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TUGAS Louis Pasteur  “Ekologi”. Istilah ini pertama sekali diusulkan oleh ahli biologi bangsa Jerman Ernst Hackel dalam tahun 1869.  “Ekologi” yang.

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Presentasi berjudul: "TUGAS Louis Pasteur  “Ekologi”. Istilah ini pertama sekali diusulkan oleh ahli biologi bangsa Jerman Ernst Hackel dalam tahun 1869.  “Ekologi” yang."— Transcript presentasi:

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2 TUGAS

3 Louis Pasteur  “Ekologi”. Istilah ini pertama sekali diusulkan oleh ahli biologi bangsa Jerman Ernst Hackel dalam tahun  “Ekologi” yang berasal dari bahasa Yunani dari kata-kata : Oikos, berarti “rumah” atau tempat untuk hidup,  Didefenisikan sebagai Ilmu pengetahuan yang mempelajari tentang hubungan timbal balik antara organisme (makhluk hidup) dengan lingkungan EKOLOGI, Ilmu Dasar Pemahaman Lingkungan Ernst Haeckel (Germany)

4 Secara Garis Besar SIN EKOLOGI :SIN EKOLOGI : AUT EKOLOGIAUT EKOLOGI

5 4 Ecology Definition “Ecology is the scientific discipline that is concerned with the relationships between organisms and their past, present, and future environments.” Source: Ecological Society of America

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8 Persoalan Lingkungan Banjir/ Longsor/ air bah Punahnya Biodiversity Polusi (Pencemaran) Timbulnya berbagai penyakit-penyakit Terbatasnya air bersih Pemanasan global Perubahan Iklim

9 Prinsip-Prinsip Ekologi  Pembahasan ekologi tidak lepas dari pembahasan ekosistem dengan berbagai komponen penyusunnya, yaitu faktor abiotik dan biotik.  Faktor abiotik antara lain suhu, air, kelembapan, cahaya, dan topografi, sedangkan faktor biotik adalah makhluk hidup yang terdiri dari manusia, hewan, tumbuhan, dan mikroba.  Ekologi juga berhubungan erat dengan tingkatan-tingkatan organisasi makhluk hidup, yaitu populasi, komunitas, dan ekosistem yang saling mempengaruhi dan merupakan suatu sistem yang menunjukkan kesatuan.

10 Gbr. Tingkatan Organisasi Makhluk Hidup Individu : organisme tunggal seperti : seekor tikus, seekor kucing, sebatang pohon jambu, sebatang pohon kelapa, dan seorang manusia. Populasi : Kumpulan individu sejenis yang hidup padasuatu daerah dan waktu tertentu disebut populasi Misalnya, populasi pohon kelapa dikelurahan x th ada 2552 batang. Komunitas ialah kumpulan dari berbagai populasi yang hidup pada suatu waktu dan daerah tertentu yang saling berinteraksi dan mempengaruhi satu sama lain Interaksi komunitas dg lingkungan menciptakan kesatuan ekologi yang disebut ekosistem. Komponen penyusun ekosistem adalah produsen (tumbuhan hijau), konsumen (herbivora, karnivora, dan omnivora), dan dekomposer/pengurai (mikroorganisme).

11 Population A group of organisms of the same kind living in the same place is a population.

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13 Populasi: Nicia/niche/relung: Karakteristika Populasi D (densitas) = NLNL ind/m 2 ind/km 2 ind/m 3 Kumpulan individu sejenis yang terdapat dalam suatu tempat tertentu Satuan fungsional suatu spesies dalam ekosistem 1. Kepadatan/Densitas  Jumlah seluruh individu pada tiap satuan ruang (luas/volume)

14 2. Persebaran (dispersion) Persebaran secara: Pola penyebaran populasi : merata acakberkelompok

15 3. Struktur umur - Pre reproduksi; reproduksi; pos reproduksi 4. Dinamika - Natalitas = kelahiran - Mortalitas = kematian - Migrasi = masuk/keluar: ke/dari populasi

16 Faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi populasi KelahiranKematianMigrasi Populasi bertambahPopulasi berkurang Kompetisi Menang Kalah Mati Pindah K a p a s i t a s T a m p u n g

17 All the population that live in an ecosystem at the same time form a community.

18 Komunitas :Interaksi yang terjadi antara sesama makhluk hidup Habitat Jenis makhluk hidup Terestial Akuatik Tumbuhan Hewan

19 Bagan hubungan antara beberapa komponen matahari produsen materi konsumen pengurai

20 Bagan Aliran Energi Energi matahari energi yang dipantulkan produsen Konsumen I pengurai dipancarkan kembali pengurai

21 Modified from: General Ecology, by David T. Krome Trophic level: All the organisms that are the same number of food-chain steps from the primary source of energy

22 Food Chains The producers, consumers, and decomposers of each ecosystem make up a food chain. There are many food chains in an ecosystem. Food chains show where energy is transferred and not who eats who.

23 Adaptif 30 Rantai makanan (FOOD CHAIN)

24 Adaptif Ekologi 3. JARING MAKANAN (FOOD WEB) PENGURAI

25 Adaptif JARING Makanan

26 © 2003 John Wiley and Sons Publishers Food web of a hot spring

27 © 2003 John Wiley and Sons Publishers Fig 6.5 Food web of the harp seal.

28 WHAT ARE ECOSYSTEMS?

29 Abiotic components: ABIOTIC components: Solar energy provides practically all the energy for ecosystems. Inorganic substances, e.g., sulfur, boron, tend to cycle through ecosystems. Organic compounds, such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and other complex molecules, form a link between biotic and abiotic components of the system.

30 BIOTIC components The biotic components of an ecosystem can be classified according to their mode of energy acquisition. In this type of classification, there are: Autotrophs and Heterotrophs Organisms that produce their own food from an energy source, such as the sun, and inorganic compounds. Organisms that consume other organisms as a food source.

31 Types of Ecosystems Deserts are very dry ecosystems. Deserts are very dry ecosystems. Desert plants and animals can survive with very little water. Desert plants and animals can survive with very little water.

32 Desert Plants Desert plants, such as cactus, have thick stems that store water. Desert plants, such as cactus, have thick stems that store water. The roots of a cactus lie just below the soil and spread far from the plant. The roots of a cactus lie just below the soil and spread far from the plant.

33 Grassland Ecosystems Grasslands are dry, often flat areas of land that are hot in the summer and cold in the winter. Grasslands are dry, often flat areas of land that are hot in the summer and cold in the winter. They get more rain and snow than deserts but less that most other ecosystems. They get more rain and snow than deserts but less that most other ecosystems.

34 Plants The main plant in a grassland ecosystem is grass. The main plant in a grassland ecosystem is grass. There are not many bushes in the grassland. There are not many bushes in the grassland. Trees are found only by rivers and streams. Trees are found only by rivers and streams.

35 Saltwater Ecosystems Saltwater ecosystems are oceans. Saltwater ecosystems are oceans. Oceans cover about three –fourths of Earth’s surface, so there are more saltwater ecosystems than any other. Oceans cover about three –fourths of Earth’s surface, so there are more saltwater ecosystems than any other.

36 Marine National Park, in Sulawesi

37 Sharks, sea turtles, corals and octopus are all ocean animals. So are whales and seals.

38 Freshwater Ecosystems Rivers, ponds, lakes and streams have fresh water. Rivers, ponds, lakes and streams have fresh water. Lakes and rivers are closely tied. Some lakes are the source for some rivers. Important rivers, most often, originate from lakes. Some rivers end in lakes. Lakes and rivers are closely tied. Some lakes are the source for some rivers. Important rivers, most often, originate from lakes. Some rivers end in lakes. Since both rivers and lakes are freshwater and flow in and out of each other, they share similar characteristics and many species reside in both habitats. Since both rivers and lakes are freshwater and flow in and out of each other, they share similar characteristics and many species reside in both habitats.

39 Forest Ecosystems Forest are ecosystems in which many trees grow.

40 Tropical Rain Forest A tropical rain forest grows where it is hot and wet all year long. A tropical rain forest grows where it is hot and wet all year long. Animals such as jaguars and monkeys live there. Animals such as jaguars and monkeys live there.

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42 Research/ Fieldwork

43 Training

44 Deciduous Forest What's A Temperate Deciduous Forest Like? What's A Temperate Deciduous Forest Like? One of the most interesting features of the temperate deciduous forest is its changing seasons. One of the most interesting features of the temperate deciduous forest is its changing seasons.changing seasonschanging seasons The word "deciduous" means exactly what the leaves on these trees do: change color in autumn, fall off in the winter, and grow back again in the spring. This adaptation helps trees in the forest survive winter. The word "deciduous" means exactly what the leaves on these trees do: change color in autumn, fall off in the winter, and grow back again in the spring. This adaptation helps trees in the forest survive winter.

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