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1 Workload Analysis. 2 Pokok Bahasan Workload Analysis – Full Time Equivalent.

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Presentasi berjudul: "1 Workload Analysis. 2 Pokok Bahasan Workload Analysis – Full Time Equivalent."— Transcript presentasi:

1 1 Workload Analysis

2 2 Pokok Bahasan Workload Analysis – Full Time Equivalent

3 3 Pengelolaan SDM HR & GA GA HR Sumber yang diberdayakan oleh management Mengurus barang mati Mengurus orang hidup

4 4 Apa yang dikerjakan HR System & Development Teknologi Informasi Hubungan Industrial

5 5 HR Strategic 5% ?? Change Agent Business Partner 15% ?? Employee Advocate Services 80% Administrative Reactive 80% ?? Change Agent Business Partner 15% ?? Employee Advocate Services 5% Administrative Reactive Old New

6 6 Integrating Human Capital to Organizational Strategy Financial FOCUS Customer FOCUS Internal FOCUS Learning & Growth Strategic Competencies Strategic Technologies Climate for Action RolesSkills ApplicationsInfrastructure LeadershipTeamworkAlignmentCulture Operational ExcellenceInnovation Customer Management ProductivityGrowth Sustained Shareholder Value Price / Quality Financial Advisor Integrated Offering Trusted Brand Know the Segments Develop New Products Cross- Sell Shift Channel Minimize Problems Rapid Response Customer Value Proposition Responsible Citizen Diverse Work Force ALIGNMENT

7 7 B = f (P,E) B = Behavior P = Person E = Environment Kurt Lewin ( )

8 8 P erformance = f (M otivation, A bility ) N. F. R. Maier in Psychology in industrial organization (4th ed., Houghton Mifflin, 1973) and E. E. Lawler, III in Motivation in work organizations (Brooks/Cole, 1973)

9 9 M = (E P) x (P O) x V M = Motivation E P means effort leads to performance (Expectancy) P O means performance leads to outcomes (Instrumentality) V = Valence--the value placed on the outcome. Victor Vroom Model (1964)

10 10 Ability = Competency Competency = f (K nowledge, S kill, A ttributes ) Competency appears to be a measure of successful performance and may refer to either a specific skill/knowledge or a cluster of skills and knowledge. It encompasses meanings that range from work-related definitions to those that describe the characteristics of workers. McLagan (1997) attempts to reconcile these meanings by proposing a hybrid definition of “attribute bundles.” Parry (1998) further expands on this by defining a competency as a cluster of related knowledge, attitudes and skills that fulfill four criteria: a) affects a major part of one’s job, b) correlates with performance on the job, c) can be measured against well accepted standards, and d) can be improved via training development.1 Spencer and Spencer (1993) include personality characteristics such as motives and traits and list five types of competency characteristics, namely motives, traits, self-concept, knowledge, and skill.

11 11 Modeling B = f (P, E) P = f (M, A) M = f (E,I,V)A= f (K,S,A) E?

12 12 Tuntutan Tata Kelola SDM Organizational Capital Bagaimana membangun organisasi yang fokus pada penciptaan profit dan pertumbuhan? Human Capital Bagaimana memenuhi & membangun kompetensi karyawan sesuai kebutuhan? Information Capital Bagaimana membangun sistem informasi yang mendukung terciptanya “learning organization”?

13 13 Metodologi

14 14 1. Strategic Direction & Control Strategy Map Organizational Assessment Key Performance Indicator Strategic Job Families Organization values Organization Personality Core Competencies

15 15 2. Organization Design Business Process Mapping Organization Design Job Analysis Job Description

16 16 Metodologi 1. Strategic Direction & Control Strategy Map Organizational Assessment Key Performance Indicator Strategic Job Families Organization values Organization Personality Core Competencies 2. Organization Design Business Process Mapping Organization Design Job Analysis Job Description 3. Quantity & Quality Workload Analysis/ Business Capacity Analysis Quantity Quality Competency Behavior / Personality Potential

17 17 3. Quantity & Quality Workload Analysis/ Business Capacity Analysis Quantity Quality Competency Behavior / Personality Potential

18 18 Workload Analysis

19 Pengertian 19

20 20 Definisi Banyak definisi tentang FTE’s tapi intinya adalah The total number of person needed to do all transactions of one process in certain period.

21 21 Bagaimana Menghitung FTE 1.A Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) is a ratio that represents the number of hours that an employee works to 40 hours. dengan kata lain jumlah jam kerja karyawan per 40 jam  asumsi dalam 1 minggu  number of hours that an employee works / 40 hours 2.FTE = Total Time Required / 1864 hours  asumsi dalam 1 tahun Total Time Required = Time Data x Number of work activities

22 22 3. FTE = Total Process time / Effective Working time per employee 4. FTE = Total working hours / Effective Time

23 23 Manfaat Untuk peramalan/proyeksi terhadap kebutuhan tenaga kerja untuk periode tertentu Untuk melakukan analisa terhadap kemampuan tenaga kerja yang sekarang untuk memenuhi kebutuhan yang akan datang Perbedaan diatas memungkinkan perusahaan untuk melakukan pengurangan karyawan atau penyesuaian lewat transfer intern atau ekspansi atau Man Power Planning

24 24 Untuk analisa kompetensi  Development Untuk Performance Management Untuk Business Process Improvement  Effective & Efficient

25 25 Effectiveness Kemampuan untuk memilih tujuan dan sasaran yang tepat dan mencapainya, termasuk didalamnya adalah metodanya. Efektivitas menunjuk pada keberhasilan pencapaian sasaran, sehingga efektivitas bisa digambarkan sebagai ukuran apakah seseorang mengerjakan pekerjaan yang benar. Doing rigth things “Mengerjakan pekerjaan yang benar”

26 26 Efficiency Kemampuan untuk membuat penggunaan resources yang ada secara baik dalam proses pencapaian sasaran dan tujuan Mencapai sesuatu secara tepat berhubungan dengan rasio dari output terhadap input, artinya harus menggunakan jumlah resources yang minimum yang dibutuhkan untuk menghasilkan barang atau jasa secara maksimum. Gambarannya adalah “mengerjakan pekerjaan dengan benar “ (Doing things right). Konsep ini berhubungan dengan konsep Input – Output.

27 27 Effective but not efficient. Some resource wasted Effective and efficient, goals achieved and resources well utilized, area of high productivity Neither effective nor efficient, Goal not achieved, resources wasted in the process Efficient but not effective, no wasted resourced, but goals not achieved Goal Attaintment Resources Utilisation High Low PoorGood

28 28 EFFICIENT VS. EFFECTIVE Internal Measurement Doing Things Right Not Necessarily Effective External Measurement Doing the Right Things Necessarily Efficient Producing goods at the lowest cost Reducing cost/ expense to improve profit Focus on internal control and short - term profit Product-Driven Organization Producing the goods wanted by the market place at acceptable cost Increasing revenue and managing cost/expense to improve profit Focus on customer satisfaction and long-term profit Market-Driven Organization EFFICIENTEFFECTIVE Examples

29 29 Pendekatan Berdasarkan aktivitas  job description  Administration Berdasarkan proses  The Process  Proses lembur Keduanya saling berhubungan karena proses adalah kumpulan dari aktivitas yang saling kait mengait

30 30 Activity Base Perhitungannya adalah setiap aktivitas individu dikumpulkan sedemikian rupa selama periode tertentu beserta waktu yang dibutuhkan untuk melakukan aktivitas tersebut yang kemudian di bagi dengan total jam kerja dalam periode tertentu. Fokusnya pada aktivitas individu/posisi

31 31 Proses Improvement yang dilakukan adalah Teknologi baru Competency Development

32 32 Process Base Perhitungannya adalah setiap proses aktivitas terhadap suatu hal tertentu (misal lembur) dihitung sedemikian rupa selama periode tertentu beserta waktu yang dibutuhkannya kemudian dibagi dengan periode waktu tertentu. Fokusnya adalah Proses keseluruhan aktivitas pekerjaan Contoh adalah proses pengajuan Lembur kerja

33 33 Proses Improvement yang dilakukan adalah Perbaikan system Competency Development Teknologi baru

34 34 Proses Asesmen FTE

35 35 Process Assessment Base Activity Data Collection Interview user and Job Description Analysis Information Need: -All Activity the employee -Process Time -Organisation Structure -Report -Form Develop the documentation & Analysis Confirm the documentation to user - Tabulation the information Skill Needed: -Interview Skill -Analytical Skill

36 36 Asumsi 1 profil tidak dapat mengerjakan 2 aktivitas sekaligus Semua aktivitas riil dan tercatat beserta waktunya

37 37 Contoh Activitas Office Boy 1Mengantar Surat8x/bulan2 jam 2Mempersiapkan Kartu absensi50/bulan4 jam 3Mengantar berkas3x/hari1 jam 4Membersihkan kaca3x/minggu3 jam 5Membersihkan lantai1x/hari2 jam 6Menyiapkan minum1x/hari1 jam 7Membersihkan toilet2x/hari1 jam 8Mengantar barang1x/hari2 jam 9Briefing pagi4x/bulan2 jam 10Distribusi surat2x/minggu1 jam

38 38 Effective Working

39 39 Formula FTE 2003 (ilustrasi) Jumlah hari 2003= 365 Cuti tahunan= (12) 353 Libur Nasional= (16) 337 Week-end= (104) Hari kerja 2003= hari = 1864 jam kerja Efficiency factor = 87,5%  Asumsi Total jam kerja efektif = 87,5% * 1864 = 1631 jam kerja

40 40 Satuan FTE 2003 (ilustrasi) 1631 jam / tahun = Menit 135,92 jam / bulan = 8155,2 menit 33,98 jam / minggu = 2038,8 menit 6,8 jam / hari = 407,75 menit

41 41 Lihat Excel

42 42 Exercise Buat Kelompok kecil Tentukan jenis posisi pekerjaan Tentukan job desription-nya Tuliskan daftar pekerjaannya secara lengkap berdasarkan job description beserta volume dan waktunya Hitung FTE-nya

43 43 Proses Asesmen Process Base Hal-hal yang dibutuhkan: - Business Process  Flowchart - Structure organization - Process time

44 44 Contoh Proses lembur Isi form lembur Employee Ask Approval Employee Approve Direct Superior Receive Employee Ask Approval Employee Approve Section Head Receive Employee Send FL to HRD via OB Employee Receive FL OB Bring the form OB Receive FL HRD Adm Input Data HRD Adm Crosscheck Data HRD Adm Update Data HRD Adm Crosscheck Data HRD Head Lembur Closing Meal Allowance Processing

45 45 Hasil Perhitungan Lihat File Excel

46 46 Exercise Buat Kelompok kecil Tentukan jenis proses aktivitas dari suatu pekerjaan Buat daftar proses dari aktivitas tersebut (flowchart) Buat daftar siapa saja yang terlibat dalam aktivitas tersebut Tentukan pula time process-nya Hitung FTE-nya

47 47 Improvement Teknologi

48 48 Contoh Proses Lembur Isi form lembur Employee Kirim form lembur via Employee Terima & Approve Direct superior Terima & Verifikasi HRD Adm Terima & Approve Head Section Input Data & Prosesing HRD Adm Crosscheck HRD Head Closing

49 49 Hasil Perhitungan Lihat File Excel

50 50 Ukuran loading yang normal untuk suatu pekerjaan yang telah ditetapkan adalah dengan besaran angka 1 artinya Fit Jika total perhitungan Job Load < 1 (lebih kecil dari 1) maka dapat disimpulkan UNDERLOAD Jika sebaliknya > 1 (lebih besar dari 1) maka dapat disimpulkan OVERLOAD Tapi biasanya jika total FTE berada di kisaran 1,1 – 1,3 maka karyawan tsb masih efektif melaksanakan pekerjaan tsb karena ada mekanisme lembur untuk menyelesaikan pekerjaan tsb Perhatikan faktor efektivitas waktu kerja

51 51 Exercise Improvement Buat Kelompok kecil Lakukan improvement terhadap proses aktivitas yang telah ada Hitung FTE-nya

52 52 Benefit dari Improvement Step reduction Form reduction – Paper Reduction FTE & Time Saving Operational Cost Reduction

53 53 Step reduction ProcessSebelumSesudahSelisihPersentase Lembur178953% Rata-rata53%

54 54 Form Reduction ProcessSebelumSesudahSelisihPersentase Lembur101100% Rata-rata100%

55 55 Time Saving ProcessSebelumSesudahSelisihSaving Lembur % Rata-rata59%

56 56 FTE ProcessSebelumSesudahSelisihSaving Lembur % Rata-rata59%

57 57 Operational Cost Salary ?? ATK ??

58 58 Hal yang perlu diperhatikan Tidak semua pekerjaan bisa dibuatkan FTE, Contoh : Security, Bagian Troubleshooting, Driver

59 59 Pilih yang mana? Activity Base atau Process Base? Tergantung tujuan, situasi dan kondisi. Bila tujuannya adalah BPI (business process improvement)  Process Base Bila tujuannya adalah individual development  cukup Activity base

60 60 Konsekuensi WLA

61 61 Nilai WLA Underload  FTE kurang dari 1 Fit  FTE = 1 Overload  FTE Lebih dari 1

62 62 Konsekuensi WLA Replacement Redesign Job

63 63 Underload Redesign job  Penambahan pekerjaan Bagaimana bila nilai FTE kurang dari 0,5?? -Redesign job -Replacement

64 64 Overload Overtime Redesign Job  Pembagian pekerjaan Recruitment  Penambahan karyawan  Bila lebih dari ambang toleransi (1,1 – 1,3)

65 65 Recruitment Perhatikan biaya yang akan timbul Pilihan terakhir bila sudah dilakukan overtime dan pembagian pekerjaan

66 66 Bagaimana setelah proses Improvement??

67 67 Kaitan WLA dengan Workforce planning (WFP) WLA adalah salah satu metoda dari WFP dalam analisisnya

68 68 Sekilas Workforce Planning

69 69 Workforce planning is a systematic process for identifying the human capital required to meet agency goals and developing the strategies to meet these requirements. Workforce Planning—the strategic alignment of an organization’s human capital with its business direction. It is a methodical process of analyzing the current workforce; determining future workforce needs; identifying the gap between the present and the future; and implementing solutions so the organization can accomplish its mission, goals, and objectives.

70 70 Figure: Strategic View of Workforce Planning Influencing HR Functions & Activities

71 71 Figure Workforce Planning Is… Not JustIt Is Predicting the futureBuilding a longer-term context for short-term decision making An inventory of all positionsFocusing on positions where you need to be proactive or need time to react Creating plans as Creating plans in response to a one-time “event” changing strategies, whenever change is discussed Creating reports and Focusing on planning listings that describe and looking ahead to “what will be” “what was” Building HR capabilitySolving staffing problems and addressing staffing issues

72 72 Approaches to Workforce Planning in general, organizations can take one of three approaches to workforce planning or use a combination of the three: “Workforce approach” examines the current workforce and occupations and projects the number and characteristics of jobs and the number of employees needed to fill them at a specific point in the future. “Workload approach” focuses on the amount and type of work the organization antici­pates handling at a specific point in the future, and uses this information to project the number of resources (people and skills) needed to perform that work. “Competency approach” identifies sets of competencies aligned with the organization’s mission, vision, and strategic goals. This approach assumes the organization has already considered workforce and workload and can focus not only on the number of people, but the competencies employees must master for organizational success.

73 73 Workforce Approach profile people and occupations, and conduct workforce forecasts. With this approach, your goal is to analyze 1.the jobs that will need to be done, 2. the type of occupations needed to do these jobs, and 3.the number of people needed to achieve organization strategies. The current workforce profile is a starting point to assess the workforce your organization will need in the future. Supply analysis provides the data needed for your current workforce profile. A traditional job audit also may help you get needed information.

74 74 Specifically, you will need to evaluate: What jobs now exist? How many people are performing each job? What are the reporting relationships of these jobs? How essential is each job? What are the characteristics of anticipated jobs?

75 75 The next step is to project the current employee population into the future as if there were no new hires. Make projections at whatever level the organization desires, estimating the employee population over the next three to five years as if nothing were done to replace employees lost through attrition. The result will show your demand for new workers if you institute no appreciable changes in work or workload.

76 76 Workload Approach

77 77 Competency Approach Competencies are sets of behaviors (encompassing skills, knowledge, abilities, and personal attributes) that, taken together, are critical to accomplishing successful work and achieving an organization’s strategy. Competencies represent the most critical knowledge, skills, and commitments that underlie superior performance for your organi­ zation and/or within a specific job. The competency approach to workforce planning is futuristic and focuses on the “ideal” workforce. Competencies may be defined at several levels:

78 78 Competencies may be defined at several levels Organizational: core competencies identified during strategic planning Leadership: the behaviors your organization expects all leaders to demonstrate or to develop Functional: competencies that cascade from the core competencies and are associated with specific work functions or business units Occupational: competencies that cascade from the core and functional competencies and then are anchored directly to the needs of a specific occupation Individual: what each employee brings to his or her function Team: what members of a team, in the aggregate, bring to their work

79 79 Your organization will need to determine the competency definition levels essential to ensuring critical work gets performed. Strategic planning usually provides the means to pinpoint the most critical, or core, organizational competencies for success.

80 80 Contoh The Generic Workforce Planning Model Georgia Workforce Planning Model

81 81 BoozAllen & Hamilton Model

82 82 Phase I Workforce Analysis/ Strategies Set Strategic Direction Phase II

83 83 Strategic Plan Internal Factor External factor SWOT Analysis Workforce Workload Competencies Compare Current to Future need to identify the gap Recruitment / Retention Strategies Implementation plan Leadership support Change management Communication Evaluation Modification Feedback Step I Scan Step II Supply & Demand Step III Gap Analysis Step II Action IPMA Model

84 84  Promotions  Terminations  Demotions  Retirements  Deaths  Layoffs Current Staffing - Projected Outflows + Projected Inflows Level This YearThis Year Sources of OutflowsInflows Employees In  Transfers  Promotions  New Hires  Recalls Internal Supply of Labor = Internal Supply

85 85 Terima Kasih


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