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HAM dan Lingkungan Wahyu Yun Santoso.

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Presentasi berjudul: "HAM dan Lingkungan Wahyu Yun Santoso."— Transcript presentasi:

1 HAM dan Lingkungan Wahyu Yun Santoso

DEKLARASI STOCKHOLM DEKLARASI RIO DE JANEIRO UUD 1945 & PERUBAHANNYA UUPLH BAKU MUTU LINGKUNGAN DAN BAKU KERUSAKAN LH FUNCTION OF DEFENSE Ganti kerugian ekonomik Pemulihan kesehatan Ganti kerugian Immateriel LH HAK DASAR LINGKUNGAN FUNCTION OF PERFORMANCE Pemulihan fungsi ling- kungan Perbaikan alat a. Right to life; b. Right to food; c. Right to health d. Right to safe & healthy working conditions; e. Right to housing; f. Popular participations; g. Right to information; h. Freedom of association; i. Cultural rights; j. Right to self-determination over natural resources. KUALITAS HIDUP

ATAS INFORMASI LINGKUNGAN HIDUP 1. Aktualisasi hak atas LH yang baik & sehat secara optimal 2. Mengefektifkan penggunaan hak masyarakat untuk berperan serta dalam pengelolaan lingkungan # 1. Setiap penyelenggara usaha/kegiatan wajib memberikan informasi yg benar & akurat mengenai pengelolaan LH 2. Pemerintah wajib menyediakan informasi LH dan menyebarluaskannya kpd masyarakat

Diatur dalam Pasal 5 ayat (3) juncto Pasal 7 UUPLH SDM Pemerintah terbatas, SDM Swasta menunjang, karena itu SDM swasta juga harus berperan Masyarakat adalah juga pihak yang memiliki potensi merusak dan atau mencemarkan Masyarakat adalah sumber informasi Masyarakat dapat melakukan kontrol sosial Meningkatkan penerimaan keputusan Melindungi hak-hak masyarakat Mendemokratisasikan pengambilan keputusan Perlunya pendayagunaan peran serta masyarakat

5 Five existing international norms related to right of sound env’t
Self-determination Permanent sovereignty over natural resources The right to development US: “development is not a right, it is a goal we all hold, depends on the realization of human right”  recognize only 4 individuals The right to environment (public) Participation

6 Right to Development Should be elaborated with all context of human rights; Giving priority to the fight against absolute poverty; Promotion & protection of civil, cultural, political and social rights; Aims to integrate the right to a healthy environment in the framework of SD; Concept of good governance  limit gov authority & influence policy based on HR; US  doesn’t accept this right as the right of state to demand foreign assistance & qualify the protection of civil political rights

7 A synthesis of existing human rights  meliputi semua obyek HAM;
Karakteristik Prerequisite to the enjoyment of other human rights  realisasi atas hak asasi politik & sipil; A synthesis of existing human rights  meliputi semua obyek HAM; Concern on the basic right: To life To develop his/her potential Obliges nation states to recognize the right of indigenous people

8 Correlative rights to right to development
Based on UNDHR & ICESCR Right to adequate standard of living  right to health also means “free from envt’l harm”; Right to cultural integrity  pengakuan atas identitas sosial & kultural masyarakat; Right to education and right to adequate information  urgensi utk fasilitasi nilai2 atas kepekaan lingkungan (ethic of env’t awareness); Principle 10 Rio  appropriate access to envt’l information

9 Right to adequate/ healthy environment
Tidak ada satu konvensi int’l yg memuat hak ini sebelum Rio 1992; “The right of present & future generations to enjoy a healthy environment and decent quality of life” (UNEP 1993); Post Rio Declaration, hak ini jg hnya termuat di soft law (non-binding legal texts); Komplementer dgn right to development: “Achievement of the right to development is dependent upon the realization of all human rights, and development is dependent upon maintenance & enhancement of env’t and social quality”

10 Right to Participation
Dikenalkan pertama di Our Common Future – Brundtland Report 1987; “The pursuit of susdev requires: … a political system that secures effective citizen participation in decision making”  sine qua non. Pemaknaan  strategi pembangunan maupun lingkungan apapun tidak akan berkelanjutan jika stakeholders terkait tidak diikutsertakan dalam decision-making process; Initiates North-South dialogues in 4 concept: Equitable sharing of benefits, Common but differentiated responsibilities, Technology transfer, Participatory partnership; Transform the superior-inferior relationship between the North & the South to one based on the “principle of equality”

11 Aarhus Convention 1998 The United Nation Economic Commission for Europe Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-Making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters; Three pillars: Access to information, Public participation in decision-making, Access to justice. Obligation to inform the public concerned in an early stage of the decision-making procedure in an adequate, timely and effective manner Obligation to ensure the procedural rights Provide the opportunity to public participation in any ways Publication of decision

12 Why procedural right is needed?
The right to participate is only effective when all the three pillars can be ensured. The pillars are independent; access to environmental information is necessary for the public to be able to participate, while access to justice is a necessary and effective means to ensure this, The important value of these procedural rights is that these facilitate substantive right. They make that theory can be put into practice: What would be the use of substantive norms if these cannot be applied, checked and enforced? Ensure the accountability

13 Kegiatan2 yg wajib patuh:
Energy sector Production and processing of metals Mineral industry Chemical industry Waste Management Waste-water treatment plants with a capacity exceeding population equivalent Other activities mentioned in point 19 of Annex 1

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