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Kelompok 1 1. Felix Johanes10407004 2. Vilandri Astarini10407004 3. Bastian Saputra10407004 4. Sutina10407004 5. Triagita Utami1040704 6. Oktira Roka.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Kelompok 1 1. Felix Johanes10407004 2. Vilandri Astarini10407004 3. Bastian Saputra10407004 4. Sutina10407004 5. Triagita Utami1040704 6. Oktira Roka."— Transcript presentasi:

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2 Kelompok 1 1. Felix Johanes Vilandri Astarini Bastian Saputra Sutina Triagita Utami Oktira Roka Aji Noor Azizah Felix Johanes Vilandri Astarini Bastian Saputra Sutina Triagita Utami Oktira Roka Aji Noor Azizah

3 A mycotoxin (from Greek μύκης (mykes, mukos) "fungus" and Latin (toxicum) "poison") is a toxic secondary metabolite produced by an organism of the fungus kingdom, including mushrooms, molds, and yeasts. The term 'mycotoxin' is usually reserved for the toxic chemical products produced by fungi that readily colonize crops. A mycotoxin (from Greek μύκης (mykes, mukos) "fungus" and Latin (toxicum) "poison") is a toxic secondary metabolite produced by an organism of the fungus kingdom, including mushrooms, molds, and yeasts. The term 'mycotoxin' is usually reserved for the toxic chemical products produced by fungi that readily colonize crops.

4 Mushroom Poisoning => Mycetism, refers to deleterious effects from ingestion of toxic substances present in a mushroom.

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7 JENIS DAN SUMBER MIKOTOKSIN Hingga saat ini telah dikenal 300 jenis mikotoksin (Cole dan Cox, 1981) Lima jenis diantaranya sangat berpotensi menyebabkan penyakit baik pada manusia maupun hewan, yaitu: 1. aflatoksin Dihasilkan oleh Aspergillus flavus, ditemukan pada produk-produk pertanian 2. okratoksin A Dihasilkan oleh Aspergillus ochraceus, ditemukan pada biji-bijian, kacang- kacangan dan buah-buahan yang busuk. 3. zearalenon Dihasilkan oleh Fusarium graminearum, ditemukan pada jagung, gandum, kacang kedelai 4. ergot alkaloids Dihasilkan oleh Claviceps purpurea. Hingga saat ini telah dikenal 300 jenis mikotoksin (Cole dan Cox, 1981) Lima jenis diantaranya sangat berpotensi menyebabkan penyakit baik pada manusia maupun hewan, yaitu: 1. aflatoksin Dihasilkan oleh Aspergillus flavus, ditemukan pada produk-produk pertanian 2. okratoksin A Dihasilkan oleh Aspergillus ochraceus, ditemukan pada biji-bijian, kacang- kacangan dan buah-buahan yang busuk. 3. zearalenon Dihasilkan oleh Fusarium graminearum, ditemukan pada jagung, gandum, kacang kedelai 4. ergot alkaloids Dihasilkan oleh Claviceps purpurea.

8 5. Trikotesena Dihasilkan oleh kapang Fusarium spp., Trichoderma, Myrothecium, Trichothecium dan Stachybotrys. 6. Fumonisin, Dihasilkan oleh Fusarium moniliforme, ditemukan pada jagung, gandum, sorgum dan berbagai produk pertanian lainnya. Perbedaan sifat-sifat kimia, biologik dan toksikologik tiap mikotoksin menyebabkan adanya perbedaan efek toksik yang ditimbulkannya. 5. Trikotesena Dihasilkan oleh kapang Fusarium spp., Trichoderma, Myrothecium, Trichothecium dan Stachybotrys. 6. Fumonisin, Dihasilkan oleh Fusarium moniliforme, ditemukan pada jagung, gandum, sorgum dan berbagai produk pertanian lainnya. Perbedaan sifat-sifat kimia, biologik dan toksikologik tiap mikotoksin menyebabkan adanya perbedaan efek toksik yang ditimbulkannya.

9 Classification of mycotoxin-producing fungi Major classes of mycotoxin- producing fungi Fungi speciesMycotoxins Aspergillus A. flavus A. parasiticus A. nomius A. pseudotamarii Aflatoxin (B 1, B 2, G 1, G 2 ) A. ochraceus Ochratoxin (Ochratoxin A) A. clavatus A. terreus Patulin A. flavus A. versicolor Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) Claviceps C. purpurea C. fusiformis C. paspali C. africana Ergot alkaloids: Clavines (Argroclavine) Lysergic acids Lysergic acid amids (Ergin) Ergopeptines (Ergotamine, Ergovaline) Neotyphodium (formerly Acremonium) N. coenophialum Tall fescue toxins: Ergot alkaloids, lolines, peramine N. lolii Tall fescue toxins: Lolitrems, peramine, ergot alkaloid (ergovaline)

10 Classification of mycotoxin-producing fungi (lanjutan)

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12 Racun Fungi (Mycotoxin) dapat menyebabkan kematian, namun, memiliki efek dan tingkat keracunan yang berbeda, dipengaruhi oleh beberapa hal; Faktor Toxin: Tipe, Level, Durasi Faktor Hewan/Manusia yang teracuni : Sex, Breed, Nutrition standing, status imunitas, kesehatan umum Faktor Lingkungan: Suhu, Higienis Racun Fungi (Mycotoxin) dapat menyebabkan kematian, namun, memiliki efek dan tingkat keracunan yang berbeda, dipengaruhi oleh beberapa hal; Faktor Toxin: Tipe, Level, Durasi Faktor Hewan/Manusia yang teracuni : Sex, Breed, Nutrition standing, status imunitas, kesehatan umum Faktor Lingkungan: Suhu, Higienis

13 Immunosuppression: when one or more functions of the immune system are suppressed, resulting in an impaired resistance to infectious agents. Hematopoietic Effects: Trihcothecenes (Fusarium) hematopoiesis refers to the production of all types of bloods cells from the primitive cells (stem cells) in the bone marrow. The dysfunction of hematopoiesis leads firstly to the decrease of production of neutrophils (white cells that help the cell to kill and digest microorganisms engulfed by phagocytosis), thus perturbing the animals’ immune system and subsequently to the decrease of red blood cells, leading to anemia. Hepatotoxic Effects: hepatotoxicity refers to liver damage caused by toxic substances. Nephrotoxic Effects: nephrotoxicity refers to kidney damage caused by toxic substances. Nephropathy is the term used to describe kidney inflammation. Reproductive Effects: involve all the negative impacts in the reproductive system and in reproduction. Teratogenic Effects: refer to birth defects, both structural and functional, caused to the newborn. Neurotoxic Effects: when the nervous system is affected.

14 Carcinogenic Effects: involve the promotion of cancer and of the spread of cancer cells. Dermal Effects: Dermal toxicity involves all the damage caused to the skin by toxic substances. Gastro-intestinal Effects: Amanithin (Amanita phalloides) involve all the effects which are caused in the gastro-intestinal tract. Performance Effects: involve the changes in performance that can be detected by lower daily weight gain, poor feed conversion rates, lower production (eggs, milk) and decreased feed intake. Pathological Effects: pathology refers to the study of organs in order to examine the effects of a certain disease. Changes from the normal appearance of a certain organ are known as pathological changes. Residues: refer to the mycotoxin carry-over into blood and muscles which may and often lead to residues in animal products such as meat and eggs.

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16 There are three levels to prevent the contamination of fungi and their mycotoxin in agricultural commodities. Those are : 1. Primary Prevention control field infection by fungi of planting crops making schedule for suitable pre-harvest, harvest and post-harvest lowering moisture content of plant seeds, after post harvesting and during storage There are three levels to prevent the contamination of fungi and their mycotoxin in agricultural commodities. Those are : 1. Primary Prevention control field infection by fungi of planting crops making schedule for suitable pre-harvest, harvest and post-harvest lowering moisture content of plant seeds, after post harvesting and during storage

17 store commodities at low temperature whenever possible using fungicides and preservatives against fungal growth control insect infestation in stored bulk grains with approved insecticides 2.Secondary prevention stop growth of infested fungi by re-drying the products Removal of contaminated seeds Inactivation of detoxification of mycotoxins contaminated Protect stored product from any conditions which favour continuing fungal growth store commodities at low temperature whenever possible using fungicides and preservatives against fungal growth control insect infestation in stored bulk grains with approved insecticides 2.Secondary prevention stop growth of infested fungi by re-drying the products Removal of contaminated seeds Inactivation of detoxification of mycotoxins contaminated Protect stored product from any conditions which favour continuing fungal growth

18 3.Tertiary prevention complete destruction of the contaminated product Detoxification or destruction of mycotoxins to the minimal level The inhibition of fungal growth can be achieved by physical, chemical, and biologycal treatments, like as : Gamma- irradiation of large-scale commodities, synthetic fungicides, organic acids and natural products from plants. 3.Tertiary prevention complete destruction of the contaminated product Detoxification or destruction of mycotoxins to the minimal level The inhibition of fungal growth can be achieved by physical, chemical, and biologycal treatments, like as : Gamma- irradiation of large-scale commodities, synthetic fungicides, organic acids and natural products from plants.

19 Fungi berfilamen yang umumnya hidup pada tanah dan berasosiasi dengan tumbuhan, terutama tumbuhan berbiji, seperti jagung, padi,dan lain-lain. Beberapa spesies menghasilkan mikotoksin yang membahayakan kesehatan manusia dan hewan. Toksin yang dihasilkan : Zearalenon, Trikotesena, dan Fumonisin. Fungi berfilamen yang umumnya hidup pada tanah dan berasosiasi dengan tumbuhan, terutama tumbuhan berbiji, seperti jagung, padi,dan lain-lain. Beberapa spesies menghasilkan mikotoksin yang membahayakan kesehatan manusia dan hewan. Toksin yang dihasilkan : Zearalenon, Trikotesena, dan Fumonisin.

20 Zearalenon dihasilkan oleh Fusarium graminearum, F.tricinctum, dan F. moniliforme. Trikotesena mempunyai 40 jenis mykotoksin dan Fusarium tricinctum, F. solani, dan F. roseum. Fumonisin dihasilkan oleh F. moniliforme dan F. proliferatum, F.nygamai, F. anthophilum, F. diamini dan F. Napiforme. Zearalenon dihasilkan oleh Fusarium graminearum, F.tricinctum, dan F. moniliforme. Trikotesena mempunyai 40 jenis mykotoksin dan Fusarium tricinctum, F. solani, dan F. roseum. Fumonisin dihasilkan oleh F. moniliforme dan F. proliferatum, F.nygamai, F. anthophilum, F. diamini dan F. Napiforme.

21 Trikotesena menghambat sintesis protein,DNA dan RNA, serta berinteraksi, dengan selaput sel. Gangguan penyakit pada manusia yang bersifat akut seperti muntah, gangguan pencernaan, diare atau sakit kepalaberhubungan dengan terkonsumsinya Fusarium sp. Zearalenon, gejala yang muncul akibat mykotoksin ini adalah gangguan pencernaan dan reproduksi. Fumonisin menyebabkan kanker oesofageal pada manusia. Gejala kontaminasi fumonisin adalah penurunan asupan makanan, gangguan pernapasan, serta kelainan pada organ hati dan ginjal. Trikotesena menghambat sintesis protein,DNA dan RNA, serta berinteraksi, dengan selaput sel. Gangguan penyakit pada manusia yang bersifat akut seperti muntah, gangguan pencernaan, diare atau sakit kepalaberhubungan dengan terkonsumsinya Fusarium sp. Zearalenon, gejala yang muncul akibat mykotoksin ini adalah gangguan pencernaan dan reproduksi. Fumonisin menyebabkan kanker oesofageal pada manusia. Gejala kontaminasi fumonisin adalah penurunan asupan makanan, gangguan pernapasan, serta kelainan pada organ hati dan ginjal.

22 Mycotoxin Produced by Aspergillus Spesies

23 Aflatoksin  Aspergillus flavus toxin  The aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 are the major four toxins amongst at least 16 structurally related toxins (Goldblatt, 1969).  Produced by A. flavus, A.parasiticus, A. toxicarius, A. nomius, A. bombycis, A. Pseudotamarii, Penicillium citrinum, etc.  It is one of the most potent natural cancer- causing agents known.  The main target organ in mammals is the liver so aflatoxicosis is primarily a hepatic disease liver cancer  Crops which are frequently affected include cereals, oilseeds, spices, and tree nuts. Aflatoksin  Aspergillus flavus toxin  The aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 are the major four toxins amongst at least 16 structurally related toxins (Goldblatt, 1969).  Produced by A. flavus, A.parasiticus, A. toxicarius, A. nomius, A. bombycis, A. Pseudotamarii, Penicillium citrinum, etc.  It is one of the most potent natural cancer- causing agents known.  The main target organ in mammals is the liver so aflatoxicosis is primarily a hepatic disease liver cancer  Crops which are frequently affected include cereals, oilseeds, spices, and tree nuts.

24 Ochratoxin  produced by Aspergillus ochraceus and Penicillium verrucosum  particularly contaminated grain and pork products, as well as coffee, wine grapes and dried grapes  potentially carcinogenic to humans.  weakly mutagenic, possibly by induction of oxidative DNA damage Ochratoxin  produced by Aspergillus ochraceus and Penicillium verrucosum  particularly contaminated grain and pork products, as well as coffee, wine grapes and dried grapes  potentially carcinogenic to humans.  weakly mutagenic, possibly by induction of oxidative DNA damage Sterigmatocystin  a precursor in the biosynthesis of aflatoxins  produced by the fungi Aspergillus nidulans and A. versicolor  It has been reported in mouldy grain, green coffee beans and cheese  It is not considered to be as acutely toxic or as carcinogenic as aflatoxin Sterigmatocystin  a precursor in the biosynthesis of aflatoxins  produced by the fungi Aspergillus nidulans and A. versicolor  It has been reported in mouldy grain, green coffee beans and cheese  It is not considered to be as acutely toxic or as carcinogenic as aflatoxin Other Aspergillus toxins

25 Penicillium : genus dari fungi yang memiliki 150 spesies teridentifikasi, 100 diantara diketahui dapat memproduksi mikotoksin Sporanya disebut conidium atau phialspore. Spora Penicillium mengandung pigmen biru atau hijau (mengkolonisasi makanan). Berperan dalam pembusukan buah, keju, daging, produk sereal dan produk pertanian lain. Toksisitas dibagi menjadi 2 grup besar  dapat mempengaruhi fungsi hati ataupun ginjal dan yang bersifat neurotoksik.

26 Merugikan: P. italicum dan P. digitatum  ‘blue green mould’ pada buah jeruk P.expansum  ‘soft rot’ pada apel P.citreoviride (P.toxicarium)  produksi mikotoksin citreoviridin P. islandicum  luteoskyrin dan islanditoksin P.citrinum  nephrotoxin citrinin dan citreoviridin P.viridicatum  ochratoxin Menguntungkan: P. roquefortii  mould-ripened blue cheese P. camembertii  mould-ripened soft cheese P. notatum dan P. chrysogenum  produksi antibiotik penicillin.

27 Menyebabkan ‘soft rot’ pada apel. Produksi mikotoksin patulin dan citrinin ( memiliki potensi karsinogen). Simptom: lunak, berair, dan warna kecoklatan. Permukaan ditutupi spora hijau kebiruan. Jika apel tersebut dijadikan jus, patulin tetap ada pada jus. Patulin dapat dijadikan sebagai antibiotik (broad spectrum) Pencegahan: sanitasi umum dan menghindari kondisi yang memungkinkan pembusukan, penyimpanan, konrol biologi dan kimia terintegrasi. Menyebabkan ‘soft rot’ pada apel. Produksi mikotoksin patulin dan citrinin ( memiliki potensi karsinogen). Simptom: lunak, berair, dan warna kecoklatan. Permukaan ditutupi spora hijau kebiruan. Jika apel tersebut dijadikan jus, patulin tetap ada pada jus. Patulin dapat dijadikan sebagai antibiotik (broad spectrum) Pencegahan: sanitasi umum dan menghindari kondisi yang memungkinkan pembusukan, penyimpanan, konrol biologi dan kimia terintegrasi.

28 Memproduksi Ochratoksin dan Griseofulvins. Efek terhadap kesehatan: - ochratoksin  dapat menginhibisi sintesis protein (phenyalanyl-t-RNA synthetase), nephrotoksik, karsinogenik - griseofulvins  hepatotoxic, tumorigenic, teratogenic. Mengkontaminasi produk cereal seperti barley (gandum yang digunakan untuk membuat bir) Agen etiologi penyakit ginjal pada babi dan dapat ditularkan ke manusia (dibuktikan dengan deteksi ochratoksin dalam serum manusia di Eropa) Memproduksi Ochratoksin dan Griseofulvins. Efek terhadap kesehatan: - ochratoksin  dapat menginhibisi sintesis protein (phenyalanyl-t-RNA synthetase), nephrotoksik, karsinogenik - griseofulvins  hepatotoxic, tumorigenic, teratogenic. Mengkontaminasi produk cereal seperti barley (gandum yang digunakan untuk membuat bir) Agen etiologi penyakit ginjal pada babi dan dapat ditularkan ke manusia (dibuktikan dengan deteksi ochratoksin dalam serum manusia di Eropa)

29 Antony, Food Poisoning. CRC Press Copyright. Eley, Adrian R Microbial Food Poisoning. London : Chapman & Hall. Goldblatt, L. A. (1969). Aflatoxin – Scientific Background, Control and Implications. New York: Acaderitic Press. Hedayati,M. T, A. C. Pasqualotto,P. A. Warn,P. Bowyer, D. W. Denning Aspergillus flavus: human pathogen, allergen and mycotoxin producer. Microbiology, 153, 1677–1692


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