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PENERAPAN KONSEP PRODUKSI BERSIH ANAS M FAUZI DEPARTEMEN TEKNOLOGI INDUSTRI PERTANIAN FATETA IPB.

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Presentasi berjudul: "PENERAPAN KONSEP PRODUKSI BERSIH ANAS M FAUZI DEPARTEMEN TEKNOLOGI INDUSTRI PERTANIAN FATETA IPB."— Transcript presentasi:

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2 PENERAPAN KONSEP PRODUKSI BERSIH ANAS M FAUZI DEPARTEMEN TEKNOLOGI INDUSTRI PERTANIAN FATETA IPB

3 BAHAN BAKU PRODUK ? ? ? ?? ? LIFE CYCLE 4 Basic concerns of agroindustrial enterprises (1) efficiency (2) quality (3) convenience (4) innovation

4 Industrial Sustainability In practical terms, Industrial sustainability means employing Technology and know-how to: - lessen material and energy input - maximizing renewable resources and biodegradable substances as input - minimizing pollutants during products manufacturing and use - produce recyclable or biodegradable products Keywords : clean, efficient Industrial sustainability is the continuous innovation, improvement and use of clean technology to reduce pollution levels and consumption of resources (OECD)

5 Eco-efficiency ‘Production value’ divided by ‘production of damage’ during a production step or over the whole production of goods and services. Doing more with less – using environmental resources more efficiently in economic processes (WBCSD) 7 COMPONENTS Reduce material intensity Reduce energy intensity Reduce toxin dispersion Enhance material recyclability Maximize sustainable use of renewable resourcs Extend product durability Increase the service intensity

6 Technologies that (1) extract and use natural resources as efficient as possible in all stage of their lives; (2) generate products with reduced or no potentially harmful components; (3) minimize releases to air, water and soil during fabrication and use of the product; (4) produce durable products which can be recovered or recycled as far as possible; (5) are energy-efficient Source: OECD (1995)

7 Kunjungan ke pabrik / lihat laporan Wawancara dengan kontraktor & pemasok Inspeksi on - site Pencatatan bahan baku dan produk Data pembuangandan pengolahan limbah Data di asosiasi industri Wawancara dengan staf inspektor/pejabat pemda Survai Pengukuran kuantitas limbah

8 SOURCE REDUCTION IN-PROCESS RECYCLING OTHER RECYCLING TREATMENT DISPOSAL POLLUTION PREVENTION WASTE MINIMIZATION POLLUTION CONTROL WASTE MANAGEMENT HIERARCHY

9 ZERO WASTE : To maximize transformation of NPO to PO  Industry tree  Value added  Industrial Networking (cluster approach) To Reduce wastes to disposed of  3R : Reduce, Reuse & Recycle To improve process efficiency  process technology, product durability  house keeping (management)  The ultimate goal of cleaner production is zero waste

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11 MEAT & BONE UTILIZATION

12 KENDALA IMPLEMENTASI DI INDONESIA (1) Subsidi terhadap harga energi dan bahan baku ---> kurang mendorong upaya efisiensi dan minimisasi limbah (2)Terbatasnya informasi dan ketersediaan fasilitas kredit komersial untuk investasi produksi bersih (3)Sebagian besar merupakan IKM (sekitar 88 % di Indonesia) (4)Terbatasnya akses informasi terhadap BAT (best available technology) untuk produksi bersih ----> perlu networking

13 Finansial (30%) Teknis (10%) ketersediaan, ketrampilan & pengalaman Politis (60%) organisasi, peraturan KENDALA

14 KENDALA POLITIS Kurang berani mengambil resiko penerapan inovasi (unproven) Komitmen perusahaan terhadap lingkungan kurang Penegakan hukum lemah KENDALA EKONOMI & FINANSIAL Umumnya industri sudah dilengkapi dengan fasilitas EOP Investasi jangka pendek lebih disukai oleh industri Intangible benefits (tidak kuantitatif) kurang dihargai KENDALA TEKNIS Diseminasi teknologi (BAT) secara rinci Biaya transfer teknologi Ketrampilan SDM

15 Policy tools and instruments : Regulatory instruments (command and control) Economic (market based) instruments Information-based strategies

16 What is a “policy instrument” ? A Policy instrument is a tool or a mechanism used as a means to accomplish a specific goal. A strategy is a plan for attacking a problem, and policy instruments are a means to carry out that attack.

17 Consumers Plants Investors Markets Elements Reputation Credit Profits Market as Regulation Citizens Plants NGO Community Elements Power Social norms Negotiations The New Model Government Markets Community Informal Regulation Source: The Greening Industry (WB, 2000)

18 Range of policy instruments

19 Policy instruments Regulatory instruments - which require or mandate specific behaviour, e.g. determine what is prohibited, what is allowed, and how to carry out certain activities Economic Instruments, which create incentives or disincentives for specific behaviours, by changing related economic conditions Information-based strategies, which seek to change behaviour by providing information. The underlying assumption is that the actors do not take optimal or correct decisions for lack of information or know-how

20 Regulatory instruments Environmental norms and regulations / “command and control” Raw materials depletion quota Liability assignment Extended producer’s responsibility and product take-back schemes Facility operation standards / permits

21 Market-based instruments Emission fees and non-compliance fines Grants, subsidies and financial assistance for CP Marketable permits Deposits and product charges Demand-side management Harmful subsidy removal Green procurement guidelines Reduction in taxes, duties and fees

22 Economic instruments - taxes Argentina: reduction of waste generation taxes for companies with a recycling programme Mexico: environmental taxes on gasoline depending on the lead content Argentina: favourable taxes to promote the use of natural gas instead of gasoline Lithuania: acelerated depreciation Belgium: eco-tax on beer if the producer does not use to 95% recycled bottles / packaging

23 Information-based strategies Establishment of a national CP Program Waste prevention targets Public recognition and awards Product labelling (eco-labels, CFC-free products) Pollutant Release and Transfer Registers (PRTR) and public access to environmental information Public environmental reporting Information clearinghouse and technical assistance Industry codes of practice Voluntary pollution prevention agreements Public education campaigns (energy efficiency and water savings campaign)

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26 Manfaat Ekonomis Manfaat Lingkungan

27 PERHITUNGAN KELAYAKAN FINANSIAL Biaya investasi dan operasional murah  Pay back period = Total investasi/extra cash flow Biaya investasi dan operasional mahal  Perlu ditambah : IRR, NPV NPV =  Bt – Ct (1+i) t t =0 n IRR = i 1 + (i 2 -i 1 ) NPV 1 NPV 1 – NPV 2 IRR = i pada NPV=0 i = bunga modal t = umur proyek IRR = internal rate of return NPV = net present value

28 CONTOH-CONTOH MANFAAT PENERAPAN MINIMISASI LIMBAH Pabrik Kelapa Sawit (PKS) Limbah organik (COD > ppm) Pilihan penerapan CP: 1. Konservasi air  ‘reuse’ air pendingin, kondensat, overflow dari vacuum dryer 2. Pengurangan beban limbah  penggunaan ‘oil trap’ 3. Modifikasi proses klarifikasi  penggunaan saringan getar untuk pemisahan padatan 4. Pemanfaatan limbah  bungkil, cangkang, serat, lumpur (mengandung N,K,Mg), metana, tandan kosong

29 PENINGKATAN EFISIENSI PROSES PRODUKSI PULP & KERTAS Bahan baku : jerami gandum Produksi : ton/th Pilihan CP : (1)Perubahan proses dengan peningkatan suhu pemasakan (2)Peningkatan kekuatan vakum pada ‘drum washer’ (3)Perubahan ukuran saringan pada proses pencucian Manfaat Lingkungan : (1)Penurunan beban COD > 900 ton/th (2)Peningkatan rendemen pulp 45 – 51% (3)Pengurangan konsumsi NaOH 230 ton/th (4)Efisiensi penggunaan air Manfaat finansial :  Total penghematan = peningkatan keuntungan = US$ 85,000/th

30 INDUSTRI PULP & KERTAS  Efisiensi penggunaan air Kondisi saat ini : Penggunaan air = 7500 m3/hari (air sungai), pajak Rp 100,-/m3 200 m3/hari (air sumur), pajak Rp. 300,-/m3 Program CP : (1)Penggunaan kembali kondensat = 8,6 m3/hari (2)Penggunaan ‘level control’, mengurangi overflow = 15 m3/hari (3)Perbaikan ‘valve’, mengurangi bocor = 15 L/menit (4)Penggunaan ‘pressurized sprayer’ pada selang pembersih, hemat 12 m3/hari (5)Perbaikan saluran air, mengurangi bocor = 3 m3/hari Total penghematan air sekitar 500 m3/hari Biaya implementasi CP = Rp ,- Penghematan = Rp (di luar hemat energi pompa) PBP = ( )/( ) x 12 bl = 8 bl

31 ASUMSI – ASUMSI : Pengadaan air bersih Pengambilan air sungai = Rp. 100,-/m3 (dari pajak) Pengolahan air = Rp. 55/m3 (bahan kimia) Pengambilan air sumur = Rp. 300,-/m3 (pajak) Jumlah penghematan air sungai = L/jam x 24 jam/hari x Rp 155,-/m3 = Rp ,-/hari Jumlah penghematan air sumur = (kondensat) + (overflow) = 23 m3/hari x Rp. 300,- = Rp ,-/hari  Total penghematan = Rp.( ) x 330 hari/th = Rp ,-/th Biaya penerapan : (1)Spray = 50 unit x Rp ,- = Rp ,- (2)Level controller = 2 unit x Rp ,- = Rp ,- (3)Tenaga kerja (upah) = Rp ,-/th  Total biaya = Rp ,-/th

32 PENERAPAN MINIMISASI LIMBAH INDUSTRI KULIT ( CONTOH-1 ) CONTOH (CONTOH-2)CONTOH (CONTOH-3)CONTOH BUDIDAYA PADI PENGOLAHAN CPO INDUSTRI KECIL TAHU INDUSTRI TAPIOKA INDUSTRI NATA DE COCO CUKA APEL PULP & KERTAS GULA

33 Faktor penentu minimisasi limbah Peraturan dan kebijakan pemerintah Kelayakan teknologi Manfaat ekonomis Komitmen dan dukungan manajemen

34 Enforcement ENFORCEMENT LEGISLATION SUPPORT SERVICES FACILITIES

35 Strategi untuk UKM UKM dapat :  dikecualikan dari peraturan  diikutkan langsung  diikutkan bertahap  diberikan insentif  diatur tersendiri

36 7 ASPEK PENERAPAN PB di UKM Pengendalian limbah terpadu Penghematan energi Studi banding (benchmarking) Keterkaitan aktor internal (pemilik, pekerja, teknokrat) dan eksternal (lembaga pembiayaan, mass media, dll.) Pengembangan kelembagaan  pelatihan Pengembangan dan transfer teknologi  local-based technology Paket finansial  pinjaman lunak (bunga, grace period, dll.) subsidi pengurangan pajak CP award, dll.

37 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (EMS) (1)ISO series  ISO product (2)Eco Management and Audit System (EMAS)  EU standard (1) & (2)  Tools to achieving CP

38 The organizational structure, responsibilities, practices, procedures, processes and resources for implementing and managing an organization’s environmental affairs while ensuring conformity to its policies, standards and stakeholders’ expectations ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (EMS)

39 The foundation of an EMS includes: Purpose – an organization should have an identifiable purpose, which is usually stated as its goals and objectives and encapsulated in the organization’s environmental policy Commitment – there should be a sense of commitment and accountability among the people in the organization with respect to taking the appropriate action in support of the EMS Capability – the organization should have the necessary resources (human, physical and financial) as well as the knowledge and skills to achieve the organization’s environmental policy Learning – the organization should strive to continuously learn to improve its own management and learning processes through monitoring and measurement of environmental performance, efficient internal and external communication as well as review of the EMS by senior management

40 ISO Consists of : (1) EMS (2) EA&RI (Env. Auditing & Related Investigation) (3) EL (Env. Labels and Declaration) (4) EPE (Env. Performance Evaluation) (5) LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) (6) T & D (Terms & Definition)

41 EMAS covers: (1)Compliance with all relevant env. Regulation (2)Prevention pollution (3)Achieving continuous improvement in environmental performance PROPER

42 TUJUAN DAN SASARAN PROPER TUJUAN Mendorong terwujudnya pembangunan berkelanjutan; Meningkatkan komitmen para stakeholder dalam upaya pelestarian lingkungan; Meningkatkan kinerja pengelolaan lingkungan secara berkelanjutan; Meningkatkan kesadaran para pelaku usaha/kegiatan untuk menaati peraturan perundang-undangan di bidang lingkungan; Meningkatkan penaatan dalam pengendalian dampak lingkungan melalui peran aktif masyarakat; Mengurangi dampak negatif kegiatan perusahaan terhadap lingkungan SASARAN Mendorong perusahaan untuk menaati peraturan perundang-undangan melalui instrumen insentif dan disinsentif reputasi; Mendorong perusahaan yang sudah baik kinerja lingkungannya untuk menerapkan produksi bersih (cleaner production). PERINGKAT

43 ISO  Guideline for auditing (1)General priciple of auditing (2)Management of audit program (3)Auditing activities (4)Competence auditors

44 Systematic, independent, and documented process for obtaining audit evidence and evaluating it objectively to determine the extent to which the audit criteria are fulfilled AUDITING :

45 THREE PRINCIPLES OF AUDITORS  Ethical conduct  foundation of professionalism  Fair presentation  report truthfully  Due professional care  the application of dilligent & jugment in auditing

46 QUALITY & ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Plan  Do  Check  Action

47 tidak keluar asap kebersamaan menuju keberlanjutan


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