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TeknikTelekomunikasi Seluler, Sukiswo ST, MT 1 KOMUNIKASI WIRELESS Sukiswo

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Presentasi berjudul: "TeknikTelekomunikasi Seluler, Sukiswo ST, MT 1 KOMUNIKASI WIRELESS Sukiswo"— Transcript presentasi:

1 TeknikTelekomunikasi Seluler, Sukiswo ST, MT 1 KOMUNIKASI WIRELESS Sukiswo

2 TeknikTelekomunikasi Seluler, Sukiswo ST, MT 2 Pendahuluan  Tujuan : menjelaskan dasar-dasar komunikasi wireless

3 TeknikTelekomunikasi Seluler, Sukiswo ST, MT 3 Outline  Komunikasi Wireless / Nirkabel  Pemanfaatan Komunikasi Nirkabel  Macam2 Komunikasi Nirkabel  Standard Komunikasi Nirkabel  Evolusi Komunikasi Nirkabel  Kontent & Aplikasi  Spektrum Frekuensi  Frekuensi Carrier / Kanal  Mode Komunikasi

4 TeknikTelekomunikasi Seluler, Sukiswo ST, MT 4 Komunikasi Nirkabel  Sistem Komunikasi menggunakan frekuensi/spektrum radio, yang memungkinkan transmisi (pengiriman/penerimaan) informasi (suara, data, gambar, video) tanpa koneksi fisik  Dibedakan dari sistem transmisi yang memerlukan koneksi fisik, seperti kabel/kawat tembaga atau fiber optik  Bersifat tetap (fixed) atau bergerak (mobile)  Dibatasi oleh ketersediaan spektrum (pita frekuensi), karena adanya interferensi (saling mengganggu) jika digunakan bersama

5 TeknikTelekomunikasi Seluler, Sukiswo ST, MT 5 Komunikasi Nirkabel

6 TeknikTelekomunikasi Seluler, Sukiswo ST, MT 6 Komunikasi Nirkabel  Komunikasi menggunakan gelombang elektromagnetik  Gelombang elektromagnetik Kecepatan cahaya (c = 3x10 8 m/s) Memiliki frekuensi (f) dan panjang gelombang ( ) »c = f x Penggunaan frekuensi lebih tinggi umumnya medium meredam lebih besar

7 TeknikTelekomunikasi Seluler, Sukiswo ST, MT 7 Komunikasi Nirkabel  Dapat dilakukan “dimana saja” (mobile)  Bisa bersifat lebih personal  Dibatasi oleh sifat antarmuka terminal: –Layar kecil (ponsel) sampai menengah (laptop) –Tombol terbatas –Daya terbatas

8 TeknikTelekomunikasi Seluler, Sukiswo ST, MT 8 Klasifikasi Komunikasi Nirkabel

9 TeknikTelekomunikasi Seluler, Sukiswo ST, MT 9 Pemanfaatan Teknologi Nirkabel  Layanan Bersifat tetap (fixed): –Penggunaan sekitar rumah (Cordless-DECT) –Sambungan lokal (wireless local loop-WLL) –Bluetooth: jarak pendek, kecepatan rendah –WiFi: jarang menengah, kecepatan cukup tinggi –WIMAX: jarak jauh, kecepatan tinggi –Satellite: jangkauan luas, kecepatan menengah –RFID: jangkauan sangat kecil  Layanan Bersifat bergerak (mobile): –Limited Mobility (Flexi) –Cellular (GSM, CDMA, 3G) –Satellite (GMPCS)

10 TeknikTelekomunikasi Seluler, Sukiswo ST, MT 10 Macam2 Teknologi Nirkabel Degree of mobility Standing Walking Driving User data rate 10Mbps IEEE a,d 1100 HSDPA IEEE e WLAN (IEEE x) GSM GPRS DECT EDGE FlashOFDM (802.20) Systems beyond 3G > BlueTooth UMTS CDMA EV-DO EV-DV UMTS

11 TeknikTelekomunikasi Seluler, Sukiswo ST, MT 11 Standard Nirkabel IEEE UWB, Bluetooth Wi-Media, BTSIG, MBOA WAN MAN LAN PAN ETSI HiperPAN IEEE Wi-Fi Alliance ETSI-BRAN HiperLAN2 IEEE d WiMAX ETSI HiperMAN & HIPERACCESS IEEE IEEE e 3GPP (GPRS/UMTS) 3GPP2 (1X--/CDMA2000) GSMA, OMA Sensors IEEE (Zigbee Alliance) RFID (AutoID Center) IEEE , IEEE RAN IEEE (BAN) BAN: Body Area Network

12 TeknikTelekomunikasi Seluler, Sukiswo ST, MT 12 Year st Generation Analog voice 2 nd Generation Digital voice & Low rate data 3 rd Generation ~ G+ PDC,GSM,PHS, etc. 2G PDC,GSM,PHS, etc. 3G W-CDMA, Cdma2000, etc. 3G+ HSDPA, cdma2000(3X), etc. 4G 1995 WLAN a,HiSWANa, HIPERLAN2, etc. Bluetooth, etc. UWB, etc. WLAN n, etc. WLAN++ Generation (Cellular) Mobile Local Nomadic 4 th Generation ALL-IP Broadband Ubiquitous & Seamless Voice & High speed data Multimedia WiMAX System Evolution Scenario

13 TeknikTelekomunikasi Seluler, Sukiswo ST, MT 13 GSM Evolution UMTS Up to 2 Mbps or 384 in mobility GSM HSCSD Up to 38,4 kbps GSM CS Up to 9,6 Kbps GSM GPRS Up to 115 kbps 2G 2.5G 3G Operators prefer choose direct going to GPRS technology rather than going to GSM HSCSD technology because no HSCSD handset availability and short time stage EDGE

14 TeknikTelekomunikasi Seluler, Sukiswo ST, MT 14 CDMA Standards Evolution CDMA2000 PCN/Mobile IP Interworking function CDMA2000 cdmaOne All IP IS-95A CDMA Voice, packet- 9.6/14.4 Kbps IS-95B CDMA Voice, packet- 64 Kbps IS X 144 Kbps 600 Kbps peak IS XEV-DO 600 Kbps; 2.4 Kbps peak IS XEV-DV 2-5 Mbps peak Source: CDMA2000-A world view

15 TeknikTelekomunikasi Seluler, Sukiswo ST, MT 15 IMT-2000 (Family of Standards) IMT-2000 CDMA Direct Spread IMT-2000 CDMA Multi Carrier IMT-2000 CDMA TDD IMT-2000 TDMA Single Carrier IMT-2000 FDMA/ TDMA IMT-2000 Terrestrial Radio Interfaces WCDMA (UMTS) CDMA2000 1X and 3X UTRA TDD And TD-SCDMA UWC-136/ EDGE DECT CDMATDMAFDMA

16 TeknikTelekomunikasi Seluler, Sukiswo ST, MT 16 Content & Aplikasi

17 TeknikTelekomunikasi Seluler, Sukiswo ST, MT 17 Spektrum frekuensi IRUVX-Rays Cosmic Rays Radio Spectrum 1MHz ==100m 100MHz ==1m 10GHz ==1cm < 30 KHz VLF KHz LF 300KHz – 3MHz MF 3 MHz – 30MHz HF 30MHz – 300MHz VHF 300 MHz – 3GHz UHF 3-30GHz SHF > 30 GHz EHF Micro wave Visible light Alokasi Frekeunsi !

18 TeknikTelekomunikasi Seluler, Sukiswo ST, MT 18 Contoh : panjang gelombang  GSM : –Frekuensi ~= 900 Mhz –Panjang gelombang ~= 33cm  PCS –Frekuensi ~= 1.8 Ghz –Panjang gelombang ~= 17.5 cm  Bluetooth: –Frekuensi ~= 2.4Gz –Panjang gelombang ~= 12.5cm

19 TeknikTelekomunikasi Seluler, Sukiswo ST, MT 19 Frequency Carrier/Kanal –Informasi yang dikirim menuju receiver dilewatkan pada band frekuensi tertentu. Disebut sebagai kanal (channel) –Tiap kanal memiliki bandwidth yang tetap (dalam KHz) dan kapasitas (bit-rate) –Band frekuensi yang berbeda (atau kanal) dapat digunakan untuk mentransmisikan informasi secara paralel dan independen (konsep multiple access).

20 TeknikTelekomunikasi Seluler, Sukiswo ST, MT 20 Example –Assume a spectrum of 90KHz is allocated over a base frequency b for communication between stations A and B –Assume each channel occupies 30KHz. –There are 3 channels –Each channel is simplex (Transmission occurs in one way) –For full duplex communication: »Use two different channels (front and reverse channels) »Use time division in a channel Channel 1 (b - b+30) Channel 2 (b+30 - b+60) Channel 3 (b+60 - b+90) Station A Station B

21 TeknikTelekomunikasi Seluler, Sukiswo ST, MT 21 Simplex Communication  Normally, on a channel, a station can transmit only in one way. This is called simplex transmision  To enable two-way communication (called full-duplex communication) We can use Frequency Division Multiplexing We can use Time Division Multiplexing

22 TeknikTelekomunikasi Seluler, Sukiswo ST, MT 22 Duplex Communication - FDD  FDD: Frequency Division Duplex Base Station B Mobile Terminal M Forward Channel Reverse Channel Forward Channel and Reverse Channel use different frequency bands

23 TeknikTelekomunikasi Seluler, Sukiswo ST, MT 23 Duplex Communication - TDD  TDD: Time Division Duplex Base Station B Mobile Terminal M A singe frequency channel is used. The channel is divided into time slots. Mobile station and base station transmits on the time slots alternately. MBMBMB

24 TeknikTelekomunikasi Seluler, Sukiswo ST, MT 24 Example - Frequency Spectrum Allocation in U.S. Cellular Radio Service … … … … MHz MHz Reverse ChannelForward Channel Channel NumberCenter Frequency (MHz) Reverse Channel 1 <=N <= <= N <= 1023 Forward Channel 1 <=N <= <= N <= N (N-1023) N (N-1023) (Channels are unused) Channel bandwidth is 45 MHz

25 TeknikTelekomunikasi Seluler, Sukiswo ST, MT 25 What is Mobility  Initially Internet and Telephone Networks is designed assuming the user terminals are static No change of location during a call/connection A user terminals accesses the network always from a fixed location  Mobility and portability –Portability means changing point of attachment to the network offline –Mobility means changing point of attachment to the network online

26 TeknikTelekomunikasi Seluler, Sukiswo ST, MT 26 Degrees of Mobility  Walking Users Low speed Small roaming area Usually uses high-bandwith/low-latency access  Vehicles High speeds Large roaming area Usually uses low-bandwidth/high-latency access Uses sophisticated terminal equipment (cell phones)

27 TeknikTelekomunikasi Seluler, Sukiswo ST, MT 27 The Need for Wireless/Mobile Networking  Demand for Ubiquitous Computing –Anywhere, anytime computing and communication You don’t have to go to the lab to check your –Pushing the computers more into background Focus on the task and life, not on the computer Use computers seamlessly to help you and to make your life more easier. –Computers should be location aware Adapt to the current location, discover services


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