Presentasi berjudul: "Bahan kajian MK. STELA.smno, jtnh fpub Mei 2014 VALUASI EKONOMI EKSTERNALITAS GUNA LAHAN."— Transcript presentasi:
Bahan kajian MK. STELA.smno, jtnh fpub Mei 2014 VALUASI EKONOMI EKSTERNALITAS GUNA LAHAN
EKSTERNALITAS Diunduh dari Sumber: 5/11/2012. Dalam proses produksi pertanian, masukan-masukan yang berupa material, tekno¬logi, menejemen dan unsur-unsur agro ekologi akan diproses untuk menghasilkan keluaran- keluaran yang berupa hasil-hasil tanaman dan ternak. Hasil-hasil sampingan dan limbah dari proses produksi tersebut dapat berupa hasil sedimen, hasil air, dan bahan-bahan kimia yang dapat menjadi pencemar lingkungan. Limbah ini biasanya diangkut ke luar dari sistem produksi dan menimbulkan biaya eksternal dan efek eksternalitas. Biasanya sistem produksi pertanian di daerah hulu sungai mempunyai efek eksternal yang cukup luas dan akan diderita oleh masyarakat di daerah bawah. Dalam suatu daerah aliran sungai yang mempunyai bangunan pengairan seperti bendungan, waduk dan jaringan irigasi, efek eksternalitas tersebut menjadi semakin serius, karena dapat mengancam kelestarian bangunan-bangunan tersebut.
EKSTERNALITAS Diunduh dari Sumber: 5/11/2012. “Eksternalitas” timbul kalau kegiatan produksi (dan konsumsi) memiliki pengaruh yang tidak diharapkan (tidak langsung) terhadap produsen dan /atau konsumen lain. “Eksternalitas positif” terjadi kalau kegiatan yang dilakukan oleh seseorang memberikan manfaat pada pihak lain tanpa melalui mekanisme pasar. “Eksternalitas negatif” terjadi kalau kegiatan oleh individu menghasilkan dampak yang merugikan pihak lain. Pencemaran air sungai atau air sumur dapat ditimbulkan oleh proses produksi pertanian yang berasal dari penggunaan pestisida dan pupuk. Adanya eksternalitas menyebabkan terjadinya perbedaan antara manfaat (biaya ) sosial dengan manfaat (biaya) privat. Perbedaan manfaat (biaya ) ini berkaitan dnegan alokasi sumberdaya yang tidak efisien. Pihak yang menyebabkan eksternalitas tidak memiliki dorongan untuk menanggung dampak dari kegiatannya yang diderita oleh pihak lain.
EKSTERNALITAS EROSI TANAH. Diunduh dari Sumber: kehidupan.html /11/2012. “Erosi tanah” merupakan proses terangkutnya material tanah atau sedimen oleh aliran air yang terjadi di permukaan tanah. Kerusakan yang dialami oleh tanah di tempat yang ada erosi a.l.: 1.Kehilangan unsur hara dan bahan organik. 2.Menurunnya kapasitas infiltrasi (kemampuan tanah untuk meresapkan air) dan kemampuan tanah menyimpan air. 3.Meningkatnya kepadatan dan ketahanan penetrasi tanah. 4.Berkurangnya kemantapan struktur tanah yang pada akhirnya menyebabkan memburuknya pertumbuhan tanaman dan menurunnya produktifitas. Eksternalitas lingkungan akibat erosi tanah a.l.: 1.Sedimentasi dan pendangkalan waduk 2.Tertimbunnya (sedimentasi) jaringan irigasi. 3.Memburuknya kualitas air sungai, air sumur, air permukaan lainnya, 4.Kerugian ekosistem perairan.
EKSTERNALITAS Diunduh dari Sumber: /10/2012. The problem is that the way owners use their land may affect others. If they dump garbage on their neighbors' land, clearly they are infringing upon others' rights. But how about if they burn garbage and the resulting smoke blows onto nearby properties? What if they pollute a stream and it ends up affecting everyone's water source, or flush sewage away and it ends up in an ecologically stressed bay? Although the field of economics traditionally likes to deal with items that can be easily demarcated, quantified, and tagged with ownership, this becomes difficult when dealing with our shared ecosystems. Economics has dealt with this largely by labeling such items externalities, costs for which the responsible party does not pay. It then becomes up to the community, and usually the government, to decide how to deal with externalities.
Diunduh dari Sumber: conomics%20b.htm /11/2012. Until now we have assumed that market price includes or 'internalizes' all relevant costs and benefits. This means the consumer captures all benefits and the producer pays all the costs. An externality refers to costs and benefits that are not captured by market price for whatever reasons, i.e., they are external to market price. EXTERNALITY In effect, the market demand curve reflects only marginal private benefits (MPB) of consumers but not the external benefits accruing to society. When such external benefits are added, vertically, we derive the marginal social benefit curve (MSB) inclusive of both private and public benefits. Similarly, the market supply curve reflects only marginal private costs (MPC) but not costs external to the firm’s accounting, e.g., pollution that society must pay. When social costs are added, vertically, to the supply curve we derive the marginal social cost (MSC) curve inclusive of both private and public costs.
Diunduh dari Sumber: /11/2012. MSC = MC + MEC EXTERNAL COST MSC = marginal social cost; MC = marginal cost MEC = marginal external cost MPC = marginal private cost MC = MPC
EKSTERNAL COST - INEFISIENSI Adanya biaya eksternal mengakibatkan in-efisiensi dalam proses produksi
Diunduh dari Sumber: 5/11/2012. A negative externality is a cost associated with an action that is not borne by the person who chooses to take that action. Inefficiency from Negative Externality When there is a negative externality, the market equilibrates where the total social marginal cost exceeds the marginal benefit of the last unit of a good and society is not as well off as it could be if less were produced. NEGATIVE EXTERNALITIES
Diunduh dari Sumber: aggregates-materials-recycling /11/2012. The failure to internalize the negative externality results in diminished social well- being. The over-production occurs when the external costs of waste disposal in the community are ignored (not internalized). In this figure, the private profit- maximizing quantity of landfill deposits produced (Qp ) are greater than the socially optimal production that occurs when the external costs are included (Q s ). The amount of overproduction is equal to the distance from Qp to Qs. In order to account for the external costs imposed on the community from producing additional (aggregates) deposits into the landfill, it is important to increase the costs of these deposits from Pp to Ps. Over-production with a negative externality Pp Ps QpQs
Diunduh dari Sumber: /11/2012. What happens when one form of government intervention (a Pigouvian tax on the disposal of aggregates) is implemented. With a Pigouvian tax, the tax is set equal to the marginal external costs at the socially optimal point of production. In this case, the tax on deposits elevates the price of disposal, leading to a reduction in the amount of deposits. A reduction of deposits into the local landfill would most likely result from corresponding reductions in the amount of aggregates waste created in the production process or from finding alternative means of disposal of the waste. Pigouvian tax applied to a negative externality
Diunduh dari Sumber: 5/11/2012. These environmental costs are externalised, and there is thus divergence between the marginal private cost of production (to which the producer responds) and the marginal social cost of production (which determines the socially optimal level of production). Over-production of farm output which causes environmental damage is shown in the following diagram. The farmer would produce at Q1 where his marginal private cost equals marginal revenue, although the socially efficient level of output is Qo which takes into account the additional social costs of agricultural production.. Adverse environmental impacts as negative externalities Some adverse environmental impacts may be internalised into a farmer's decision-making process, e.g. soil erosion, as this may impact on the revenue-generating potential of the farm in the future. However, the problem with many environmental impacts is that the costs are not borne by the producer because there is no mechanism to price the damage being done and require the producer to pay.
Diunduh dari Sumber: 5/11/2012. The paper defines the concept of land degradation and costs and effects of soil erosion. Through the concept of optimal levels of soil erosion, a conceptual model of the social costs of soil degradation is elaborated. The discussion focuses on the measurement aspects of the economic scarcity of soil in the agriculture sector. Reliable estimates of the true impacts of soil degradation can only be made if data on marginal damage costs and marginal conservation costs are available. The different scarcity indicators are evaluated and competitive land rental prices are considered as appropriate in indicating soil scarcity in agriculture. Divergence between private and social costs of upland production.
Optimal level of soil quality and soil costs. Diunduh dari Sumber: 5/11/2012.
EKONOMI LAHAN Diunduh dari Sumber: 31/10/2011. There has been a paper recently published by Andrew Leigh, Economics Professor at ANU, which empirically estimates the impact of stamp duties on the housing market. His main finding is that if stamp duties are raised, house prices will fall by more than in the increase in the tax. Did you get that? If you increase stamp duty, the total price of housing (price plus stamp duty) will fall. Sellers suffer, buyers benefit. It’s a classic land tax - there is no deadweight loss, as shown in the figure.
… Diunduh dari Sumber: /10/2011. How can such a thing occur? For any other product, assuming a competitive market, if you add costs to production, prices will have to go up (even if quantity sold goes down), or margins will go down (temporarily at least). Land, however, has some characteristics that make it quite different to other goods There is a fixed supply (vertical supply curve), and It is costless to produce (the producer surplus starts at a price of zero) Some would argue that land available to be developed is not in fixed supply, and that town planning regulations can change that supply. I agree. But these are regulations, they are not market players, and that does not make supply of land price elastic (although I would suggest the supply curve for serviced residential lots above the intersection with demand is quite elastic as land parcels are brought to market). I think both sides would agree that from a theoretical standpoint, the supply curve is vertical below the intersection with the demand curve.
… Diunduh dari Sumber: /10/2011. It is the second point that is far more important to understanding the land market. Land itself is costless to produce. That means that the level of demand determines the price of land at any point in time. Not supply, demand. So when you increase a tax on land the total land and tax price stays constant, but the underlying value of the land declines (as shown by the reduced producer surplus in the figure above). I have been quite baffled by the success of Christopher Joye’s argument that the supply of housing is a major factor determining prices. He maintains two contradictory positions. The first is that we have a land price boom, not a house price boom. The second is that we should elastify the supply of housing to avoid further unnecessary price increases. Hang on chap. We don’t have a problem supplying housing. Our problem is that we all decided to pay ridiculously high prices for land.land price boomelastify the supply of housing There are two more characteristics to the land market that make analysis difficult. There is competitive behaviour in the market for buying land, both development sites and serviced land parcels, but not a competitive market for the sale of land.
Tragedy of the (unmanaged) commons Sumber: Economic Valuation of Land (EVL): Rationale and Objectives. Simone Quatrini. Master’s Course on Integrated Drylands Management, CAREERI, Lanzhou, China. 4-6 October 2010.