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NATURAL ENVIRONMENT Prof. Dr. H.S.Djalal Tandjung (B.Sc.,Drs.,M.Sc.,Ph.D.) Program Studi Magister Manajemen Fakultas Ekonomi dan Bisnis Universitas Gadjah.

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Presentasi berjudul: "NATURAL ENVIRONMENT Prof. Dr. H.S.Djalal Tandjung (B.Sc.,Drs.,M.Sc.,Ph.D.) Program Studi Magister Manajemen Fakultas Ekonomi dan Bisnis Universitas Gadjah."— Transcript presentasi:

1 NATURAL ENVIRONMENT Prof. Dr. H.S.Djalal Tandjung (B.Sc.,Drs.,M.Sc.,Ph.D.) Program Studi Magister Manajemen Fakultas Ekonomi dan Bisnis Universitas Gadjah Mada 2012 APPENDICES 31

2 NATURAL ENVIRONMENT Business The Ecology RECIPROCAL RELATIONSHIP * Environment Pollutions :Air, Water, Land, Cross Media * Non Point Pollution: Chemical substances * Environment Pollutions :Air, Water, Land, Cross Media * Non Point Pollution: Chemical substances Business opportunity and threats Business opportunity and threats Fig. 1. Natural Environment and Sustainable Development 32 (Ecosystems, Ecological System) Entropy, Residue Sustainable Development Public demand for regulation International trade agreement. Equal opportunity, Equal treatment Competitive requirement for eco- labeling Customer demand for clean processes and products & 3 R Public demand for environmen tal protection. CSR and Com-dev Indonesian Instrument for Environmental Management & SNI; International Environmental Management System & ISO RecoveryDevelopment PlanningUtilizationControlMaintenanceSupervisionLaw EnforcementRecoveryDevelopment Environmental Management system Natural Resources Conservation

3 UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT (UNCED) STOCKHOLM CONFERENCE, 1972 WORLD COMMISSION ON ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT BRUNDTLAND REPORT OUR COMMON FUTURE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT OF NATURAL ENVIRONMENT CONTROL, REGULATION, MAINTENANCE, RESTORATION, SUPERVISION, UTILIZATION, AND DEVELOPMENT 33

4 SUSTAINABLE ELEMENTS OF LONG TERM :  RENEWAL ~ REUSE  MAINTENANCE ~ RECOVERY  RECYCLING.  MINIMAL RAW MATERIAL - EXPLOITATION ~ REDUCE  MANAGEMENT OF PEOPLE NEED ON COLLECTIVE BASIS ~ REPLENISH DEVELOPMENT INDUSTRIAL BASED CULTURE :  SHORT TERM PLANNING  MINIMAL MAINTENANCE  WASTE, POLLUTION  MAXIMAL EXPLOITATION OF RAW MATERIAL  EMPHASIZE ON THE INDIVIDUAL V S. SUSTAINABILITY: MORE EFFICIENT USE OF NATURAL RESOURCES AND THE INTRODUCTION OF NEW HOLISTIC ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES (Rosemarin, 1990) 7 MACAM TEKNOLOGI DALAM REPELITA VI,

5 35 ECOLOGICAL CRISIS 1.Danora, USA, 1948: Toxic chemical from factories caused air pollution which killed 20 people, 6000 suffering 2.London, 1952 Smog in air killed 4000 people 3.USA, 1962 Insecticides pollute the air, land, and water exterminated all animals and other living form 4.Sidoarjo, Indonesia, 2006 Mud Vulcano Blow out. Present: buildings/constructions inundated unterwater; person evacuated. Future: river and ocean pollution forever. (Tandjung, 2012)

6 The cancellation of all uses of several insecticides in the USA NONAMESYEARNONAMESYEAR DDT Aldrin Dieldrin Toxsphene Endosulfan Kepon Mirex Heptaclor Chlordane Endrin Diazinon Malathion Parathion And 19 others Note: 1-10 are orghanochlorine insecticides are organophosphorus insecticides 36 (Tandjung, 2012)

7 THE LIVING ENVIRONMENT = THE SPATIAL ENTITY WITH ALL OBJECTS, POTENTIALS, CONDITIONS AND LIVING ORGANISMS, INCLUDING MAN AND HIS BEHAVIOR, WHICH INFLUENCE THE CONTINUANCE OF THE LIFE AND WELFARE OF MAN AND OTHER LIVING ORGANISMS. 37 (Tandjung, 2012)

8 RESOURCES ELEMENTS OF THE LIVING ENVIRONMENT CONSISTING OF HUMAN RESOURCES, ORGANIC NATURAL RESOURCES, INORGANIC NATURAL RESOURCES, AND MANMADE RESOURCES. 38 (Tandjung, 2012)

9 ABC Environment, the components of natural environment The inorganic natural resources ( Physical environment, sumber daya alam non hayati) is A- biotic Environment. The organic natural environment (sumber daya alam hayati) is the Biotic Environment. The human resources ( sumber daya manusia ) and their creation so called man – made resources (sumber daya buatan ) is combined as the Cultural Environment. In short, the ABCenvironment consists of A-biotic, Biotic and Cultural Evironment. SDF SDH SDM SDB 42 (Tandjung, 2012)

10 A-biotic or physical/chemical environment consists of 3 elements : water, land, and air. Biotic or ecological environment consists of plants and vegetations (flora), animals (fauna) and microbes (bacteria, yeasts, fungi). Cultural environment consists of individual environmental – interests, individual well – being, social interactions and community well- being (Tandjung, 1995). Each component of the environment, e.g. the biotic environment consists of living organisms, which interact with each other and are inseparably interrelated with their a-biotic and cultural environment (figure 3). 43

11 A biotic Environment (A) Cultural Environment (C) Biotic Environment (B) Proposed Action a - b a-b-c a-cb-c The effect of proposed actions on B will also affect A on a-b and C on b- c. Interaction of environmental components occur on a-b-c 44

12 45 AN ECOSYSTEM IS AN ORDERING OF AN ELEMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT WHICH COSTITUTES A WHOLE AND COMPLETE UNIT WHICH INTERACTS TO PRODUCE ENVIRONMENT BALANCE, STABILITY AND PRODUCTIVITY (RIEMA 1997) (Tandjung, 2012)

13 INTRODUCTION FEATURES OF INDONESIA ECOSYSTEM : THE LARGEST ISLAND COUNTRY IN THE WORLD: The most number of Islands, 17,508 The longest coastline, 81,000 KM The most number of volcanoes, more than 100 The most stretch of altitude from -8,000 to + 5,000M INDONESIA’S LAND AREA = 2,027,870 KM 2 47 (Tandjung, 2012)

14 Abiotic Natural Environment of Indonesia Indonesia is an archipelago of 17,508 islands stretching between two continents, Asia and Australia. Total coastline of Indonesia s 80,791km (FAO, 1991 cit. Anon., 1995), this is the longest in the world. The abiotic or physical natural environment of Indonesia is composed of: A.Land 1.91 million sq km B.Ocean Territorial waters Continental water EEZ 5.10 million sq km 3.00 million sq km 2.70 million sq km Total12.71 million sq km 48 (Tandjung, 2012)

15 C. Coastal Area Coastal length Marshes Mangrove Brackish Fish Pond (tambak) 81,000km 10,000,000km 3,600,000km 183,000km D. Inland Waters Open waters (lake, river, swamp, etc) Fish Pond Rice field waters (minapadi) E. Mountains and Hills Volcanoes, more than ,700,000ha 40,000ha 61,000ha (Haeruman, 1985, 1986, 1987) 49 (Tandjung, 2012)

16 Biotic Natural Environment On the million ha land of Indonesia there is 143,970 million ha tropical rain forest or 75.38% of land is covered by forest. This is the highest percentage among the tropical rain forest in the world ( table 3). Among the 143,970 million ha forest is designed for the : 1. Production forest : 64,392,000 ha 2. Conversion forest : 30,537,000 ha 3. Conservation forest : 18,725,000 ha 4. Protected forest : 30,316,000 ha 50 (Tandjung, 2012)

17 Table world’s biodiversity of major groups Groups Total number of species WorldIndonesia Mammals (in forest only)4, Birds8,9001,500 2,000 Reptile8,000 Amphibia6,0001,000 Fish38,0009,500 Gastropods150,00020,000 Insects1,250,000250,000 Flowering plants250,00025,000 Pteridophyte13,0001,250 Moss, cryptogamic16,0001,500 Algae210,0001,800 Fungi100,00012,000 Bacteria & blue algae2,

18 Indonesia endowed with: Highest degree of : Biological diversity Endemism 42 natural terrestrial & 5 marine ecosystems, Ranging from: Ice fields & alpine meadows (Irian Jaya) to wide variety of humid lowland forest; Deep lakes to swallow swamps; Spectacular coral reefs to seagrass beds & mangrove swamps. 52 (Tandjung, 2012)

19 Indonesia Ranks FIRST in the world for species richness for: Mammals (515 species, 36% endemic); Shallowtail butterflies (121 species, 44% endemic); Third for reptiles (600 species); Fourth for bird (1,519 species, 28% endemic); Fifth for amphibians (270 species); Seven for flowering plants 53 (Tandjung, 2012)

20 A huge number of indonesia’s marine biodiversity are still unknown & underutilized A very large proportion of total biota comprises unknown invertebrates 54 (Tandjung, 2012)

21 INDONESIA POSSESSES UP TO ABOUT 17% OF THE TOTAL NUMBER SPECIES IN THE WORD, INCLUDE : 10% OF THE WORLD’S FLOWERING PLANT SPECIES, 12% OF THE WORLD’S MAMMAL SPECIES, 16% OF THE WORLD’S REPTILE & AMPHIBIAN SPECIES, 25% OF THE WORLD’S FISH SPECIES CHELINUS UNDULATUS ~ NAPOLEON WRASSE EPINEPHELUS FUSCOGUTTATUS ~ KRAPU MACAN CROMILEPTIS ALTIVELIS ~ KRAPU BEBEK 56 (Tandjung, 2012)

22 Tabel TAKSIRAN JUMLAH JENIS KELOMPOK UTAMA MAKHLUK HIDUP DUNIAINDONESIA HEWAN MENYUSUI BURUNG REPTIL AMFIBI IKAN KEONG SERANGGA TUMBUHAN BERBIJI PAKU – PAKUAN LUMUT GANGGANG JAMUR BAKTERI & GANGGANG BIRU

23 CONSERVATION OF RESOURCES THE MANAGEMENT OF RESOURCES WHICH ENSURES THEIR WISE UTILIZATION, AND IN THE CASE OF RENEWAL NATURAL RESOURCES, ENSURES THEIR CONTINUED SUPPLY BY CONSTANTLY MAINTAINING AND IMPROVING THEIR VALUE AND VARIETY. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ECODEVELOPMENT 58 (Tandjung, 2012)

24 The Management of Living Environment (for SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT) is an intergrated effort in the: utilization regulation maintenance supervision control restoration development of the environment 59 (RIEMA, 1997) (Tandjung, 2012)

25 THE ROLE OF INDONESIAN TRADITIONS VALUES, AND BELIEFS IN NATURAL RESOURCE CONSERVATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT INDONESIA HAS 300 ETHNIC GROUPS, VERY RICH IN CULTURE AND TRADITIONS WHICH PLAY AN IMPORTANT ROLE OF LIFE THE CULTURE AND TRADITION HAS VARIOUS PATTERNS OF MOTIF IN WHICH ETHNICAL NORMS ARE FORMULATED AND ETHICAL DECISIONS ARE IMPLEMENTED, RESULTED e.g. ECOLOGICAL WISDOM CASE STUDY : BALI AND MINANG 61 (Tandjung, 2012)

26 TRIHITA KARANA TRIHITA KARANA REGION ECOLOGICAL DIVERSITY (BIODIVERSITY) AND SPATIAL ARRANGEMENT ECOLOGICAL DIVERSITY (BIODIVERSITY) AND SPATIAL ARRANGEMENT HOUSE 3 COMPONENTS RESOURCE MANAGEMENT HOME YARD (Keanekaragaman Hayati dan Tataruang) SHRUB FLOWER MEDIUM SIZED TREES: FRUITS MEDIUM SIZED TREES: FRUITS HABITAT 1 TALL TREES: WOOD TALL TREES: WOOD PARAHYANGAN VARIETY OF SPECIES HABITAT VARIATIONS PAWONGAN PALEMAHAN HABITAT 2 HABITAT 3 71

27 1. TRI HITA KARANA: THREE CAUSES OF GOODNESS A CONCEPT DEVIDE EVERYTHING INTO 3 COMPONENTS, e.g: A HOMEYARD CONSISTS OF : PARAHYANGAN, PAWONGAN, AND PALEMAHAN PARAHYANGAN IS PLACE FOR GROWING FLOWERS AND SHRUBS and for PURA (OFFERING QUARTER), located in front or north. FLOWERS ARE IMPORTANT MATERIAL IN HINDU BALINESE RELIGION for YADNYA (offering, sesaji) THE RELIGION IS, TO THE BALINESE, BOTH RACE AND NATIONALITY. THE BALINESE LOSES AUTOMATICALLY THE RIGHT TO BE CALL BALINES IF HE CHANGES HIS FAITH 62 (Tandjung, 2012)

28 PAWONGAN IS A PLACE FOR GROWING MEDIUM SIZE TREES OF FRUIT, in the middle between Parahhyangan dan Palemahan PALEMAHAN is for TALL TREES AND ANIMAL HOUSE OR FISH POND AT THE BACK YARD OF THE HOUSE 63 (Tandjung, 2012)

29 PADANG PEOPLE HAD A COMMON and STRONG BELIEF ABOUT and the RESPECT for : ALAM TAKAMBANG JADI GURU 1. ADAT ISTIADAT (good conduct and tradition) 2. RELIGION 3. EDUCATION They Strongly belief and keep in mind that Good Conduct is based on the law, the law is based on the holy book, and the holy book is based on the heart (“adat bersendi syara; syara’ bersendi kitabullah, kitabullah bersendi hati nurani“) 64 (Tandjung, 2012)

30 PEOPLE RESPECT and LISTEN to LEADERS of ADAT (“ninik mamak“) LEADERS of RELIGION (“ alim ulama“) LEADERS of EDUCATION (“cerdik pandai“) THIS TRIPLE LEADERSHIP IS Known as : A 3 STONE STOVE (“tungku tigo sajarang“) Or A 3- part bouding rope (“tali 3 sapilin“) The summon of the 3- leader is almost the same as the law or oqual to the law- according to the adat which the respect to 65 (Tandjung, 2012)

31 HOME YARD DIVIDES INTO 3 COMPONENTS: 1. PARAHYANGAN ALL KINDS OF FLONER ARE PLANTED IN DIFFERENT COLORS TO PROVIDE “ YADNYA” OR “ SESAJI” OFFERING TO SANG HYANG WIDHI (GOD ALMIGHTY ) 2. PAWONGAN FOR ALL KINDS OF FRUITS GIVEN TO NEIGHBOURS, FRIENDS & VISITORS 3. PALEMAHAN FOR FISHPOND, AND LIVESTOCKS BIODIVERSITY & SPATIAL ARRANGEMENT 66

32 PARAHYANGAN PAWONGAN ~ HABLUMMINALLAH ~ HABLUMMINANNAS 67 SIMILARTY CONCEPTS IN HINDU AND ISLAM RELIGION (Tandjung, 2012)

33 72

34 73 (Tandjung, 2012)

35 74 (Tandjung, 2012)

36 75 (Tandjung, 2012)

37 BOPHAL CH3-N=C=O METHYL ISOCYANATE CH3-N=C=O METHYL ISOCYANATE TRAGEDI BHOPAL INDIA, 1984 PABRIKINSEKTISIDA KARBARILKEBOCORAN SEJUMLAH BESAR SENYAWA YG SANGAT BERBAHAYA: METHYL ISOCYANATE HAMPIR TIDAK DIKETAHUI TOKSISITASNYA TIDAK DIKETAHUI PENGOBATANNYA Ribuan penduduk terbunuh & menderita sakit sampai dengan 1985 tidak ada penyembuhan 76 (Tandjung, 2012)

38 Peristiwa Bhopal (1984) PABRIK KIMIA “ THE UNION CARBIDE COORPORATION” BHOPAL CH3-N=C=O METHYL ISOCYANATE CH3-N=C=O METHYL ISOCYANATE SETELAH TENGAH MALAM, 3 DES. 1984: AWAN METHYL ISOCYANATE SETINGGI 35M ORANG MENINGGAL; SAKIT MENGAKIBATKAN ORANG GANGGUAN PARU-PARU PERMANEN; RIBUAN HEWAN MATI & MEMBUSUK DI JALAN. TOKSISITAS METHYL ISOCYANATE SANGAT SEDIKIT DIKETAHUI Pengobatan diragukan & tidak memadai 77

39 78 (Tandjung, 2012)

40 79 ACID RAIN PHENOMENA CROSS MEDIA POLLUTION (Tandjung, 2012)

41 80

42 PERUSAK LAPISAN OZON : CFC : TIDAK ADA DI ALAM HASIL REKAYASA MANUSIA DITEMUKAN TH TIDAK BERACUN TIDAK TERBAKAR SANGAT STABIL / TIDAK MUDAH BEREAKSI SANGAT IDEAL UNTUK INDUSTRI CHLOROFLUOROCARBON (CFC) DLL. 81 (Tandjung, 2012)

43 OZON ATMOSFERIK SEBAGAI PELINDUNG, DALAM BAHAYA OZON : KONSTITUEN ATMOSFER YG MELINDUNGI KEHIDUPAN DARI RADIASI UV- MATAHARI; OZON STRATOSFERIK MENAHAN ( KECUALI SUATU FRAKSI DARI 1% ) RADIASI UV. DG. PANJANG GELOMBANG KURANG DARI 340 NANO METER ( 1 NANO METER : 1/MILYAR METER ) ; “ SAFE OUR OZON THAT SAFE US “ = STOP CFC = 82 (Tandjung, 2012)

44 Lingkup kehidupan T = Troposfer : 11 mil/17km S = Stratosfer : 33 km M = Mesosfer : 35 km TP = Tropopause SP = Stratopause MP = Mesopause 83

45 CONTOH- CONTOH PENGGANTI CFC YANG EFEKTIF 1. PETROFERM, PERUSAHAAN KECIL DI FLORIDA MENEMUKAN BIOACT EC-7 TERBUAT DARI TERPENE DALAM KULIT BUAH JERUK YG : BIODEGRADABEL TIDAK BERACUN TIDAK KOROSIF DAPAT MENGGANTI % SELURUH PEMAKAIAN CFC HFC – 134A DALAM AC & LEMARI ES MENJAMIN BEBAS CHLORIN; 3. HCFC. 22, 123, 141B & 142B MERUSAK OZON HANYA 5% CFC; DSB. 84

46 85 (Tandjung, 2012)

47 Figure 6 86

48 Figure 7 87

49 PENDAPAT (TUDUHAN ?) NEGARA – NEGARA INDUSTRI BAHWA PEMANASAN GLOBAL ( GLOBAL WARMING ) DISEBABKAN OLEH PENGGUNDULAN/PERUSAKAN HUTAN TROPIS (TROPICAL DEFORESTATION), PERISTIWA PEMANASAN GLOBAL ADALAH GANGGUAN PADA KESEIMBANGAN ATMOSFER ( ATMOSPHERIC INBALANCE) LUPAKAH MEREKA BAHWA ADALAH PENDAPAT YANG SALAH & TUDUHAN YANG GEGABAH 88 (Tandjung, 2012)

50 KESEIMBANGAN ATMOSFER TERCAPAI / TERJAGA BILA RATA –RATA WILAYAH / KAWASAN MEMILIKI 30% HUTAN MENURUT DATA WORLD RESOURCE INSTITUTE ( 1990) HUTAN NEGARA – NEGARA INDUSTRI YAKNI : TEMPERATE FOREST & BOREAL FOREST JAUH DI BAWAH ANGKA NILAI AMBANG BATAS ITU ; HUTAN TROPIS MASIH TERSEDIA % (TANDJUNG, ’92 ) 89

51 Lengkapnya situasi kehutanan negara-negara industri & berkembang adalah sebagai berikut : Temperate & boreal forest Hutan tropis NegaraTersisa/tinggal (%) Belanda USA Kanada Jerman NegaraTersisa/tinggal (%) Indonesia Zaire Brazilia 74, (Tandjung, 2012)

52 NATURAL FOREST AS…………………………….2,5% AUSTRALIA…………………5% EROPA BARAT………………0% BRAZILIA……………………43% ZAIRE…………………………63% INDONESIA…………………..56% TROPICAL RAIN FOREST 91 (Tandjung, 2012)

53 KESIMPULAN YANG DAPAT DITARIK DARI DATA DI ATAS IALAH YANG TERJADI TETAPI YANG BENAR – BENAR TERJADI IALAH TEMPERATE DEFORESTATION & BOREAL DEFORESTATION BUKAN TROPICAL DEFORESTATION 92 (Tandjung, 2012)

54 A QUESTION CAN BE RAISED: IS IT FAIR, THE INDUSTRIAL COUNTRIES POLLUTE THE AIR WITH CO 2 THAT CAUSE GLOBAL WARNING AND HOPE ANOTHER COUNTRY SUCH AS TROPICAL COUNTRY TO CLEAN THE MESS ? 93 (Tandjung, 2012)

55 1.Planning of business activity, the planner have to realize the demand of public for regulation related to project. In the long run, public need to know all activities they thought against human right. Management of Environmental Pollution (Tandjung, 2012)

56 2.Utilization of opportunity in international trade agreement. Equal opportunity and equal right have to obey by parties in business, win- win solution in trade. The parties not buy the industrial waste dumping, neither sell the bad thing. Management of Environmental Pollution (Tandjung, 2012)

57 3.Control on application of eco-labeling. The product with out eco-label will be refused by second party, the buyer have the right not to accommodate the product with out eco-label. Management of Environmental Pollution (Tandjung, 2012)

58 4.Maintenance the costumer demand for clean process and product. Apply the recycle, reuse, reduce (3 R) to keep the tradition of quality. Management of Environmental Pollution (Tandjung, 2012)

59 5.Supervision on public demand for environmental protection. Install the CSR (Social Corporate Responsibility) and Com-dev ( Community Development ). Management of Environmental Pollution (Tandjung, 2012)

60 6.Law Enforcement on International Environmental Management Systems /ISO First, for organization/institution : Environmental Management, Business Environment Attitude, Environmental Auditing. Second, for product: Eco-labeling, Product Life Cycle, and Product Usage History. Indonesia’s Environmental Management Instruments: AMDAL,UKL/UPL, Audit Lingkungan, KLHS dan SNI. Management of Environmental Pollution (Tandjung, 2012)


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