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Dr. NUSHROTUL LAILIYYA, Sp.S, Sp.AK Neurologist & Acupuncturist Department of Neurology-Hasan Sadikin Hospital- Medical Faculty-Padjadjaran University.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Dr. NUSHROTUL LAILIYYA, Sp.S, Sp.AK Neurologist & Acupuncturist Department of Neurology-Hasan Sadikin Hospital- Medical Faculty-Padjadjaran University."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Dr. NUSHROTUL LAILIYYA, Sp.S, Sp.AK Neurologist & Acupuncturist Department of Neurology-Hasan Sadikin Hospital- Medical Faculty-Padjadjaran University

2 Mr. Chen, a 40 y.o. patient originally from China, had lumbar problems for one year. The condition includes dull pain in his leg and the inability to sit for long periods. X-ray examination reveals a prolapsed lumbar disc. He has been treated with conventional pain medication with minimal effect. His physician, Dr Robert O., recommends back surgery, but Mr Chen reluctant to take this opinion. Instead, he asks the doctor to refer him to an acupuncturist because his insurance coverage requires physicians’s approval for alternative therapy. But Dr Olsen is skeptical about any kind of alternative therapy. He refuses to order the acupuncture. Did the physician act ethycally?

3 SAAT INI AKUPUNKTUR MEDIK ??

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5 SEJARAH

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7 Penyebaran akupunktur  Dokter Belanda : - Ten Rhiyne (1683) - E Kampfer (1712)  Perancis : L Berlioz (1816)  Belgia : Y Koyen (1849)  Swiss : - Y Cramer (1857) - Soulie de Morant (1929) : terjemahkan Pelajaran akupunktur dan moksibusi Elektro-akupunkto-kauterisator Elektro-detektor 7

8 Penyebaran akupunktur  Amerika : 1826 Meksiko : 1940 Argentina: 1950 Brasil : 1950  Korea Utara : Prof Kim Bong Han → meridian dan titik akupunktur  1949: penelitian klinis  1958: akupunktur anestesia  1963: Indonesia – RSCM : tim riset ilmu pengobatan timur – UPF akupunktur  1996/97: DitJen BinKesMas (akupressure dan pengobatan tradisional)

9 Diintegrasikan ke dalam sistim pelayanan formal - Resolution WHO Permenkes RI NO. 1186/Menkes/ Per/XI/1996 akupunktur

10 Standard acupuncture nomenclature part 1 Standard acupuncture nomenclature part 2 Guidelines for clinical research on acupuncture Guidelines on basic training and Safety in acupuncture Dokumen - dokumen WHO ttg Akupunktur

11 Bioethics is the philosophical study of the ethical controversiesethical brought about by advances in biology and medicine.biologymedicine Bioethicists are concerned with the ethical questions that arise in the relationships among life scienceslife sciences, biotechnology, medicine, politics, law, philosophy, and theology.biotechnologymedicinepoliticslaw philosophytheology DEFINISI

12 PURPOSE AND SCOPE The field of bioethics has addressed a broad swath of human inquiry, ranging from debates over the boundaries of life (e.g. abortion, euthanasia) to the allocation of scarce health care resources (e.g. organ donation, health care rationing) to the right to turn down medical care for religious or cultural reasons.abortion euthanasiaorgan donation

13 PRINCIPLES The National Commission for the Protection of HumanNational Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research was initially established in 1974 to identify the basic ethical principles that should underlie the conduct of biomedical and behavioral research involving human subjects. However, the fundamental principles announced in the Belmont Report (1979)--namely, autonomy, beneficenceBelmont Reportautonomybeneficence and justice--have influenced the thinking of bioethicists across a wide rangejustice of issues. Others have added non-maleficence, human dignityhuman dignity and the sanctity of life to this list of cardinal values.

14 acupunkture AKUPUNKTUR PASIEN TINDAKAN STERILITAS JARUM INFORMED CONSENT KASUS/ISSUES SIAPA, DLL BIOETHIC

15 Babies, acupuncture and the secret to a good night's sleep

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19 Safety in Acupuncture Amankah tindakan Akupunktur ? Ditangan yang kompeten akupunktur merupakan suatu tindakan yang relatif aman dengan beberapa kontra indikasi dan komplikasi. Perhatikan transmisi infeksi yang merupakan faktor resiko tindakan akupunktur

20 Resiko Tindakan akupunktur : - Transmisi infeksi (hepatitis, HIV) - Jarum patah, bengkok - Reaksi yang tdk diharapkan - Nyeri dan rasa tidak nyaman - terlukanya organ dalam

21 Pencegahan Infeksi : Lingkungan kerja yang bersih Tangan pengobat yang bersih Persiapan bagian tubuh yang akan di akupunktur Jarum, alat dan kotak penyimpanan harus steril Tehnik aseptis Penanganan yang cermat untuk jarum bekas dan kapas bekas

22 Kontra Indikasi Kehamilan Kedaruratan medik Kasus pembedahan Tumor ganas Gangguan pembekuan darah dan sedang dalam pengobatan antikuagulantia

23 CONTROVERSIES ISSUES OF ACUPUNCTURE YIN-YANG

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25 25 Yin-yang Malam Barat/utara Dingin Air Bulan Perut Permukaan dalam Darah Kronis Merasa dingin Depresi Lemah Sakit Siang Timur/selatan Panas Api Matahari Punggung Permukaan luar Energi/chi Akut Merasa panas Senang Kuat Sehat

26 ACUPUNCTURE YINYANG HOMEOSTASIS

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28 Aktivitas energi di meridian Meridian I (Paru-paru) Meridian II (UB) Meridian III (Lambung) Merridian IV (Limpa-pankreas) Meridian V (Jantung) Meridian VI (UK) Meridian VII (KK) Meridan VIII (Ginjal) Meridian IX(Sampul jantung) Meridian X (Tri pemanas) Meridian XI (K.Empedu) Meridan XII (Hati) Jam 3.00 – 5.00 Jam 5.00 – 7.00 Jam 7.00 – 9.00 Jam 9.00 – Jam – Jam – Jam – Jam – Jam – Jam – Jam – 1.00 Jam 1.00 –

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32 Medical ethics is the study of moral valuesmoral values and judgments as they apply to medicine.medicine As a scholarly discipline, medical ethics encompasses its practical application in clinical settings as well as work on its history, philosophy, theology, and sociology.

33 What Can Acupuncture Treat?

34 While acupuncture is often known to its effectiveness in pain control, The World Heatlh Organization (WHO) recognizes the use of acupuncture in the treatment of a wider range of medical problems, including: Muscular and Skeletal Disorders: arthritis, tennis elbowtennis elbow, frozen shoulder, neck pain, TMJ, sciatica, low back pain, fibromyalgia, carpal tunnelcarpal tunnel syndrome, knee pain.

35 Acupuncture is most commonly used for pain, such as back, neck and spine pain, herniated discs, nerve irritation, sciatica, headache, facial pain, jaw pain (TMJ), menstrual pain, arthritis, sprains, muscle strain, repetitive strain injuries, tendonitis, sports or auto injury. Acupuncture and Chinese medicine are also very effective for viral infections such as colds/flu’s and hepatitis.

36 Are there ailments acupuncture isn't effective to treat? WHAT IS ACUPUNCTURE ? Cancer is not treatable by acupuncture, although it is effective in resolving the nausea associated with chemotherapy treatment. AIDS also does not respond to acupuncture, although acupuncture can be used to boost the immune system, it cannot reverse the effects of HIV.

37 Safety in Acupuncture Amankah tindakan Akupunktur ? Ditangan yang kompeten akupunktur merupakan suatu tindakan yang relatif aman dengan beberapa kontra indikasi dan komplikasi. Perhatikan transmisi infeksi yang merupakan faktor resiko tindakan akupunktur

38 Medical ethics tends to be understood narrowly as an applied professional ethics, whereas bioethics appears to have worked more expansive concerns, touching upon the philosophy of science and issues of biotechnology.philosophy of sciencebiotechnology Still, the two fields often overlap and the distinction is more a matter of style than professional consensus. Medical ethics shares many principles with other branches of healthcare ethics,healthcare such as nursing ethics.nursing ethics

39 Penelitian Akupunktur : * Penelitian Akupunktur Dasar - Titik Akupunktur - Meridian - Mekanisme kerja * Penelitian Akupunktur klinis terkait dengan setiap sistem tubuh

40 Berbagai penelitian telah membuktikan keberadaan titik akupunktur, yg berbeda dengan sembarang lokasi bukan titik akupunktur dalam hal : Struktur anatomi dan histologi Fenomena khas Efek rangsang

41 Struktur Anatomi dan Histologi Titik Akupunktur Kellner (1965) melalukan mikroseksi pada 11 titik akupunktur : tidak ditemukan sesuatu yang unik, kecuali akhiran saraf pada lokasi titik akupunktur lebih padat Pada lokasi akupunktur, satu reseptor untuk 2,80 mm2 dan lokasi bukan titik akupunktur 12,83 mm2. Gunn et al (1976) meneliti 70 buah titik akupunktur : 47 terletak pada titik motorik (tipe I) 11 terletak di garis sagital, pertemuan saraf superfisial kedua belah tubuh (tipe II) 12 terletak pada pleksus saraf atau saraf kutaneus superfisial (tipe III) 1977 : titik akupunktur terletak di atas otot –tendon (tipe IV) kesimpulan : titik akupunktur terletak di area kaya saraf superfisial.

42 Fan et al (1990) : dengan mikroskop elektron pada pembesaran kali mendapatkan celah antar sel (gap junction) di epidermis pada lokasi titik akupunktur dua kali lebih banyak dibanding lokasi bukan titik akupt. Croley & Carlson (1991) mendapatkan papila dermis pada lokasi titik Akupunktur dua kali lebih banyak Kawakita (1993) : reseptor rangsang akupunktur, mekanis maupun termis, adalah sama yaitu reseptor polimodal, yg merupakan akhiran bebas yang teranyam dari saraf sensorik tak bermielin (serabut C), saraf sensorik kecil bermielin (serabut A-delta) dan saraf sensorik besar bermielin (serabut A-beta) reseptor polimodal : sensitisasi memunculkan nyeri tekan; eksitasi menimbulkan : rasa jarum, reaksi inflamasi lokal, aktivasi sistem analgetik (dimediasi opioid atau mediator kimiawi lainnya), serta aktivasi sistem regulatorik.

43 Ethical Considerations for Acupuncture and Chinese Herbal Medicine Clinical Trials: A Cross-cultural Perspective * Christopher Zaslawski College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Department of Medical and Molecular Biosciences, Faculty of Science, University of Technology, Sydney, Australia Many ethical concerns revolve around the four basic principles of research: merit and integrity, respect for human beings, weighting of risk–benefit and justice. These principles form the basis for any discussion concerning human research ethics and are applicable to all areas of research including acupuncture and Chinese herbal medicine. World Health Organisation document, Guidelines for Clinical Research on Acupuncture, states that ‘consideration should be given to the different value systems that are involved ….. For reprints and all correspondence: Christopher Zaslawski, College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Department of Medical and Molecular Biosciences, Faculty of Science, University of Technology, Sydney 2007, Australia. Tel: ; Fax: ;

44 The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine Methodological and Ethical Issues in Clinical Trials of Acupuncture Richard Hammerschlag, Ph.D. Yo San University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Santa Monica, California. In this review, controlled clinical trials of acupuncture are placed into five categories on the basis of the treatment with which acupuncture is compared. Methodological and ethical issues relevant to each category are discussed. Wait list (or no treatment) controls, which are ethically acceptable for stable, chronic conditions, assess the efficacy of acupuncture relative to the natural history of the condition but do not control for nonspecific treatment effects. Placebo controls, defined here as noninvasive procedures such as inactive transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) or mock needling, assess whether acupuncture has an effect beyond that of the therapeutic milieu. Sham controls, defined as invasive but inappropriate procedures such as shallow needling at nonacupoint sites, assess whether acupuncture efficacy depends on the style and location of needling…. To cite this article: Richard Hammerschlag. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. Summer 1998, 4(2): doi: /acm Published in Volume: 4 Issue 2: September 10, 2007

45 For the current study, published in the journal Cephalalgia, German researchers followed more than 15,000 adults with chronic headaches; all had been suffering from either migraine or tension- type headaches at least twice a month for 1 year or more. The largest "randomized" acupuncture study ever done Category: Alternative medicine Clinical trials MedicineAlternative medicineClinical trialsMedicine

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47 RESULT At 3 months, the number of days with headache decreased from 8.4 ± 7.2 (estimated mean ±s.e.) to 4.7 ± 5.6 in the acupuncture group and from 8.1 ± 6.8 to 7.5 ± 6.3 in the control group (P < 0.001). Similarly, intensity of pain and quality of life improvements were more pronounced in the acupuncture vs. control group (P < 0.001). Treatment success was maintained through 6 months.

48 ACUPUNCTURE - ADENOSINE - AMP - ADP - ATP

49 Visualisasi Meridian Menggunakan Teknik Pemeriksaan Kedokteran Nuklir Radiofarmaka: Tc-99m pertechnetate Biodistribusi: Kel. ludah, kel. tiroid, lambung, GUT.

50 Statik 5 menit, aliran ke atas / ke PC1 (Tianquan) (?) SJ5 (Waiguan), statik 10 & 20 mnt Kiri: Titik Akup(Deqi), Kanan: intradermal Kiri: aliran ke atas ke SJ10(Tianjing?) SJ10 (?) R L SJ4 SJ10 (?) R L SJ5 SJ10 (?) R L SJ5 PC1 PC3 PC6 PC3

51 PC1 Jantung Lambung PC6 PC8 Aliran radiofarmaka ≈ Meridian PC1 (Tianchi) PC6 (Neiguan) PC8 (Laogong) 250 µCi/titik, 20 menit, WBS

52 MAU CANTIKK……..

53 TERIMAKASIH


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