1PERKEMBANGAN KAJIAN GENDER DALAM SOSIOLOGI DAN PERBANDINGAN DENGAN KAJIAN PEMBANGUNAN, KONSEP GENDER
2SOSIOLOGI MEMPELAJARI PEREMPUAN MEMBAHAS PEREMPUAN DALAM KELUARGA, EMOSINYA, SEKSUALITASNYA DENGAN DIKAITKAN DENGAN PROSES-PROSES YANG LEBIH LUAS.PEREMPUAN DAN FEMINIMITAS MENJADI PERSOALAN POKOK.PERANAN PEREMPUAN DALAM STRUKTUR SOSIAL, KELUARGA, MENJADI FOKUS PERHATIAN.
3SOSIOLOGI MENGUSUNG PANDANGAN BIOLOGIS MENJELASKAN PEREMPUAN PARA PENDIDIRI SOSIOLOGI BERASUMSI LAKI- LAKI DAN PEREMPUAN SECARA ALAMIAH BERBEDA DAN TIDAK SETARA DALAM KAPASITAS INTELEKTUALITAS, EMOSIONAL DAN MORAL. INI DIPANDANG SEBAGAI DASAR PEMBAGIAN KERJA DALAM KELUARGA DAN MASYARAKAT ANTARA LAKI-LAKI DAN PEREMPUAN.UMPAMANYA, AUGUSTE COMTE MENYATAKAN, BECAUSE OF THEIR EMOTIONAL AND SPIRITUAL "SUPERIORITY," WOMEN ARE PERFECTLY FIT FOR FAMILY AND DOMESTIC ACTIVITY.
4DURKHEIMEmile Durkheim also resorted to a biological explanation of what he recognized as women's social subordination. In Suicide, his statistics demonstrated that marriage produces opposite effects for men, for whom it lowers the suicide rate, and women, among whom the rate is higher among the married. He concluded that marriage ought some day to be reformed but, in the interim, men must be protected from suicide through the maintenance of a form of marriage that produces more stress and disadvantage for women (Kandal, 1988, p. 88). His justification was that the increase in suicide for married women is less than that for unmarried men because women have fewer "sociability needs," are more "instinctive," have a les developed "mental life," and therefore are more easily satisfied. Men are more "complex," and their psychological balancE is more precarious and in need of the constraining protections afforded by existing marital arrangements (Kandal, 1988, pp ).
5SOSIOLOGI MULAI MEMBAHAS GENDER, TETAPI SEBELAH MATA Proponents of classical Marxist theory were well aware that gender arrangements are both the product of social life and inequitable. The most fully developed statement of this approach, Friedrich Engels' The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State, is an evolutionary theory describing three stages, each characterized by a different form of marriage.Gender inequality originated during the third stage, when an inheritable economic surplus first arose due to technological development and the institution of private property. Men overthrew the traditional matrilineal system to ensure that their sons would inherit, and instituted all manner of controls over women to insure "proper" paternity.During this stage household work became private service, and women were excluded from social production and became legally subordinated to men.However, orthodox Marxism, including its feminist proponents (e.g., Rosa Luxemburg and Clara Zetkin), juxtaposed their position to that of "bourgeoisie feminism" by claiming that gender inequities were the byproduct of social class inequality and that the replacement of capitalism with socialism would automatically resolve women's problems.
6GENDER AS CENTRAL, TTAPI SEBELAH MATA GEORG SIMMEL DEVOTED EXTENSIVE ATTENTION TO GENDER. IN MANY OF HIS BEST KNOWN ESSAYS AND IN THE PHILOSOPHY OF MONEY . SIMMEL WAS SENSITIVE TO THE FACT THAT MALE-DOMINATED CULTURE HINDERS WOMEN'S AUTONOMY AND PREVENTS THEM FROM CONTRIBUTING TO THE COMMON CULTURE. MOREOVER, THE STANDARDS USED TO EVALUATE SOCIAL ACHIEVEMENTS "ARE FORMALLY GENERICALLY HUMAN, BUT ARE IN FACT MASCULINE IN TERMS OF THEIR HISTORICAL FORMATION”, LEAVING WOMEN TO BE JUDGED BY CRITERIA DEVELOPED BY AND FOR MEN WITHIN A CONTEXT WHERE WOMEN ARE DENIED THE OPPORTUNITY TO ACHIEVE THEM.SLIDE BERIKUT
7GENDER AS CENTRAL, TETAPI Although Simmel was closer to writing feminist theory than other classical sociologists, his ideas nonetheless were "ideologically contradictory“.He recognized that gender differences and the level of gender inequality vary over time and space, but he also posited innate gender differences.Oakes (1984) argues that Simmel rejected all of the contemporary approaches to "the woman question": traditional, liberal, and Marxist. Rather, he posited an inherent difference in male and female "modes of being," which are embodied in inexorably opposed, universal, male and female cultures. "
8SIMPULANNYA?PEREMPUAN TIDAK DIBAHAS DALAM HUBUNGANNYA DENGAN LAKI-LAKI, ASUMSI BIOLOGIS YANG TIDAK MELIHAT BENTUK-BENTUK HUBUNGAN ANTARA LAKI-LAKI DAN PEREMPUAN SEBAGAI AKAR-AKAR PERSOALAN.
9MUNCULNYA SOSIOLOGI FEMINIS APAKAH POKOK PERSOALAN YANG DITEKANKAN OLEH SOSIOLOGI FEMINIS?APAKAH KRITIKAN MEREKA TERHADAP ORIENTASI DAN TEORI-TEORI SOSIOLOGI YANG ADA?APAKAH IDE POKOK EPISTIMOLOGI FEMINIS SOSIOLOGIS?APAKAH YANG DIMAKSUD DARI SUDUT PANDANG PEREMPUAN (WOMEN STAND’S POINT).PAPER 1000 KATA DAN PRESENTASI DALAM KELAS
10PERKEMBANGAN KAJIAN GENDER DALAM KAJIAN PEMBANGUNAN WOMEN IN DEVELOPMENT (WID) DAN WOMEN, ENVIRONMENT AND DEVE,LOPMENT (WED).INI ADAALH TAHAP AWAL KAJIAN PEREMPUAN DALAM KAJIAN PEM,BANGUNAN.MEMBAHAS POSISI DAN KEADAAN PEREMPUAN DALAM PEMBANGUNAN:PENDIDIKANNYA,PEKERJAANNYA,KESEHATANNYA.DLL.MEMBAHAS PEMBAGIAN KERJA SEKSUALKELEMAHAN:TERLALU FOKUS PADA PEREMPUAN .MENGAKIBATKAN GAGAL MENEMPATKAN PERSOALAN PEREMPUAN BERSUMBER DARI POLA HUBUNGAN LAKI-LAKI DENGAN PEREMPUAN.PROGRAM INTERVENSI MENYULITKAN ATAU MENIMBULKAN BEBAN BAGI PEREMPUAN.
11PERKEMBANGAN KAJIAN GENDER DALAM KAJIAN PEMBANGUNAN… WOMEN AND DEVELOPMENT (WAD).FOKUS PERHATIAN:MEMBAHAS PARTISIPASI PEREMUAN DALAM PEMBANGUNAN.PERANAN DAN PARTISIPASI PEREMPUAN DALAM PEMBANGUNAN MENJADI TOPIK-TOPIK UTAMA.KELEMAHAN:PARTISIPASI PEREMPUAN DAN PERANAN PEREMPUAN DALAM PEMBANGUNAN TIDAK DIKAITKAN DENGAN POLA HUBUNGAN ANYTARA PEREMPUAN DENGAN LAKI-LAKI.INTERVENSI MENIMBULKAN BEBAN BAGI PEREMPUAN>CONTOH: KELOMPOK PEREMPUAN SAJA MEMBUAT KELOMPOK INI TIDAK EFEKTIF.GENDER AND DEVELOPMENT (GAD).MEMBAHAS RELASI LAKI-LAKI DAN PEREMPUAN DALAM PEMBANGUNAN.
12PERKEMBANGAN KAJIAN GENDER DALAM KAJIAN PEMBANGUNAN… KARENA KELEMAHAN WID, WED, DAN WAD, MAKA PARA AHLI MAJU DENGAN ANALISIS HUBUNGAN LAKI-LAKI DENGAN PREMPUAN DAN MELIHAT POLA HUBUNGAN ITU TERKAIT DENGAN PROSES- PROSES YANG LEBIH BESAR.MUNCULAH PENDEKATAN GENDER AND DEVELOPMENT (GAD).MEMBAHAS RELASI LAKI-LAKI DAN PEREMPUAN DALAM PEMBANGUNAN.PERSOALAN PEREMPUAN DIBAHAS DALAM RELASI PEREMPUAN DENGAN LAKI-LAKI DAN RELASI ITU DIKAITKAN DENGAN KEADAAN MAKRO.
13APAKAH YANG DAPAT DIPELAJARI DARI PERKEMBANGAN KAJIAN PEREMPUAN DALAM SOSIOLOGI DAN KAJIAN PEMBANGUNAN?
14KULIAH MINGGU DEPANPERKEMBANGAN TEORI SOSIOLOGI FEMINIS DAN SOSIOLOGI FEMINIS EPISTIMOLOGI