnosis
Psychological treatment  The model offers no specific recommendations concerning the process of personality change

20 McCrae & Costa: The Big Five Factors
Thurstone (1934) + Allport & Odbert (1936) Cattell Fiske Tupes & Christal (1958) The first set (Goldberg) Surgency c. dependability Agreeableness d. emotional stability e. culture Norman (1963) -”- b. -”- c. conscientiousness; d. -”-; e. -”- Norman (1967): Lexical hypothesis - stable traits; - temporary traits; - social roles, relationships, effects Goldberg (1981, 1990, 1993) Ada hierarki

21 McCrae & Costa: ‘Personality Question’
underlying factors Neuroticism Extraversion Agreeableness Conscientiousness Openness John (1990) “OCEAN” NEO-PI NEO-PI-R: hierachical structure Research/ Studies Correlation with the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) b. Extraversion + agreeableness sensing thinking feeling intuition

22 McCrae & Costa: ‘Personality Question’
c. Extraversion, berkorelasi + self esteem; berkorelasi – neuroticism Extraversion tinggi: happy & satisfied; Extraversion rendah: neurotism d. Selection of appropiate form of therapy e. Bisa memahami personality disorder. Dissenters Objections Cattel Eysenck ( ): extraversion neuroticism psychoticism Carlson (1992) McAdams (1992): 6 limitation Block (1995): methodological Statistical conceptual Zuckerman (1992)

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