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CEMARAN JAMUR PADA PANGAN. Mengapa penting? INDONESIA negara tropis Kelembaban tinggi (RH > 78%) Suhu hangat ( 25 - 32 0 C) Ideal untuk pertumbuhan jamur.

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Presentasi berjudul: "CEMARAN JAMUR PADA PANGAN. Mengapa penting? INDONESIA negara tropis Kelembaban tinggi (RH > 78%) Suhu hangat ( 25 - 32 0 C) Ideal untuk pertumbuhan jamur."— Transcript presentasi:

1 CEMARAN JAMUR PADA PANGAN

2 Mengapa penting? INDONESIA negara tropis Kelembaban tinggi (RH > 78%) Suhu hangat ( C) Ideal untuk pertumbuhan jamur kerusakan pangan cemaran mikotoksin tahan thd faktor karsinogenik pengolahan embritoxic toksisitas akut

3 MIKOTOKSIN Mikotoksin adalah senyawa kimia beracun yang dihasilkan oleh jamur Pengaruh pada kesehatan : bisa akut, memunculkan penyakit secara cepat atau bersifat jangka panjang ( bersifat karsinogenik  kanker ; kehilangan imunitas tubuh, teratogenic dan embryotoxic) Ada 5 (lima) kelompok mikotoksin yang sering terdapat pada pangan: 1. kelompok Aflatoksin 2. kelompok Fumonisin 3. Deoxynivalenol / nivalenol (DON) 4. Zearalenone 5. Ochratoxin

4 MIKOTOKSINKOMODITIJAMUR PENGHASIL PENGARUH YG DITIMBULKAN Aflatoksin (B1, B2, G1, G2) Jagung, kacang, bijian lain dan hasil olahnya Aspergillus flavus Aspergillus parasiticus Karsinogenik, embriotoksik Aflatoksin M1 dan derevatnyaSusu Pakan yg mengandung AFB Karsinogenik Fumonisins ( B1,B2 ) Jagung, gandum dan beberapa bijian lain Fusarium moniliforme Karsinogenik Accut Zearalenone Jagung, gandum, barley Fusarium graminearum F. Culmorum F. crookwellense Karsinogenik System reproduksi Deoxynivalenol Nivalenol Jagung, gamdum, barleyIdem zearalenoneidem Ochratoxin A (OTA) Kopi, coklat, gandum Aspergillus ochraceus Penicillium vericosum karsinogenik KEBERADAAN KE LIMA MIKOTOKSIN PADA PANGAN

5 PLANT CROP PLANT CROP Fungal growth & toxin production Fungal growth & toxin production Insect bird & rodent damage Agricultural biocides Microbial interaction HARVEST Intrinsic factors Intrinsic factors Extrinsic factors Extrinsic factors Environmental condition Environmental condition STORAGE STORAGE Fungal growth & toxin production Fungal growth & toxin production Other component Other component plant origin PROCESSING spices, herbs (resistant?) Feed for animals Feed for animals Meat & milk Processed foods Meat & milk Waste / by products HUMAN HUMAN SIMPLIFIED DIAGRAM THE ROUTE OF MYCOTOXINS CONTAMINATION IN FOOD (Sardjono,2003)

6 Moulding of cereals/plants** Moulding of cereals/plants** during growth / storage during growth / storage animal feed*feed components** animal feed*feed components** (by-products from the food industries) (by-products from the food industries) swine ruminant poultry swine ruminant poultry meat and edible tissue** meat and edible tissue** Other component**: MEAT PROCESSING. other component of plant origin. other component of plant origin. spices and herbs. spices and herbs. other component of plant origin. other component of plant origin. coloring agents of fungal origin. coloring agents of fungal origin Contamination with toxigenic fungi** Contamination with toxigenic fungi** undesired moulding undesired moulding fungal starter cultures fungal starter cultures MEAT PRODUCTS MEAT PRODUCTS CONTAMINATION OF MEAT & MEAT PRODUCS WITH MYCOTOXIN

7 FIELD FUNGI : A. tereus (4%) A. versicolor (7) Fusarium equiseti (7%) F. longipes (13%) F. solani (5%) Nigrosora oryzae (4%) Rhizopus oryzae (75%) SPOILAGE FUNGI Aspergillus niger (80%) A. tamarii (38%) A. wentii (7%) E. chevalieri (63%) E. rubrum (62%) Chaetomium globusum (5%) P. funiculosum (4%) MYCOTOXIGENIC FUNGI Aspergillus flavus (98%) A. fumigatus (3%) A. ochraceus (4%) P. citrinum (55%) F. semitectum (14%)

8 FIELD FUNGI : Curvularia fallax (7) C. pallescens (6) Lasiodiplodia theobroma (38) Nigrospora oryzae (11) Penicillium funiculosum(5) P. oxalicum (10) Rhizopus oryzae (33) R. stolonifer (6) SPOILAGE FUNGI Aspergillus candidus (5) A. niger (65) A.tamarii (21) A. wentii (10) Chaetomium funicola (9) C. globusum (11) Eurotium chevalieri (48) E. rubrum (54) E. repens (5) Trichoderma harzianum(6) MYCOTOXIGENIC FUNGI A. flavus (80) Fusarium moniliforme(73) F. semitectum (34) F. proliferatum (7) Penicillium citrinum (45)

9 FIELD FUNGI A. penicilloides (4) A. restrictus (29) Cladosporium spp (17) Curvularia geniculata (7) C. verruculosa (8) Lasiodiplodia theobromae (25) Nigrosora oryzae (13) Rhizopus oryzae (13) SPOILAGE FUNGI Aspergillus candidus (10) A.niger (35) A. restrictus (29) A.tamarii (15) A. wentii (10) Chaetomium funicola (23) C. globusum (35) Eurotium amstelodami (13) E. chevalieri (19) E. rubrum (60) Phoma spp (25) MYCOTOXIGENIC FUNGI Aspergillus flavus (81) F. semitectum (46) P. citrinum (23)

10 FIELD FUNGI : Absidia corymbifera (16) Nigrosora oryzae (21) Rhizopus oryzae (32) R. stolonifer (37) Syncephalastrum racemosum (16) SPOILAGE FUNGI Aspergillus niger (84) A. tamarii (32) A. wentii (37) E. chevalieri (26) E. rubrum (89) Chaetomium globusum (37) P. aethiopicum (16) MYCOTOXIGENIC FUNGI Aspergillus flavus (95) A. versicolor (21) P. citrinum (53) F. semitectum (14%) KEMIRI (Aleurities mollucana)

11 FIELD FUNGI : Bipolaris maydis (14) B. oryzae (23) Cladosporium cladosporoides (11) Curvularia geniculata (14) C. verruculosa (14) Nigrosora oryzae (37) Phoma spp (23) Trichoconiella padwickii (13) SPOILAGE FUNGI A.niger (17) A.tamarii (17) Eurotium chevalieri (11) E. rubrum (17) MYCOTOXIGENIC FUNGI Aspergillus flavus (80) F. semitectum (63 P. citrinum (23) P. oxalicum (17) MYCOTOXIGENIC FUNGI Aspergillus flavus (34) A. fumigatus (9) A. versicolor (6) F. semitectum (4) P. citrinum (16) P. islandicum (5) SPOILAGE FUNGI A.niger (6) A. sydowii (4) Eurotium chevalieri (18) E. rubrum (16) FIELD FUNGI : Alternaria longissima (4) Cladosporium cladosporoides (6) Curvularia geniculata (4) Nigrosora oryzae (4) Trichoconiella padwickii (17) PADDY RICE MILLED RICE

12 FIELD FUNGI Paecilomyces variotii (40) SPOILAGE FUNGI A.niger (60) A.tamarii (90) A. sydowii (80) Emericella nidulans (35) Eurotium chevalieri (70) MYCOTOXIGENIC FUNGI Aspergillus flavus (90) A. versicolor (70) P. citrinum (50) PEPPER

13 CEMARAN JAMUR PENGHASIL MIKOTOKSIN CUKUP BESAR CEMARAN MIKOTOKSIN MENGKHAWATIRKAN?? LANGKAH-LANGKAH YANG PERLU DIAMBIL 1.MENINGKATKAN KESADARAN MASYARAKAT AKAN BAHAYA YG DITIMBULKAN OLEH MIKOTOKSIN 2.PERBAIKAN METODA BUDIDAYA UNTUK MENGURANGI CEMARAN JAMUR DI LAPANGAN 3.PERBAIKAN METODA PANEN DAN PASCA PANEN, DENGAN MENYEDIAKAN ALAT PENGERING YANG MEMADAI DAN TEKNIK PENYIMPANAN YANG BENAR 4.PENGEMBANGAN PROSES PENGOLAHAN UNTUK DETOKSIFIKASI MIKOTOKSIN DALAM BAHAN MENTAH, BAIK SECARA KIMIAWI MAUPUN BIOLOGIS MELALUI PROSES FERMENTASI


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