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Presentasi berjudul: "PENERAPAN KONSEP PRODUKSI BERSIH"— Transcript presentasi:
1PENERAPAN KONSEP PRODUKSI BERSIH ANAS M FAUZIDEPARTEMEN TEKNOLOGI INDUSTRI PERTANIANFATETA IPB
2? LIFE CYCLE ? ? ? ? ? BAHAN BAKU PRODUK 4 Basic concerns of agroindustrial enterprises(1) efficiency(2) quality(3) convenience(4) innovation
3Industrial Sustainability Industrial sustainability is the continuous innovation,improvement and use of clean technology to reducepollution levels and consumption of resources (OECD)Keywords : clean, efficientIn practical terms, Industrial sustainability means employingTechnology and know-how to:lessen material and energy inputmaximizing renewable resources and biodegradable substances as inputminimizing pollutants during products manufacturing and useproduce recyclable or biodegradable products
4Eco-efficiency Doing more with less – using environmental resources more efficiently in economic processes (WBCSD)‘Production value’ divided by ‘production of damage’during a production step or over the whole productionof goods and services.7 COMPONENTSReduce material intensityReduce energy intensityReduce toxin dispersionEnhance material recyclabilityMaximize sustainable use of renewable resourcsExtend product durabilityIncrease the service intensity
5Clean TechnologyTechnologies that(1) extract and use natural resources as efficient as possible in all stage of their lives;(2) generate products with reduced or no potentially harmful components;minimize releases to air, water and soil during fabrication and use of the product;produce durable products which can be recovered or recycled as far as possible;(5) are energy-efficientSource: OECD (1995)
6Pengukuran kuantitas limbah Kunjungan ke pabrik / lihat laporanWawancara dengan kontraktor & pemasokInspeksi on - sitePencatatan bahan baku dan produkData pembuangandan pengolahan limbahData di asosiasi industriWawancara dengan staf inspektor/pejabat pemdaSurvaiSlide 20 Quantifying waste generation by measurementAt operational level, there are a number of ways in which data collection on waste generation can be undertaken, the most detailed of which is a waste audit. (See next slide)Sources of information on wastes quantities include those shown on the slide.Another method is to conduct a survey, and a number of countries have undertaken surveys to enable them to estimate waste volumes. The survey options include:· Postal surveys – may have a poor response and the data obtained is unreliable· Interview surveys – more time-consuming but will get better response rate, however the reliability of the data is dependent on the accuracy of the generator’s reporting and knowledge of the wastes.· Sample surveys, from which numbers are extrapolated for the industry or city as whole, are also liable to be inaccurate, and any subsequent updating is impossible.Registration of waste generators, which is already a requirement in many countries, offers an ideal vehicle for data gathering, and inspectors have a key role in improving data reliability over time.In the USA, legislation requires all industrial manufacturers to prepare annual reports itemising their releases of a given list of chemical substances. These are then compiled into an annual Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) for the country which is publicly available. Amounts of chemicals stored on site or transferred to off-site treatment or disposal are included. The TRI has a number of limitations: it does not include all toxic chemicals; it is limited to large manufacturing industry, so not all generators are included; many figures are based on estimates.An example of a waste survey is given with this chapter, with a menu of questions which could be included. However it is important not to make the survey too long, or there is a risk that it will be daunting to recipients. Questions should be selected according to the objective of the survey.Discussion: What balance of questions is needed to meet what circumstances? The trainer could invite trainees to limit their survey to 8 targeted questions, and to discuss their selection.
8ZERO WASTE : The ultimate goal of cleaner production is zero waste To maximize transformation of NPO to PO Industry tree Value added Industrial Networking (cluster approach)To Reduce wastes to disposed of 3R : Reduce, Reuse & RecycleTo improve process efficiency process technology, product durability house keeping (management)The ultimate goal of cleaner production is zero waste
11KENDALA IMPLEMENTASI DI INDONESIA (1) Subsidi terhadap harga energi dan bahan baku---> kurang mendorong upaya efisiensi danminimisasi limbahTerbatasnya informasi dan ketersediaan fasilitaskredit komersial untuk investasi produksi bersihSebagian besar merupakan IKM(sekitar 88 % di Indonesia)Terbatasnya akses informasi terhadap BAT(best available technology) untuk produksi bersih----> perlu networking
12KENDALA Finansial (30%) Teknis (10%) ketersediaan, ketrampilan & pengalamanPolitis (60%)organisasi, peraturanSlide 8 Waste Minimisation – barriersWhile waste minimisation measures may lead to cost savings, those measures which require up-front capital investment may present a significant obstacle to implementation. Projects for waste minimisation will have to overcome internal company obstacles, and possibly compete for funding with other projects.On the other hand, in companies where there has already been recent investment in facilities or technologies, there will be a reduced incentive to make further investment before the current plant reaches the stage of needing to be upgraded.There are practical limits to waste minimisation, especially in regard to source reduction. It may be difficult to manufacture certain goods without generating hazardous waste, such as the sludges which result from chemical reactions. There may be concern that modifications to the process or the material inputs may result in a lower quality product which will be harder to market. While not strictly a technical barrier, this fear – which may be groundless - could still impede innovation. A genuine technical barrier may be a lack of suitable engineering and technical information on source reduction techniques.Regulations may inadvertently discourage waste minimisation. For example, trade effluent discharges are commonly regulated by contaminants on the basis of concentration. This may encourage dilution in order to achieve compliance, but resulting in much larger volumes of dilute wastes, even though pollution abatement technology typically operates more efficiently on smaller quantities of more concentrated material.Going beyond waste minimisation, some regulations may limit or prevent the re-use or recycling of wastes through waste exchanges because of the waste definitions they impose, restricting the opportunities for hazardous waste recycling.
13KENDALA EKONOMI & FINANSIAL KENDALA POLITISKurang berani mengambil resiko penerapan inovasi (unproven)Komitmen perusahaan terhadap lingkungan kurangPenegakan hukum lemahKENDALA EKONOMI & FINANSIALUmumnya industri sudah dilengkapi dengan fasilitas EOPInvestasi jangka pendek lebih disukai oleh industriIntangible benefits (tidak kuantitatif) kurang dihargaiKENDALA TEKNISDiseminasi teknologi (BAT) secara rinciBiaya transfer teknologiKetrampilan SDM
14Policy tools and instruments : Regulatory instruments (command and control)Economic (market based) instrumentsInformation-based strategies
15What is a “policy instrument” ? A Policy instrument is a tool or a mechanism used as a means to accomplish a specific goal.A strategy is a plan for attacking a problem, and policy instruments are a means to carry out that attack.
16Informal Regulation Market as Regulation The New Model Citizens ConsumersPlantsPlantsMarketsCommunityElementsPowerSocial normsNegotiationsElementsReputationCreditProfitsNGOInvestorsThe New ModelGovernmentMarketsCommunitySource: The Greening Industry (WB, 2000)
18Policy instrumentsRegulatory instruments - which require or mandate specific behaviour, e.g. determine what is prohibited, what is allowed, and how to carry out certain activitiesEconomic Instruments, which create incentives or disincentives for specific behaviours, by changing related economic conditionsInformation-based strategies , which seek to change behaviour by providing information. The underlying assumption is that the actors do not take optimal or correct decisions for lack of information or know-how
19Regulatory instruments Environmental norms and regulations / “command and control”Raw materials depletion quotaLiability assignmentExtended producer’s responsibility and product take-back schemesFacility operation standards / permits
20Market-based instruments Emission fees and non-compliance finesGrants, subsidies and financial assistance for CPMarketable permitsDeposits and product chargesDemand-side managementHarmful subsidy removalGreen procurement guidelinesReduction in taxes, duties and fees
21Economic instruments - taxes Argentina: reduction of waste generation taxes for companies with a recycling programmeMexico: environmental taxes on gasoline depending on the lead contentArgentina: favourable taxes to promote the use of natural gas instead of gasolineLithuania: acelerated depreciationBelgium: eco-tax on beer if the producer does not use to 95% recycled bottles / packaging
22Information-based strategies Establishment of a national CP ProgramWaste prevention targetsPublic recognition and awardsProduct labelling (eco-labels , CFC-free products)Pollutant Release and Transfer Registers (PRTR) and public access to environmental informationPublic environmental reportingInformation clearinghouse and technical assistanceIndustry codes of practiceVoluntary pollution prevention agreementsPublic education campaigns (energy efficiency and water savings campaign)
26PERHITUNGAN KELAYAKAN FINANSIAL Biaya investasi dan operasional murah Pay back period = Total investasi/extra cash flowBiaya investasi dan operasional mahal Perlu ditambah : IRR, NPVnNPV = Bt – Ct(1+i)ti = bunga modalt = umur proyekIRR = internal rate of returnNPV = net present valuet =0NPV1IRR = i (i2-i1)NPV1 – NPV2IRR = i pada NPV=0
27CONTOH-CONTOH MANFAAT PENERAPAN MINIMISASI LIMBAHPabrik Kelapa Sawit (PKS)Limbah organik (COD > ppm)Pilihan penerapan CP:1. Konservasi air ‘reuse’ air pendingin, kondensat, overflow dari vacuum dryer2. Pengurangan beban limbah penggunaan ‘oil trap’3. Modifikasi proses klarifikasi penggunaan saringan getar untuk pemisahan padatan4. Pemanfaatan limbah bungkil, cangkang, serat, lumpur (mengandung N,K,Mg),metana, tandan kosong
28PENINGKATAN EFISIENSI PROSES PRODUKSI PULP & KERTAS Bahan baku : jerami gandumProduksi : ton/thPilihan CP :Perubahan proses dengan peningkatan suhu pemasakanPeningkatan kekuatan vakum pada ‘drum washer’Perubahan ukuran saringan pada proses pencucianManfaat Lingkungan :Penurunan beban COD > 900 ton/thPeningkatan rendemen pulp 45 – 51%Pengurangan konsumsi NaOH 230 ton/thEfisiensi penggunaan airManfaat finansial :Total penghematan = peningkatan keuntungan = US$ 85,000/th
29 Efisiensi penggunaan air INDUSTRI PULP & KERTAS Efisiensi penggunaan airKondisi saat ini :Penggunaan air = 7500 m3/hari (air sungai), pajak Rp 100,-/m3200 m3/hari (air sumur), pajak Rp. 300,-/m3Program CP :Penggunaan kembali kondensat = 8,6 m3/hariPenggunaan ‘level control’, mengurangi overflow = 15 m3/hariPerbaikan ‘valve’, mengurangi bocor = 15 L/menitPenggunaan ‘pressurized sprayer’ pada selang pembersih, hemat 12 m3/hariPerbaikan saluran air, mengurangi bocor = 3 m3/hariTotal penghematan air sekitar 500 m3/hariBiaya implementasi CP = Rp ,-Penghematan = Rp (di luar hemat energi pompa)PBP = ( )/( ) x 12 bl = 8 bl
30ASUMSI – ASUMSI : Pengadaan air bersih Pengambilan air sungai = Rp. 100,-/m3 (dari pajak)Pengolahan air = Rp. 55/m3 (bahan kimia)Pengambilan air sumur = Rp. 300,-/m3 (pajak)Jumlah penghematan air sungai= L/jam x 24 jam/hari x Rp 155,-/m3 = Rp ,-/hariJumlah penghematan air sumur= (kondensat) + (overflow) = 23 m3/hari x Rp. 300,-= Rp ,-/hariTotal penghematan = Rp.( ) x 330 hari/th= Rp ,-/thBiaya penerapan :Spray = 50 unit x Rp ,- = Rp ,-Level controller = 2 unit x Rp ,- = Rp ,-Tenaga kerja (upah) = Rp ,-/th Total biaya = Rp ,-/th
31PENERAPAN MINIMISASI LIMBAH INDUSTRI KULIT (CONTOH-1)(CONTOH-2)(CONTOH-3)BUDIDAYA PADIPENGOLAHAN CPOINDUSTRI KECIL TAHUINDUSTRI TAPIOKAINDUSTRI NATA DE COCOCUKA APELGULAPULP & KERTAS
32Faktor penentu minimisasi limbah Peraturan dan kebijakan pemerintahKelayakan teknologiManfaat ekonomisKomitmen dan dukungan manajemenSlide 6 Factors influencing waste minimisationDespite the clear benefits of waste minimisation measures in reducing costs and increasing profits, there are some (real or perceived) barriers to overcome.The role of governments is crucial in providing the necessary framework for the development of waste minimisation techniques, as well as in encouraging their adoption.Appropriate legislation, effective enforcement, economic incentives, demonstration projects, and information and promotional programmes offer a variety of policy instruments which governments can use and adapt in stimulating waste minimisation.For waste generators, the availability and suitability of appropriate waste minimisation techniques and technologies will influence their adoption.Economic barriers may affect the introduction of some waste minimisation measures, where the measures may require (or may be perceived to require) capital investment. On the other hand, for externally funded major industrial projects, environmental impact assessment (EIA) plays a positive role in promoting waste minimisation.Without the support and commitment of the company’s management, waste minimisation measures are unlikely to be implemented or to succeed. Ensuring management support for measures to be introduced is therefore vital.
33Enforcement LEGISLATION FACILITIES SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT SERVICES Slide 2 EnforcementDespite widespread adoption in some parts of the world, the concept of inspection and enforcement is an alien one in some cultures. Compliance-based controls are not universal.However, in many regulatory frameworks, there is a need for enforcement of legislation, to implement the requirements, if control of hazardous wastes management is to be achieved.Introducing legislation without the backing of enforcement is pointless. However, enforcement is often described as the weak link in the control chain and many developed countries have experienced difficulties in its achievement.In developing economies, implementation and enforcement of hazardous wastes legislation may be a cause for concern. This may be because systems (such as the manifest system for controlling transport of wastes) commonly used in the developed world are simply too complex to be implemented by unsophisticated government bureaucracies.Alternatively, adoption of the legislation may have taken place but effective implementation and enforcement may be proving too difficult.Inspection and enforcement are just one part of the system, together with legislation, waste facilities and support services. All of these must be developed simultaneously, on a broad front, if hazardous wastes controls are to be successful. Legislation requiring certain waste types to be dealt with in certain ways cannot be enforced if the facilities do not exist or are not accessible to waste generators.There is also an interaction between standards-setting, regulation drafting and enforcement policy. Some countries strive for absolute compliance whilst others deliberately set standards in regulations higher than their objectives in the belief that industry will always fall short of targets. (Similar differences can be observed in the setting and enforcement of vehicle speed limits.) Additionally, in some countries the regulatory body is required to obtain its funding from fines paid by industry as a result of not meeting standards, a synergy which may cause unease.
34Strategi untuk UKM UKM dapat : dikecualikan dari peraturan diikutkan langsungdiikutkan bertahapdiberikan insentifdiatur tersendiriSlide 13 Regulation of small-scale waste generatorsIn developing economies, small scale waste generators may represent a major proportion of the generating sources.Small enterprises generating hazardous wastes, whether of an industrial or non-industrial nature, have traditionally been a problem for regulators. Their sheer number, geographical dispersion, small resources and low skills levels make it difficult to apply normal regulations.Small-scale hazardous waste generators may not have the knowledge or understanding of the issues to enable them to comply with complex legislation. They may lack the skills or resources – including the financial resources - to comply. As small purchasers, they may not have enough influence over their suppliers to make any necessary change or to obtain data. They may also be dependent on the infrastructure within which their business operates, and not free to make changes.Some of the ways in which small-scale generators can be addressed in regulation are as follows:·They can be excluded from regulation· They can be included· They can be included, but gradually, with rules being brought to bear in phases as they are able to meet them· They can be given incentives to comply rather than simply having obligations imposed upon them.· They can be subject to self-regulation, perhaps under an umbrella agreement within that industry sector eg dry cleaners
357 ASPEK PENERAPAN PB di UKM Pengendalian limbah terpaduPenghematan energiStudi banding (benchmarking)Keterkaitan aktor internal (pemilik, pekerja, teknokrat) daneksternal (lembaga pembiayaan, mass media, dll.)Pengembangan kelembagaan pelatihanPengembangan dan transfer teknologi local-based technologyPaket finansial pinjaman lunak (bunga, grace period, dll.)subsidipengurangan pajakCP award, dll.
36ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (EMS) ISO series ISO productEco Management and Audit System (EMAS) EU standard(1) & (2) Tools to achieving CP
37ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (EMS)The organizational structure, responsibilities, practices, procedures, processes and resources for implementing and managing an organization’s environmental affairs while ensuring conformity to its policies, standards and stakeholders’ expectations
38The foundation of an EMS includes: Purpose – an organization should have an identifiable purpose, which is usually stated as its goals and objectives and encapsulated in the organization’s environmental policyCommitment – there should be a sense of commitment and accountability among the people in the organization with respect to taking the appropriate action in support of the EMSCapability – the organization should have the necessary resources (human, physical and financial) as well as the knowledge and skills to achieve the organization’s environmental policyLearning – the organization should strive to continuously learn to improve its own management and learning processes through monitoring and measurement of environmental performance, efficient internal and external communication as well as review of the EMS by senior management
39ISO Consists of :EMSEA&RI (Env. Auditing & Related Investigation)EL (Env. Labels and Declaration)EPE (Env. Performance Evaluation)LCA (Life Cycle Assessment)T & D (Terms & Definition)
40EMAS covers: Compliance with all relevant env. Regulation Prevention pollutionAchieving continuous improvement inenvironmental performancePROPER
41TUJUAN DAN SASARAN PROPER TUJUANMendorong terwujudnya pembangunan berkelanjutan;Meningkatkan komitmen para stakeholder dalam upaya pelestarian lingkungan;Meningkatkan kinerja pengelolaan lingkungan secara berkelanjutan;Meningkatkan kesadaran para pelaku usaha/kegiatan untuk menaatiperaturan perundang-undangan di bidang lingkungan;Meningkatkan penaatan dalam pengendalian dampak lingkungan melaluiperan aktif masyarakat;Mengurangi dampak negatif kegiatan perusahaan terhadap lingkunganSASARANMendorong perusahaan untuk menaati peraturan perundang-undanganmelalui instrumen insentif dan disinsentif reputasi;Mendorong perusahaan yang sudah baik kinerja lingkungannya untukmenerapkan produksi bersih (cleaner production).PERINGKAT
42ISO 19011 Guideline for auditing General priciple of auditingManagement of audit programAuditing activitiesCompetence auditors
43AUDITING : Systematic, independent, and documented process for obtaining auditevidence and evaluating it objectivelyto determine the extent to which theaudit criteria are fulfilled
44THREE PRINCIPLES OF AUDITORS Ethical conduct foundation of professionalismFair presentation report truthfullyDue professional care the application of dilligent & jugment in auditing