Presentasi berjudul: "Decision Making Media Management SESSION 11 Ambang Priyonggo, M.A."— Transcript presentasi:
1Decision MakingMedia ManagementSESSION 11Ambang Priyonggo, M.A.
2Setiap hari kita membuat keputusan dalam beragam kepentingan Setiap hari kita membuat keputusan dalam beragam kepentingan. Jadi kalau pengambilan keputusan (decision making) dinilai sebagai ilmu canggih tentu agak aneh juga.
3But the Fact is.... studi menunjukkan kebanyakan orang justru dikatakan lebih lemah dalam mengambil keputusan ketimbang berpikir.....
4Suatu pemahaman tentang pengambilan keputusan, serta apa saja yang melibatkan prosesnya, akan dapat membantu menghasilkan keputusan terbaik.
6Decision Making: Ragam Definisi sebuah studi tentang mengidentifikasi dan memilih alternatif-alternatif pilihan berdasarkan nilai (values) dan preferensi dari pengambil keputusan
7Membuat keputusan berimplikasi bahwa ada banyak pilihan yang dipertimbangkan dan dalam hal ini kita ingin mengidentifikasi sebanyak mungkin pilihan yang (1) memiliki kemungkinan tertinggi untuk sukses dan efektif diterapkan dan (2) terbaik sehingga sesuai dengan tujuan, keinginan, nilai yang kita anut
8Decision Making: Ragam Definisi Adalah proses mereduksi sebanyak mungkin ketidakpastian dan keraguan tentang alternatif pilihan sehingga memudahkan pengambilan keputusan dari alternatif-alternatif pilihan itu.
9Definisi ini menekankan pada fungsi pengumpulan informasi (information-gathering function) dari pengambilan keputusan. Ingat yang ditekankan mengurangi ketidakpastian, bukan mengeleminasi ketidakpastian.Sangat sedikit keputusan yang diambil dengan kepastian absolut karena memiliki pengetahuan tentang semua alternatif itu tidak mungkin. Jadi, selalu ada risiko
10tidak ada ketidakpastian =tidak ada pengambilan keputusan
11Jenis Keputusan Decision Whether Decision Which Contigent Decision Robert Harris (2009)
12Decision WhetherIni adalah keputusan “ya/tidak” yang harus diambil sebelum kita sampai pada sebuah alternatif pilihan.Decision whether dibuat dengan mempertimbangkan alasan pro dan kontra“apakah saya harus membeli mobil?”
13Decision WhichKeputusan ini melibatkan sebuah pilihan dari satu atau lebih alternatif di antara kemungkinan yang ada.Pilihan dibuat berdasarkan seberapa baik penilaian di setiap kriteria yang melekat pada alternatif pilihan...“Yang mana dari dua pilihan ini yang terbaik: membeli mobil atau membeli rumah?”
14Contingent DecisionIni adalah keputusan yang dibuat namun dilaksanakan dengan prasyarat kondisi tertentu..“I have decided to buy that car if I can get it for the right price”
15The Classic Approach to Decision Making Define the objectiveCollect relevant informationGenerate feasible optionsMake the decisionImplement and evaluate
16Six Thinking Hats"Six Thinking Hats" is a powerful technique that helps you look at important decisions from a number of different perspectives. It helps you make better decisions by pushing you to move outside your habitual ways of thinking. As such, it helps you understand the full complexity of a decision, and spot issues and opportunities which you might otherwise not notice. (Edward de Bono in his book "6 Thinking Hats“)
18Six Thinking Hats1. The White Hat is the information hat. This covers facts, figures, information needs and gaps. People can ask for more information or data to help analyze the proposal. This is where you analyze past trends, and try to extrapolate from historical data.2. The Red Hat represents emotions. This covers intuition, feelings and emotions. People have to say how this proposal makes them feel emotionally: scared, threatened, excited, energized, etc. It is important to get the feelings expressed, as they can be hidden reasons why people would oppose or support a proposal.
19Six Thinking Hats3. The Yellow Hat is the hat of optimism. This is the logical positive: why something will work and why it will offer benefits. Everyone in turn has to say what is good about the proposal. Even if you think the idea stinks you have to find some good points and redeeming qualities about it.4. The Black Hat is the pessimism hat. This is the hat of judgment and caution. Everyone has to find fault with the idea. Even if it was your idea and you are very proud of it you have to point out some drawbacks and disadvantages.
20Six thinking hats5. The Green Hat is the hat of growth and possibilities. This is the hat of creativity, alternatives, proposals, what is interesting, provocations and changes. Everyone has to suggest ways in which the idea could be adapted or improved to make it work better.6. The Blue Hat is the process hat. This is the overview or process control hat. It looks not at the subject itself but at the 'thinking' about the subject. It is used to check if the process is working well. When you wear it, you discuss whether you are using the method in the most effective way.
21Main ethical responsibility of a journalist: To Whom?
22Case studyEarly 2001, 118 Madurese migrants were beheaded by indigenous Dayak in Indonesian Central BorneoThe conflicts were often associated with Christian and Muslim clash (Dayaks are Christians and Madurese are Muslims)Striking pictures showing beheaded Madurese lying on the streets were received by Jawa Pos (JP), national newspaper based in Muslim stronghold province (East Java). East Javanese readers make up 50% of JP’s total audiences. In fact, through its local supplement, Radar Madura, Jawa Pos has numerous potential Madurese readers.
25Ethical dilemmasShould JP publish the picture to satisfy the shareholders since the conflict can be “exploited” to boast its circulation in East Java and in Madura Island through Radar Madura supplement?Should JP publish the picture since it is relevant to its main readers (in term of interest and geography) ?Should JP please the government, religious leaders and security officers by not publishing the picture—and consequently wasting opportunity to gain more profit and readership?
26Milton Friedman’s traditional view of business responsibility There is one and only one social responsibility of business—to use its resources and engage in activities designed to increase its profit so long as it stays within the rules of the game which is to say, engages in open and free competition without deception or fraud”
27Archie Carroll’s view of business social responsibility EconomicLegalEthicalDiscretionary
28Carroll’s view is important in media industry Newspaper and Broadcaster has two roles: as journalists and corporate citizensJournalism is located at “two sided reality”: Industrial entity and professionialism.Responsibilities of media rest within those four interests:Economy, legal, ethics and discretionary
29The question is now: How to accommodate and prioritize them? Strategic Decision Making
30Decision making should not merely based on journalistic level Sarah Niblock’s newsworthiness (1996): (i) human interests (ii) the scale of the event (more people involved, more chance to attract audience) (iii) unexpected (iv) relevancy to the audience (can be in term of geography, gender, age, occupation, and interests)Nor it is merely based on all the virtues associated with ethical journalism—accuracy, honesty, truth, objectivity, fairness, balance, and respect to the autonomy of the ordinary peopleETHICAL DECISION MAKINGin Organizational/business level business ethics
31Questions on Business Ethics People call it “Oxymoron” a concept that combines opposite or contradictory ideasA 1996 survey by Ethic Resource Center: 48% of 1,324 employees of 747 American companies admitted to committing to unethical actions during the past year
32Ethics is not easy to achieve! Why? No worldwide standard of conduct as cultural norms and values vary to country to country even in one countryDifferent values between business person and key stakeholders
33Encouraging and providing guidelines of ethical behaviors. Code of ethicsEthical perspectives: Aristotle’s Golden Means, Kant’s Categorical Imperative, Mill’s Utilitarianism, and Judeo-Christian Persons as Ends, etc.
35Potter BoxDefine the situationIdentify the values
36Identify the principles Potter BoxDefine the situationIdentify the valuesIdentify the principles
37Identify the principles Potter BoxDefine the situationChoose your loyaltiesIdentify the valuesIdentify the principles
38Potter Box Make the decision (or start over) Define the situation Choose your loyaltiesIdentify the valuesIdentify the principles
39ConclusionDeciding to whom the media manager should be mainly responsible is not easyStrategic decision making based on careful steps is importantSurely, there are unsatisfied key stakeholders because of the decision, but as long as the decision is ethically justifiable, they likely would say:“We understand why you did what you did. We may not agree with your final choice, but we appreciate the ethical rigor you applies in this case” (Black & Bryant, 1995)