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Presentasi berjudul: "DECISION MAKING PENGANTAR TEORI GAME."— Transcript presentasi:


2 PENGERTIAN Decision Making adalah serangkaian algoritma yang dirancang dengan memasukan beberapa kemungkinan langkah yang bisa diambil oleh suatu aplikasi Pada game, decision making memberikan kemampuan suatu karakter untuk menentukan langkah apa yang akan diambil. Decision making dilakukan dengan cara menentukan satu pilihan dari list yang sudah dibuat pada algoritma yang dirancang.

3 PENGERTIAN Algoritma decision making kerap digunakan dalam aplikasi game Algoritma decision making dapat juga diimplementasikan pada banyak aplikasi lain.

4 Decision Tree Keunggulan
Cepat & mudah diimplementasikan, mudah dimengerti Modular, Re-usable Dapat dipelajari  Dapat dikonstruksi secara dinamis dari observasi dan action di dalam game

5 Decision Tree Problem Setting
Memberi seperangkat pengetahuan, kita perlu untuk menghasilkan tindakan yang sesuai dari serangkaian tindakan yang mungkin. Some actions are triggered by a large set of inputs E.g. For an ant AI to Evade, it requires player to be < 20 units away, player’s health to be > 50% and ant’s health to be < 25%. There are 3 input conditions. Beberapa kondisi input mungkin lebih signifikan dari sejumlah input yang ada. Computational redundancy

6 Decision Tree Problem Setting
Kita butuh suatu metode untuk mengelompokkan sejumlah input secara bersamaan pada setiap action Kita harus mengizinkan input-input yang signifikan untuk mengontrol output actions (also non-significant inputs should be less utilized)

7 Decision Tree Decision Tree (DT) dibuat dari kumpulan decision point yang terhubung. Tree dimulai dari decision (root) Setiap decision (dimulai dari root), satu dari sekumpulan pilihan yang ada dipilih Pilihan dibuat berdasarkan kondisi yang dihasilkan dari character’s knowledge/values Lanjutkan tree sampai tidak ada lagi decision yang diambil Setiap leaf (daun) adalah action, yang harus dieksekusi

8 Decision Tree Contoh decision tree dari karakter soldier Root
Input Conditions (Decision Points) Leaf

9 Decision Tree Action karakter ditentukan melalui urutan decision points

10 Decisions Decision di tree harus sederhana
Cek untuk yang bernilai single atau bernilai boolean (do not normally join inputs with Boolean logic) Possible types of decisions and their data types Boolean – True/False Enumeration – Matches one of the given set of values Numeric value – Value within given range Vector (2D/3D) – Vector has length within a given range (for distance checking)

11 Combinations of Decisions
Decision tree adalah efisien karena decision yang sederhana – hanya satu kondisi pengujian pada satu waktu Ketika pengujian kombinasi boolean (AND/OR) diperlukan, beberapa sturktur tree dapat digunakan untuk merepresantikannya

12 Combinations of Decisions
To AND two decisions together, place them in series, the 1st decision needs to be true to consider the 2nd, in order to get to action 1 To OR two decisions together, place them in series, either 1st or 2nd decision can be true in order to carry out action 1

13 Decision Complexity In a tree structure, the number of decisions that need to be considered is usually smaller than the number of decisions in the tree Complexity issue? Space complexity? Time complexity?

14 Branching in DTs Deep binary DT
The same value (color) may be checked up to 3 times Slightly better: Order the checks so that the most likely state comes first Flat DT with 4 branches Using 4 branches, the structure is flatter and requires only one decision check More efficient!

15 Binary Better? It is still more common to find binary DT implementations Underlying nature of codes usually simplifies down to a series of binary tests (if/else) Speed savings not significantly better with higher order branching Binary DTs are easier to optimize Many tree optimization/compression techniques are for binary trees Learning algorithms usually use binary DT

16 Performance DTs (binary) usually take no memory and performance is linear with the number of nodes visited Ideal case  If each decision takes a constant time and tree is balanced, performance is O(log2 n), where n is the number of decision nodes

17 Balancing the Tree DTs run the fastest when trees are balanced
A balanced tree has about the same number of leaves on each branch Both these trees have 8 behaviors and 7 decisions, but one is extremely unbalanced

18 Balanced vs. Unbalanced Tree
At its worst, performance of a severely unbalanced tree goes from O(log2 n) to O(n) Although a balance tree is theoretically optimal, it may not be the fastest tree… Why is this so?

19 Maximizing Performance?
Menstrukturkan tree untuk maximum performance adalah hal yang sulit dilakukan DT cukup cepat, sangat penting untuk squeeze out every drop of speed General guidelines: Seimbangkan tree (as balanced as possible), buat cabang lebih pendek dari yang biasa dipakai, taruh expensive decision setelahnya.

20 Random Decision Tree Random Decision Trees adalah algoritma yang membentuk serangkaian langkah-langkah yang akan dimasukan kedalam algoritma decision trees. Setiap pilihan langkah yang dimasukkan pada decision trees tidak dapat diprediksi Setiap langkah akan dilakukan secara acak berdasarkan nilainya

21 Random Decision Tree Random Decision Trees pada game “Ninja Heroes" akan bekerja dengan beberapa pilihan Jika karakter sedang tidak melakukan kegiatan maka random decision trees akan bekerja berdasarkan nilai random yang telah ditentukan Apabila karakter sedang berada didalam kelas atau sedang melakukan kegiatan maka random decision trees tidak dilakukan dan karakter akan menyelesaikan tindakannya terlebih dahulu.

22 Random Decision Tree To introduce random choices in a DT, decision making process needs to be stable Rule: If there is no relevant changes in world state, there should be no change in decision Consecutive frames should stay with the chosen random decision until some world state changes Implementation: Allow the random decision to keep track of what it did last time, so that it knows the previous choice to take when the same decision is encountered.

23 Random Decision Tree In the first decision (if not under attack), choose randomly to patrol or stand still Subsequently, continue on with the previously chosen action If the parent decision takes the ‘under attack’ choice (a different branch), get rid of the stored choice Repeat…

24 Random Decision Tree If the AI continues to do the same thing forever (because it is never under attack?), that may look strange too… Use a time-out scheme (a stop timer) to reset the previous action, and initiate a new random choice How about randomizing the timer as well…? 

25 Combining DT with FSM We can replace transitions from a state (to another state) with a DT The leaves are the actual transitions to new states

26 Combining DT with FSM Note: If it cannot see the player, the transition (via the DT) ends, and no new state is reached Otherwise, it tests for the player proximity and makes a transition to the “Raise Alarm” or “Defend” states

27 Combining DT with FSM This FSM implements the same thing (as prev. slide), but without the DT nodes Now, we have two complex conditions that need to be evaluated If the condition involved a time-consuming test (such as LoS), then adding the DT would be much more efficient

28 Rule-based AI Generally refer to AI systems that consist of a set of if-then (or if-else) style rules Technically, FSMs and DTs are types of rule-based systems. Rules are used to handle state transitions and decision nodes But more specifically, “rule-based systems” are also commonly referred to its usage in expert systems

29 Rule-based Expert Systems
Common usages/applications in real life: Medical diagnosis, fraud protection, etc. Advantage: Rule-based systems can mimic the way people think and reason given a set of known facts and knowledge about a particular domain Fairly easy to program and manage (in a computer application)

30 Rule-based Systems for Games
Rule-based systems are useful in GAMES… Because knowledge encoded in rules is modular Rules can be encoded in any order  flexible for coding and modifying the system at a later time Let’s look at a game example that can use a rule- based system…

31 Example: Medieval RTS game
Technology Tree An important element in RTS games Shows the links between units to train, facilities to build and resources to harvest in order to expand influence in game

32 Example: Medieval RTS game
Aim: Enable the computer opponent to keep track of player’s current state of technology By collection of knowledge of the player from the world state (resources, units, facilities) “Cheating” and having perfect knowledge will not give fair and realistic AI behaviors How to assess state of technology? Sending scouts to collect information and observe (just like what human players do) Make inferences via a rule-based system

33 Rule-based System Basics
Two main components Working memory – Stores known facts and assertions made by the rules Rules memory – Contains if-then style rules that operate over the facts stored in working memory As rules as triggered or fired, they can trigger some kind of action (such as in FSM and DT), or they can modify contents of the working memory by adding new information

34 Rule-based System Basics
Sample working memory enum TMemoryValue{Yes, No, Maybe, Unknown}; TMemoryValue Peasants; TMemoryValue Woodcutter; TMemoryValue Stonemason; TMemoryValue Blacksmith; TMemoryValue Barracks; ...... Contains elements that can take any one of the 4 values Idea: Keep track of the current “perception” of the player’s state of technology

35 Rule-based System Basics
Computer can gather facts by sending out scouts to see if a player has built a temple (for e.g.) Temple element will be set to Yes. In another way, we can use a set of if-then style rules to infer the technology that the player has (before a scout confirms it) Example “temple” rule: if(Woodcutter == Yes && Stonemason == Yes && Temple == Unknown) Temple = Maybe

36 Rule-based System Basics
Inference can work the other way as well If the player has been observed to have a priest, it can be inferred that the player also must have a temple, therefore, must have a barracks, a woodcutter, and a stonemason Example “priest” rule: if(Priest == Yes) { Temple = Yes; Barracks = Yes; Woodcutter= Yes; Stonemason= Yes; }

37 Rule-based System Basics
You can have many more rules for this technology tree (More examples in textbook) The main scheme: To write this set of rules and execute them continuously during the game (at each iteration of the game loop or in fixed intervals) Maintain an up-to-date picture of the player’s technology capabilities This knowledge can be used to decide when to attack/defend, what to build next and make other tactical/strategic plans

38 Rule-based System Basics
In reality, developers to not build rule-based systems using actual hard-coded if-statements Some types of inferences are hard to achieve Very inflexible as the rules need to be handcrafted one by one to strike a good balance among them Definitely not efficient for future modifications! Developers often use scripting languages or shells to create and modify rules without having to change the source code and recompile

39 Inference in Rule-based Systems
Forward Chaining Match rules (if-parts) to facts in working memory If a rule matches, it is fired and its then-part is executed Potentially, if more than one rule matches the given set of facts, conflict resolution phase required to figure out which rule to fire Conflict resolution: Many possible ways – (1) first matched rule, (2) random rule, (3) largest weighted rule

40 Inference in Rule-based Systems
Forward Chaining Example If working memory indicates Peasants = Yes and Woodcutter = Unknown, the rule: if(Peasants == Yes && Woodcutter == Unknown) Woodcutter = Maybe; , matches. So, this rule can potentially be fired (depending on which other rules are also matched)

41 Inference in Rule-based Systems
Backward Chaining Opposite of forward chaining Match the then-parts, start with outcome/goal, and figure out which rules must be fired to arrive at the outcome/goal E.g. Outcome is that the player has Calvary units. Work backwards – player must have Blacksmith to have Calvary, player must have Barracks to have Blacksmith, player must have Woodcutter to have Barracks and so on.

42 Inference in Rule-based Systems
Backward Chaining So, all the rules required to reach the outcome are all fired. Work the logic backward up the technology tree to the goal In practice, backward chaining is recursive and more difficult to implement than forward chaining

43 Optimization of RBS For small rule sets,
Forward chaining is fast For large-scale rule-based systems, optimization is essential Many rules may be matched for firing, so conflict resolution phase must be optimized  Rete Algorithm Write your own scripting language (instead of 3rd party ones) to reduce implementation overhead


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