Presentasi sedang didownload. Silahkan tunggu

Presentasi sedang didownload. Silahkan tunggu


Presentasi serupa

Presentasi berjudul: "PENERAPAN KONSEP PRODUKSI BERSIH"— Transcript presentasi:


4 Basic concerns of agroindustrial enterprises (1) efficiency (2) quality (3) convenience (4) innovation

3 Industrial Sustainability
Industrial sustainability is the continuous innovation, improvement and use of clean technology to reduce pollution levels and consumption of resources (OECD) Keywords : clean, efficient In practical terms, Industrial sustainability means employing Technology and know-how to: lessen material and energy input maximizing renewable resources and biodegradable substances as input minimizing pollutants during products manufacturing and use produce recyclable or biodegradable products

4 Eco-efficiency Doing more with less – using environmental resources
more efficiently in economic processes (WBCSD) ‘Production value’ divided by ‘production of damage’ during a production step or over the whole production of goods and services. 7 COMPONENTS Reduce material intensity Reduce energy intensity Reduce toxin dispersion Enhance material recyclability Maximize sustainable use of renewable resourcs Extend product durability Increase the service intensity

5 Clean Technology Technologies that (1) extract and use natural resources as efficient as possible in all stage of their lives; (2) generate products with reduced or no potentially harmful components; minimize releases to air, water and soil during fabrication and use of the product; produce durable products which can be recovered or recycled as far as possible; (5) are energy-efficient Source: OECD (1995)

6 Pengukuran kuantitas limbah
Kunjungan ke pabrik / lihat laporan Wawancara dengan kontraktor & pemasok Inspeksi on - site Pencatatan bahan baku dan produk Data pembuangandan pengolahan limbah Data di asosiasi industri Wawancara dengan staf inspektor/pejabat pemda Survai Slide 20 Quantifying waste generation by measurement At operational level, there are a number of ways in which data collection on waste generation can be undertaken, the most detailed of which is a waste audit. (See next slide) Sources of information on wastes quantities include those shown on the slide. Another method is to conduct a survey, and a number of countries have undertaken surveys to enable them to estimate waste volumes. The survey options include: · Postal surveys – may have a poor response and the data obtained is unreliable · Interview surveys – more time-consuming but will get better response rate, however the reliability of the data is dependent on the accuracy of the generator’s reporting and knowledge of the wastes. · Sample surveys, from which numbers are extrapolated for the industry or city as whole, are also liable to be inaccurate, and any subsequent updating is impossible. Registration of waste generators, which is already a requirement in many countries, offers an ideal vehicle for data gathering, and inspectors have a key role in improving data reliability over time. In the USA, legislation requires all industrial manufacturers to prepare annual reports itemising their releases of a given list of chemical substances. These are then compiled into an annual Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) for the country which is publicly available. Amounts of chemicals stored on site or transferred to off-site treatment or disposal are included. The TRI has a number of limitations: it does not include all toxic chemicals; it is limited to large manufacturing industry, so not all generators are included; many figures are based on estimates. An example of a waste survey is given with this chapter, with a menu of questions which could be included. However it is important not to make the survey too long, or there is a risk that it will be daunting to recipients. Questions should be selected according to the objective of the survey. Discussion: What balance of questions is needed to meet what circumstances? The trainer could invite trainees to limit their survey to 8 targeted questions, and to discuss their selection.


8 ZERO WASTE : The ultimate goal of cleaner production is zero waste
To maximize transformation of NPO to PO  Industry tree  Value added  Industrial Networking (cluster approach) To Reduce wastes to disposed of  3R : Reduce, Reuse & Recycle To improve process efficiency  process technology, product durability  house keeping (management) The ultimate goal of cleaner production is zero waste



(1) Subsidi terhadap harga energi dan bahan baku ---> kurang mendorong upaya efisiensi dan minimisasi limbah Terbatasnya informasi dan ketersediaan fasilitas kredit komersial untuk investasi produksi bersih Sebagian besar merupakan IKM (sekitar 88 % di Indonesia) Terbatasnya akses informasi terhadap BAT (best available technology) untuk produksi bersih ----> perlu networking

12 KENDALA Finansial (30%) Teknis (10%)
ketersediaan, ketrampilan & pengalaman Politis (60%) organisasi, peraturan Slide 8 Waste Minimisation – barriers While waste minimisation measures may lead to cost savings, those measures which require up-front capital investment may present a significant obstacle to implementation. Projects for waste minimisation will have to overcome internal company obstacles, and possibly compete for funding with other projects. On the other hand, in companies where there has already been recent investment in facilities or technologies, there will be a reduced incentive to make further investment before the current plant reaches the stage of needing to be upgraded. There are practical limits to waste minimisation, especially in regard to source reduction. It may be difficult to manufacture certain goods without generating hazardous waste, such as the sludges which result from chemical reactions. There may be concern that modifications to the process or the material inputs may result in a lower quality product which will be harder to market. While not strictly a technical barrier, this fear – which may be groundless - could still impede innovation. A genuine technical barrier may be a lack of suitable engineering and technical information on source reduction techniques. Regulations may inadvertently discourage waste minimisation. For example, trade effluent discharges are commonly regulated by contaminants on the basis of concentration. This may encourage dilution in order to achieve compliance, but resulting in much larger volumes of dilute wastes, even though pollution abatement technology typically operates more efficiently on smaller quantities of more concentrated material. Going beyond waste minimisation, some regulations may limit or prevent the re-use or recycling of wastes through waste exchanges because of the waste definitions they impose, restricting the opportunities for hazardous waste recycling.

KENDALA POLITIS Kurang berani mengambil resiko penerapan inovasi (unproven) Komitmen perusahaan terhadap lingkungan kurang Penegakan hukum lemah KENDALA EKONOMI & FINANSIAL Umumnya industri sudah dilengkapi dengan fasilitas EOP Investasi jangka pendek lebih disukai oleh industri Intangible benefits (tidak kuantitatif) kurang dihargai KENDALA TEKNIS Diseminasi teknologi (BAT) secara rinci Biaya transfer teknologi Ketrampilan SDM

14 Policy tools and instruments :
Regulatory instruments (command and control) Economic (market based) instruments Information-based strategies

15 What is a “policy instrument” ?
A Policy instrument is a tool or a mechanism used as a means to accomplish a specific goal. A strategy is a plan for attacking a problem, and policy instruments are a means to carry out that attack.

16 Informal Regulation Market as Regulation The New Model Citizens
Consumers Plants Plants Markets Community Elements Power Social norms Negotiations Elements Reputation Credit Profits NGO Investors The New Model Government Markets Community Source: The Greening Industry (WB, 2000)

17 Range of policy instruments

18 Policy instruments Regulatory instruments - which require or mandate specific behaviour, e.g. determine what is prohibited, what is allowed, and how to carry out certain activities Economic Instruments, which create incentives or disincentives for specific behaviours, by changing related economic conditions Information-based strategies , which seek to change behaviour by providing information. The underlying assumption is that the actors do not take optimal or correct decisions for lack of information or know-how

19 Regulatory instruments
Environmental norms and regulations / “command and control” Raw materials depletion quota Liability assignment Extended producer’s responsibility and product take-back schemes Facility operation standards / permits

20 Market-based instruments
Emission fees and non-compliance fines Grants, subsidies and financial assistance for CP Marketable permits Deposits and product charges Demand-side management Harmful subsidy removal Green procurement guidelines Reduction in taxes, duties and fees

21 Economic instruments - taxes
Argentina: reduction of waste generation taxes for companies with a recycling programme Mexico: environmental taxes on gasoline depending on the lead content Argentina: favourable taxes to promote the use of natural gas instead of gasoline Lithuania: acelerated depreciation Belgium: eco-tax on beer if the producer does not use to 95% recycled bottles / packaging

22 Information-based strategies
Establishment of a national CP Program Waste prevention targets Public recognition and awards Product labelling (eco-labels , CFC-free products) Pollutant Release and Transfer Registers (PRTR) and public access to environmental information Public environmental reporting Information clearinghouse and technical assistance Industry codes of practice Voluntary pollution prevention agreements Public education campaigns (energy efficiency and water savings campaign)


24 How much will it cost me to implement waste minimization program,
and what will the benefits be?

25 Manfaat Lingkungan Manfaat Ekonomis

Biaya investasi dan operasional murah  Pay back period = Total investasi/extra cash flow Biaya investasi dan operasional mahal  Perlu ditambah : IRR, NPV n NPV =  Bt – Ct (1+i)t i = bunga modal t = umur proyek IRR = internal rate of return NPV = net present value t =0 NPV1 IRR = i (i2-i1) NPV1 – NPV2 IRR = i pada NPV=0

MINIMISASI LIMBAH Pabrik Kelapa Sawit (PKS) Limbah organik (COD > ppm) Pilihan penerapan CP: 1. Konservasi air  ‘reuse’ air pendingin, kondensat, overflow dari vacuum dryer 2. Pengurangan beban limbah  penggunaan ‘oil trap’ 3. Modifikasi proses klarifikasi  penggunaan saringan getar untuk pemisahan padatan 4. Pemanfaatan limbah  bungkil, cangkang, serat, lumpur (mengandung N,K,Mg), metana, tandan kosong

Bahan baku : jerami gandum Produksi : ton/th Pilihan CP : Perubahan proses dengan peningkatan suhu pemasakan Peningkatan kekuatan vakum pada ‘drum washer’ Perubahan ukuran saringan pada proses pencucian Manfaat Lingkungan : Penurunan beban COD > 900 ton/th Peningkatan rendemen pulp 45 – 51% Pengurangan konsumsi NaOH 230 ton/th Efisiensi penggunaan air Manfaat finansial : Total penghematan = peningkatan keuntungan = US$ 85,000/th

29  Efisiensi penggunaan air
INDUSTRI PULP & KERTAS  Efisiensi penggunaan air Kondisi saat ini : Penggunaan air = 7500 m3/hari (air sungai), pajak Rp 100,-/m3 200 m3/hari (air sumur), pajak Rp. 300,-/m3 Program CP : Penggunaan kembali kondensat = 8,6 m3/hari Penggunaan ‘level control’, mengurangi overflow = 15 m3/hari Perbaikan ‘valve’, mengurangi bocor = 15 L/menit Penggunaan ‘pressurized sprayer’ pada selang pembersih, hemat 12 m3/hari Perbaikan saluran air, mengurangi bocor = 3 m3/hari Total penghematan air sekitar 500 m3/hari Biaya implementasi CP = Rp ,- Penghematan = Rp (di luar hemat energi pompa) PBP = ( )/( ) x 12 bl = 8 bl

30 ASUMSI – ASUMSI : Pengadaan air bersih
Pengambilan air sungai = Rp. 100,-/m3 (dari pajak) Pengolahan air = Rp. 55/m3 (bahan kimia) Pengambilan air sumur = Rp. 300,-/m3 (pajak) Jumlah penghematan air sungai = L/jam x 24 jam/hari x Rp 155,-/m3 = Rp ,-/hari Jumlah penghematan air sumur = (kondensat) + (overflow) = 23 m3/hari x Rp. 300,- = Rp ,-/hari Total penghematan = Rp.( ) x 330 hari/th = Rp ,-/th Biaya penerapan : Spray = 50 unit x Rp ,- = Rp ,- Level controller = 2 unit x Rp ,- = Rp ,- Tenaga kerja (upah) = Rp ,-/th  Total biaya = Rp ,-/th


32 Faktor penentu minimisasi limbah
Peraturan dan kebijakan pemerintah Kelayakan teknologi Manfaat ekonomis Komitmen dan dukungan manajemen Slide 6 Factors influencing waste minimisation Despite the clear benefits of waste minimisation measures in reducing costs and increasing profits, there are some (real or perceived) barriers to overcome. The role of governments is crucial in providing the necessary framework for the development of waste minimisation techniques, as well as in encouraging their adoption. Appropriate legislation, effective enforcement, economic incentives, demonstration projects, and information and promotional programmes offer a variety of policy instruments which governments can use and adapt in stimulating waste minimisation. For waste generators, the availability and suitability of appropriate waste minimisation techniques and technologies will influence their adoption. Economic barriers may affect the introduction of some waste minimisation measures, where the measures may require (or may be perceived to require) capital investment. On the other hand, for externally funded major industrial projects, environmental impact assessment (EIA) plays a positive role in promoting waste minimisation. Without the support and commitment of the company’s management, waste minimisation measures are unlikely to be implemented or to succeed. Ensuring management support for measures to be introduced is therefore vital.

Slide 2 Enforcement Despite widespread adoption in some parts of the world, the concept of inspection and enforcement is an alien one in some cultures. Compliance-based controls are not universal. However, in many regulatory frameworks, there is a need for enforcement of legislation, to implement the requirements, if control of hazardous wastes management is to be achieved. Introducing legislation without the backing of enforcement is pointless. However, enforcement is often described as the weak link in the control chain and many developed countries have experienced difficulties in its achievement. In developing economies, implementation and enforcement of hazardous wastes legislation may be a cause for concern. This may be because systems (such as the manifest system for controlling transport of wastes) commonly used in the developed world are simply too complex to be implemented by unsophisticated government bureaucracies. Alternatively, adoption of the legislation may have taken place but effective implementation and enforcement may be proving too difficult. Inspection and enforcement are just one part of the system, together with legislation, waste facilities and support services. All of these must be developed simultaneously, on a broad front, if hazardous wastes controls are to be successful. Legislation requiring certain waste types to be dealt with in certain ways cannot be enforced if the facilities do not exist or are not accessible to waste generators. There is also an interaction between standards-setting, regulation drafting and enforcement policy. Some countries strive for absolute compliance whilst others deliberately set standards in regulations higher than their objectives in the belief that industry will always fall short of targets. (Similar differences can be observed in the setting and enforcement of vehicle speed limits.) Additionally, in some countries the regulatory body is required to obtain its funding from fines paid by industry as a result of not meeting standards, a synergy which may cause unease.

34 Strategi untuk UKM UKM dapat : dikecualikan dari peraturan
diikutkan langsung diikutkan bertahap diberikan insentif diatur tersendiri Slide 13 Regulation of small-scale waste generators In developing economies, small scale waste generators may represent a major proportion of the generating sources. Small enterprises generating hazardous wastes, whether of an industrial or non-industrial nature, have traditionally been a problem for regulators. Their sheer number, geographical dispersion, small resources and low skills levels make it difficult to apply normal regulations. Small-scale hazardous waste generators may not have the knowledge or understanding of the issues to enable them to comply with complex legislation. They may lack the skills or resources – including the financial resources - to comply. As small purchasers, they may not have enough influence over their suppliers to make any necessary change or to obtain data. They may also be dependent on the infrastructure within which their business operates, and not free to make changes. Some of the ways in which small-scale generators can be addressed in regulation are as follows: ·They can be excluded from regulation · They can be included · They can be included, but gradually, with rules being brought to bear in phases as they are able to meet them · They can be given incentives to comply rather than simply having obligations imposed upon them. · They can be subject to self-regulation, perhaps under an umbrella agreement within that industry sector eg dry cleaners

Pengendalian limbah terpadu Penghematan energi Studi banding (benchmarking) Keterkaitan aktor internal (pemilik, pekerja, teknokrat) dan eksternal (lembaga pembiayaan, mass media, dll.) Pengembangan kelembagaan  pelatihan Pengembangan dan transfer teknologi  local-based technology Paket finansial  pinjaman lunak (bunga, grace period, dll.) subsidi pengurangan pajak CP award, dll.

ISO series  ISO product Eco Management and Audit System (EMAS)  EU standard (1) & (2)  Tools to achieving CP

SYSTEM (EMS) The organizational structure, responsibilities, practices, procedures, processes and resources for implementing and managing an organization’s environmental affairs while ensuring conformity to its policies, standards and stakeholders’ expectations

38 The foundation of an EMS includes:
Purpose – an organization should have an identifiable purpose, which is usually stated as its goals and objectives and encapsulated in the organization’s environmental policy Commitment – there should be a sense of commitment and accountability among the people in the organization with respect to taking the appropriate action in support of the EMS Capability – the organization should have the necessary resources (human, physical and financial) as well as the knowledge and skills to achieve the organization’s environmental policy Learning – the organization should strive to continuously learn to improve its own management and learning processes through monitoring and measurement of environmental performance, efficient internal and external communication as well as review of the EMS by senior management

39 ISO Consists of : EMS EA&RI (Env. Auditing & Related Investigation) EL (Env. Labels and Declaration) EPE (Env. Performance Evaluation) LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) T & D (Terms & Definition)

40 EMAS covers: Compliance with all relevant env. Regulation
Prevention pollution Achieving continuous improvement in environmental performance PROPER

TUJUAN Mendorong terwujudnya pembangunan berkelanjutan; Meningkatkan komitmen para stakeholder dalam upaya pelestarian lingkungan; Meningkatkan kinerja pengelolaan lingkungan secara berkelanjutan; Meningkatkan kesadaran para pelaku usaha/kegiatan untuk menaati peraturan perundang-undangan di bidang lingkungan; Meningkatkan penaatan dalam pengendalian dampak lingkungan melalui peran aktif masyarakat; Mengurangi dampak negatif kegiatan perusahaan terhadap lingkungan SASARAN Mendorong perusahaan untuk menaati peraturan perundang-undangan melalui instrumen insentif dan disinsentif reputasi; Mendorong perusahaan yang sudah baik kinerja lingkungannya untuk menerapkan produksi bersih (cleaner production). PERINGKAT

42 ISO 19011  Guideline for auditing
General priciple of auditing Management of audit program Auditing activities Competence auditors

43 AUDITING : Systematic, independent, and documented
process for obtaining audit evidence and evaluating it objectively to determine the extent to which the audit criteria are fulfilled

Ethical conduct  foundation of professionalism Fair presentation  report truthfully Due professional care  the application of dilligent & jugment in auditing


46 kebersamaan menuju keberlanjutan
tidak keluar asap kebersamaan menuju keberlanjutan


Presentasi serupa

Iklan oleh Google