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KONSERVASI SUMBERDAYA ALAM DAN LINGKUNGAN Diabstraksikan oleh: Soemarno, psdl-ppsub - Malang 2013 Bahan kajian pada MK. PSDAL.

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Presentasi berjudul: "KONSERVASI SUMBERDAYA ALAM DAN LINGKUNGAN Diabstraksikan oleh: Soemarno, psdl-ppsub - Malang 2013 Bahan kajian pada MK. PSDAL."— Transcript presentasi:

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2 KONSERVASI SUMBERDAYA ALAM DAN LINGKUNGAN Diabstraksikan oleh: Soemarno, psdl-ppsub - Malang 2013 Bahan kajian pada MK. PSDAL

3 URBAN ECOSYSTEM

4 EKOSISTEM KOTA ? Ekosistem Kota merupakan habitat binaan dnegan jenis-jenis flora dan fauna non-alamiah untuk menyediakan kenyamanan lingkungan bagi relaksasi manusia.

5 CIRI-CIRI EKOSISTEM KOTA Parks and playgrounds are the examples of urban ecosystem. This ecosystem is unstable because it is artificial.

6 Suhu udara pada daerah berhutan lebih nyaman daripada daerah yang tidak ditumbuhi oleh tanaman. Suhu udara yang dianggap nyaman untuk manusia di Indonesia adalah sekitar 25oC.

7 They can only kept in their desirable conditions by constant effort. Fertilizers and water are constantly added to the soils for plant growth. Some weak plants will be protected and supported in a greenhouse. CIRI-CIRI EKOSISTEM KOTA POHON PENEDUH Angsana (Pterocarpus indicus); Ki Hujan / Trembesi (Samanea saman); Mahoni (Swietenia microphylla); Asam (Tamarindus indica); Kere Payung (Filicium decipiens); Glodokan Tiang, G. Pecut (Polyalthia longifolia); Ketapang (Terminalia catapa); Mimbo; Sawo Kecik (Manilkara kauki); Kepel (Stelechocarpus burahol); Ficus elastica (Burgundi) dan Decora; F. benyamina; F. elastica (daun kuning); F. lyrata; Johar (Cassia siamea); Jambu Batu.

8 CIRI-CIRI EKOSISTEM KOTA HUTAN KOTA: Tipe Rekreasi dan Keindahan Hutan kota yg berfungsi sebagai pemenuhan kebutuhan rekreasi dan keindahan, dg jenis pepohonan yang indah dan unik Karakteristik pepohonannya: Pohon-pohon yang indah dan atau penghasil bunga/buah yg digemari oleh satwa, seperti burung, kupu-kupu dan lainnya Diunduh dari: …………. 27/12/2012

9 Daun mempunyai kemampuan memantulkan sinar infra merah sebesar 70%, dan visible light 6-12%. Cahaya hijau yang paling banyak dipantulkan daun (10-20%), sedangkan jingga dan merah paling sedikit dipantulkan daun (3-10%). Ultra violet yang dapat dipantulkan daun tidak lebih dari 3% (Larcher, 1980).

10 RUANG TERBUKA HIJAU KOTA Hutan Kota: Tipe Perlindungan Hutan kota yg berfungsi untuk: 1.Mencegah atau mengurangi bahaya erosi dan longsor pd daerah dengan kemiringan cukup tinggi dan sesuai dg karakter tanah 2.Melindungi daerah pantai dari gempuran ombak (abrasi) 3.Melindungi daerah resapan air untuk mengatasi masalah menipisnya volume air tanah dan atau masalah intrusi air laut Karakteristik pepohonannya: 1.Pohon-pohon yg memiliki daya evapotranspirasi yg rendah. 2.Pohon yg dapat berfungsi mengurangi bahaya abrasi pantai seperti mangrove atau pohon yg berakar kuat. Termasuk dalam tipe ini adalah jalur hijau di sepanjang tepi jalan bebas hambatan. Dengan menanam jenis perdu yang liat dan dilengkapi dengan jalur pohon dan tanaman jenis legume merambat secara berlapis-lapis, diharapkan dapat menahan kendaraan yang ke luar dari jalur jalan.

11 1.Bagi Manusia a. Menyediakan area /ruang untuk bermain, santai dan cengkerama untuk melepaskan stress b. Sarana belajar untuk mengetahui “ekosistem” dengan flora dan fauna yang ada di taman dan tempat-tempat bermain. PENTINGNYA EKOSISTEM KOTA TAMAN KOTA Taman berisi tanaman yang ditanam dan ditata sedemikian rupa, sebagian atau seluruhnya merupakan hasil rekayasa manusia, untuk mendapatkan komposisi tertentu yang indah. Keindahan dapat berasal dari bentuk/warna/tekstur tajuk, tekstur daun, bentuk percabangan, bunga dan buahnya.

12 c. Tumbuhan hijau dapat mengurangi kelelahan mata manusia karena pepohonan hijau dapat mengurangi intensitas silau- cahaya d. Tumbuhan membantu menyeimbangkan Oksigen dan CO2 dan menyediakan lebih banyak oksigen bagi organisme lainnya. e. Taman-taman kota juga dapat menyediakan kenyamanan dan keindahan bagi warga masyarakat.. PENTINGNYA EKOSISTEM KOTA Diunduh dari: 27/12/2012

13 2. Bagi Binatang a.Menyediakan tempat beristirahat dan bercengkerama bagi berbagai jenis binatang. Misalnya burung-burung dapat bercengkerama di pepohonan. b. Menyediakan habitat-mikro bagi berbagai jenis serangga. Misalnya belalang hidup dalam rumpun vegetasi semak dan perdu. PENTINGNYA EKOSISTEM KOTA The upper levels of the decision tree model for the urban bird species richness. 10 km cells dominated by forest, shrubs, grass and crops had lower levels of urban bird species richness. By comparison 10 km cells dominated by bare ground, urban or deciduous broadleaf forest (DBF) had larger numbers of urban bird species. Diunduh dari: …………. 27/12/2012

14 Problematik Ekosistem Kota In a city, there are many tall buildings surrounding the parks. So light intensity is greatly reduce and the rate of photosynthesis is low. Diunduh dari: …………. 27/12/2012 STREET AND PARK TREES Trees are constantly under threat. Large areas of trees may be lost when land is developed or roads are widened, while individual trees can be harmed in many ways, e.g. 1.High levels of air pollution 2.Excessive use of salt on roads affecting the tree's ability to absorb water and nutrients 3.Removal of dead leaves and the interruption to the normal woodland nutrient cycle, leading to low nutrient levels. 4.Over-pruning causing damage to branches and reduction in photosynthesis 5.Soil compaction 6.Trimming of roots during underground work on pipes cables etc 7.Attack from pests and diseases

15 Hutan kota dapat berfungsi sebagai komponen perlindungan kehidupan masyarakat yang tinggal di wilayah perkotaan dan sekitarnya, karena dapat berfungsi sebagai penyerap polutan, penyerap bau, peredam kebisingan, habitat satwa liar, ameliorasi iklim, mengurangi bahaya banjir, mengurangi intrusi air laut, pengelolaan air tanah, penahan angin dan lainnya

16 1.In addition, the wind speed also reduces and decreases the chance of dispersal of plants. 2.The temperature of an urban area is higher than the countryside because a lot of hot air is given out by air- conditioners and factories. These increase cloudiness and the plants and animals in the parks are difficult to respire. Problematik Ekosistem Kota Diunduh dari: …………. 27/12/2012 Defects in Urban Trees The following are defects or signs of possible defects in urban trees (see figure): 1.Regrowth from topping, line clearance, or other pruning 2.Electrical line adjacent to tree 3.Broken or partially attached branch 4.Open cavity in trunk or branch 5.Dead or dying branches 6.Branches arising from a single point on the trunk 7.Decay and rot present in old wounds 8.Recent change in grade or soil level, or other construction

17 Managing Tree Hazards Diunduh dari: …………. 27/12/ Remove the target. While a home or a nearby power line cannot be moved, it is possible to move picnic tables, cars, landscape features, or other possible targets to prevent them from being hit by a falling tree. 2.Prune the tree. Remove the defective branches of the tree. Because inappropriate pruning may weaken a tree, pruning work is best done by an ISA Certified Arborist. 3.Cable and brace the tree. Provide physical support for weak branches and stems to increase their strength and stability. 4.Provide routine care. Mature trees need routine care in the form of water, fertilizer (in some cases), mulch, and pruning as dictated by the season and their structure. 5.Remove the tree. Some hazardous trees are best removed. If possible, plant a new tree in an appropriate place as a replacement.

18 Problematik Ekosistem Kota URBAN TREE BENEFITS When making decisions about whether to protect or plant trees urban planners need to make sure that the benefits outweigh the costs. Different kinds of tree also vary in their characteristics and this must be taken into account in when choosing species and deciding where to plant them. Diunduh dari: …………. 27/12/2012

19 PERANAN HUTAN KOTA Penahan dan Penyaring Partikel dari udara Daun yang berbulu dan berlekuk, seperti daun bunga matahari, mempunyai kemampuan tinggi menyerap partikel dari udara. Jenis pohon berdaun lebar mampu mereduksi partikel dalam udara kota hingga 30%, sedangkan pohon berdaun jarum mampu mereduksi partikel dalam udara kota hingga 42%.

20 Pencemaran udara kota oleh kendaraan bermotor dan industri. The dirty dust will block up the stomata of plants and affect their gaseous exchange. Problematik Ekosistem Kota Diunduh dari: …………. 27/12/2012 The photosynthesis effect of tree growth

21 Some soil in the playgrounds and parks are compacted by the tramping effect of human feet. Then the air space in the soil becomes lessened and less oxygen to support plant respiration. Problematik Ekosistem Kota Diunduh dari: …………. 27/12/2012 The physical properties of roots are also important. For example, the root length and the degree of branching is important for exploring soil resources. A root system with a large surface area has greater opportunity for nutrient uptake. The presence of abundant root hairs is beneficial for water and nutrient uptake. It is estimated that up to three fourths of the total root surface area of many cultivated crops is provided by root hairs. Tree roots in compacted soil

22 The surface of road is waterproof and there are drainage channel s on both sides of the road. Rain water is easy to run-off and the plants are difficult to absorb the water. Problematik Ekosistem Kota Diunduh dari: management-systems/ …………. 27/12/2012 A swale, ditch and mound on contour, capturing runoff and passively irrigating emerging trees

23 TREE HAZARDS Diunduh dari: …………. 27/12/2012 TREE HAZARD CHECKLIST 1.Are there large dead branches in the tree? 2.Are there detached branches hanging in the tree? 3.Does the tree have cavities or rotten wood along the trunk or in major branches? 4.Are mushrooms present at the base of the tree? 5.Are there cracks or splits in the trunk or where branches are attached? 6.Have any branches fallen from the tree? 7.Have adjacent trees fallen over or died? 8.Has the trunk developed a strong lean? 9.Do many of the major branches arise from one point on the trunk? 10.Have the roots been broken off, injured, or damaged by lowering the soil level, installing pavement, repairing sidewalks, or digging trenches? 11.Has the site recently been changed by construction, raising the soil level, or installing lawns? 12.Have the leaves prematurely developed an unusual color or size? 13.Have trees in adjacent wooded areas been removed? 14.Has the tree been topped or otherwise heavily pruned? Trees may be dangerous. Trees or parts of trees may fall and cause injury to people or damage to property. We call trees in such situations hazardous, to signify the risk involved with their presence. While every tree has the potential to fall, only a small number actually hit something or someone.

24 TREE HEALTH – INSECTS & DISEASES Diunduh dari: …………. 27/12/2012 TREE DISEASES Three things are required for a disease to develop: 1.the presence of a pathogen (the disease-causing agent) 2.plant susceptibility to that particular pathogen 3.an environment suitable for disease development Plants vary in susceptibility to pathogens. Many disease-prevention programs focus on the use of pathogen-resistant plant varieties. Even if the pathogen is present and a susceptible plant host is available, the proper environmental conditions must be present over the correct period of time for the pathogen to infect the plant. Diseases can be classified into two broad categories: those caused by infectious or living agents (diseases) and those caused by noninfectious or nonliving agents (disorders). Examples of infectious agents include fungi, viruses, and bacteria. Noninfectious diseases, which account for 70 to 90 percent of all plant problems in urban areas, can be caused by such factors as nutrient deficiencies, temperature extremes, vandalism, pollutants, and fluctuations in moisture. Noninfectious disorders often produce symptoms similar to those caused by infectious diseases; therefore, it is essential to distinguish between the two in order to give proper treatment.

25 TREE HEALTH – INSECTS & DISEASES Diunduh dari: …………. 27/12/2012 TREE INSECTS Some insects can cause injury and damage to trees and shrubs. By defoliating trees or sucking their sap, insects can retard plant growth. By boring into the trunk and branches, they interfere with sap flow and weaken the tree structure. Insects may alsocarry some plant diseases. In many cases, however, the insect problem is secondary to problems brought on by a stress disorder or pathogen. It is important to remember that most insects are beneficial rather than destructive. They help with pollination or act as predators of more harmful species. Therefore, killing all insects without regard to their kind and function can actually be detrimental to tree health. Insects may be divided into three categories according to their method of feeding: chewing, sucking, or boring. Insects from each group have characteristic patterns of damage that will help you determine the culprit and the proper treatment. Chewing insects eat plant tissue such as leaves, flowers, buds, and twigs. Indications of damage by these insects is often seen by uneven or broken margins on the leaves, skeletonization of the leaves, and leaf mining. Chewing insects can be beetle adults or larvae, moth larvae (caterpillars), and many other groups of insects. The damage they cause (leaf notching, leaf mining, leaf skeletonizing, etc.) will help in identifying the pest insect. Sucking insects insert their beak (proboscis) into the tissues of leaves, twigs, branches, flowers, or fruit and then feed on the plant’s juices. Some examples of sucking insects are aphids, mealy bugs, thrips, and leafhoppers. Damage caused by these pests is often indicated by discoloration, drooping, wilting, leaf spots (stippling), honeydew, or general lack of vigor in the affected plant.

26 TREE HEALTH – INSECTS & DISEASES Diunduh dari: …………. 27/12/2012 TREE INSECT TREATMENT The treatment method used for a particular insect or disease problem will depend on the species involved, the extent of the problem, and a variety of other factors specific to the situation and local regulations. Always consult a professional if you have any doubt about the nature of the problem or proper treatment..


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