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Pension, Leases, & Equity. Pensions Plans & Actuarial Funding Method Pension Plans Defined contribution plan-kontribusi sejumlah ttt tiap periode Defined.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Pension, Leases, & Equity. Pensions Plans & Actuarial Funding Method Pension Plans Defined contribution plan-kontribusi sejumlah ttt tiap periode Defined."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Pension, Leases, & Equity

2 Pensions Plans & Actuarial Funding Method Pension Plans Defined contribution plan-kontribusi sejumlah ttt tiap periode Defined benefit plan-terencana dlm waktu & aturan tertentu Actuarial Funding Method Cost approach-estimasikan total future retirement benefit & equal annual payment untuk mendanainya Benefit approach-menentukan jumlah pensiun yang akan diterima karyawan dan estimasikan present value-nya Benefit approach: accumulated (based on existing salary level) & benefit/year (based on final pay at retirement) Liability of Benefit approach: accm. Benefit obligation >< projected benefit obligation

3 APB Opinion No.8: 1) mengukur total cost shb dg pension plan, 2) mengalokasikan pension cost pd periode akuntansi yg tepat, 3) menyediakan dana untuk pension plan, & mengungkapkan dalam laporan keuangan SFAS No.87, pension cost harus mencakup service cost, interest cost, return on plan assets, amortization of unrecognized prior service cost, amortization on gains & losses, & amortization of the unrecognized net obligation/net assets SFAS No.35, pension plan include: net assets available for the benefits, changes in net assets during the reporting period, actuarial present value of accumulated benefits, & significant effects of factors: plan amendment, changes in actuarial assumption/ actuarial present value of accumulated benefits SFAS No.106, other postretirement benefits SFAS No.132, standardized disclosure for other postretirement benefits

4 Leases Kelebihan leasing Menawarkan pendanaan 100%, perlindungan thd keusangan Biasanya lebih murah dibandingkan pendanaan lainnya Jika berbentuk operating lease, tdk (+) hutang di neraca Bentuk-bentuk leasing 1. Capital lease-lessee mendanai akuisisi aktiva 2. Operating lease-rental agreement antara lessee & lessor GAAP – Leasing 1. ARB No.38, lessee mencatat sbg asset & liability 2. APB Opinion No. 5,7,27,31 3. SFAS No.13,”lease that transfer substantially all of the benefit & risk inherent in the ownership of property should be accounted for as acquisition of an asset & the incurence of an obligation by the lessee & as a sale of financing lease by the lessor

5 SFAS NO.13 Kriteria capital lease: 1. Tjd transfer kepemilikan kpd lessee pd akhir masa lease 2. Lease mencakup bargain purchase option 3. Lease term ≥ 75 % estimated remaining economic life, kecuali awal lease = 25 % total estimated economic life 4. Pd awal lease term present value of min. lease payments ≥ 90 % fair value of lease property, Serta kriteria tambahan (bagi lessor): 1. Pengumpulan min. lease payments bisa diprediksikan 2. No important uncertainties sorround the amount of unreimbursable cost yet to be incurred by the lessor Measurement : 1) determination payment for property right, 2) Discounting these rentals at an apropriate rate of interest

6 Disclosure for Capital & Operating Lease by Lessee Capital Lease: 1) gross amount of assets, 2) future min. lease payments for 5 years, 3) total min. sublease rentals to be received in the future, 4) total contingent rentals (dependent on some factor other than passage time) actually incurred for each period Operating Lease: 1) future min. lease payments for 5 years, & total min. rentals to be received in the future, 2) rental expense for each period 3) a) basis on rental payments are determined, b) the existence & term of renewals, purchase option & escalation clauses, c) restriction imposed by lease agreement (dividend, add. debt, & further leasing)

7 Disclosure for Capital & Operating Lease by Lessor Sales-Type & Direct Financing (Capital) Leases: 1. Komponen net investment (future min. lease payments – any cost, unguaranteed residual value, unearned income) 2. Future min. lease payments for 5 years 3. Amount of unearned income (only for direct financing lease) 4. Total contingent rental included in income for each period 5. General description of leasing agreement Operating Leases: 1. Cost & carrying amount 2. Min. future rentals for 5 years 3. Total contingent rental included in income for each period 4. General description of leasing agreement

8 Sales-Type Leases: jika terdapat manufacturer’s / dealer’s profit (or loss). Leasing = pemasaran produk Direct Financing Leases: jika tidak terdapat manufacturer’s / dealer’s profit (or loss). Lessor adalah lending istitution Sales & Leaseback: pemilik menjual properti & segera melakukan leasing dari pembelinya Leveraged Leases: perjanjian leasing khusus antara lessor, lessee & financial company Sales-TypeDirect Financing GI xx PV of GI(xx) Cost (xx) UI xx GI xx UI(xx) NI xx Sales xx UI xx COGS(xx) Initial direct cost(xx) Profit/loss xx UI to be amortized xx

9 Equity Theories of Equity: 1. Proprietary Theory: firm is own by person/group. The owner (decision maker) is the primary focus of financial statement assets – liabilities = proprietorship 2. Entity Theory: separation of ownership & management, limited the liability of owners, & legal definition of a corporation as a person. Assets = Equities 3. Fund Theory: assets = restriction on assets 4. Commander Theory: ditawarkan sbg pengganti proprietary & equity theory, krn tujuan manajer (commander) sama pentingnya dng tujuan pemilik ataupun entitas. 5. Enterprise Theory: unit bisnis dilihat sbg institusi sosial yg mempunyai tujuan, peran dan kegiatan yg sama 6. Residual Equity Theory: assets – specific equity = residual equity

10 Paid-in capital, all amounts originally received for shares of stock in excess of par value Stock subscription, issues of stock directly sells to individuals/subscribers Special features: convertible provisions, call provisions, cumulative provisions, participating provisions & redemption provisions, stock option & warrants, stock option plans Retained earnings, accumulated net profits of a corporation that have not been distributed as dividend Stock dividends, stock splits, treasury stock Other Comprehensive Income, arise from events not connected with the issuance of stock or normal profit directed company operations. Unrealized gains/losses on investments in debt & equity securities or translation Quasi-Reorganization, alternative to bankruptcy. Company is given a fresh start by eliminating the deficit balance in retained earning, & writing down any overvalued assets.


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