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ENGLISH STRUCTURE & GRAMMAR Ms Nawang Wulan. "a sentence must have a subject and a verb" S + V.

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Presentasi berjudul: "ENGLISH STRUCTURE & GRAMMAR Ms Nawang Wulan. "a sentence must have a subject and a verb" S + V."— Transcript presentasi:


2 "a sentence must have a subject and a verb" S + V

3 LANGUAGE USAGE 1.Parts of Speech 2.English Tenses 3.Modal Auxiliaries & Similar Expressions 4.Passive Voice 5.Gerunds and Infinitives 6.Singular and Plural 7.Adjective Clauses (Relative Clauses) 8.Direct – Indirect (Reported Speech) 9.Elliptic Construction 10.Connectors (Kata Penghubung) 11.Conjunctions (Kata Sambung) 12.Conditional Sentences 13.Causative 14.Preferences

4 PARTS OF SPEECH The Eight Parts of Speech NounsPronounsVerbsAdjectivesAdverbsPrepositionsConjunctionsInterjections

5 Namers NounsName things PronounsRename things PerformersVerbs Show action or link words Describers Adjectives Describe nouns and pronouns Adverbs Describe verbs, adjectives, adverbs Connectors Prepositions Join nouns, pronouns to sentence ConjunctionsConnect words Exclaimers InterjectionsShow strong feeling

6 The past was yesterday. The present is now. The future is tomorrow. ENGLISH TENSES


8 MODAL AUXILIARIES & SIMILAR EXPRESSIONS 1.Modal verbs do not take "-s" in the third person. e.g. He can speak Chinese. 2.You use "not" to make modal verbs negative, even in Simple Present and Simple Past. e.g. He should not be late. 3.Many modal verbs cannot be used in the past tenses or the future tenses. e.g. He will can go with us. Not Correct She musted study very hard. Not Correct

9 Common Modal Verbs Can Could May Might Must Ought to Shall Should Will Would Some expressions which are not modal verbs including had better, have to, and have got to. These expressions are closely related to modals in meaning and are often interchanged with them.

10 PASSIVE VOICE Kalimat pasif adalah kalimat dimana subjek dikenai tindakan/pekerjaan, sedangkan kalimat aktif subjeklah yang melakukan tindakan/pekerjaan. Hal yang perlu diperhatikan dalam merubah aktif ke pasif adalah: 1.Yang dapat dijadikan kalimat passive adalah Verbal Sentence (kalimat yang predikatnya kata kerja/V) 2.Verbal sentence yang dapat dirubah ke Passive Voice (kalimat pasif) adalah kalimat yang memiliki objek penderita. 3.Perubahan aktif ke pasif atau sebaliknya tidak merubah makna kalimat. Perubahan terjadi hanya pada struktur kalimatnya saja. 4.Ciri kalimat pasif/passive voice adalah to be + V3 dan kata by (kata ini bukan merupakan syarat yang harus ada dalam kalimat pasif ) Contoh : (Aktive) Bajuri loves Oneng S P/V1 O (Passive) Oneng is loved by Bajuri. S P/V3 (Active) I bought a new motorcycle last week. (passive) A new motorcycle was bought by me last week

11 TensesActivePassive Simple Present Simple Past S + V1 S + V2 S + am/is/are + V3 S + was/were + V3 Present Continuous Present perfect continuous Past Continuous Past Perfect Continuous Future Continuous Future Perfect Continuous Past Futurre Continuous Past Future Perfect Continu S + am/is/are + V-ing S + have/has + been + V-ing S + was/were + V-ing S + had + been + V-ing S + will/shall + be + V-ing S + will + have + V-ing S + would + be + V-ing+ S +would +have+been+V-ing S + am/is/are + being + V3 S + have/has +been + being +V3 S + was/were + being + V3 S + had + been + being + V3 S + will/shall + be + being + V3 S + will +have+been+ being +V3 S + would + be + being + V3 S +would+have+been+ being+V3 Simple Perfect Past Perfect S + have/has + V3 S + had + V3 S + have/has + been + V3 S + had + been + V3 Simple Future Past Future Modal (present) Modal (past) S + will/shall + V1 S + would/should + V1 S + may/can/must + V1 S + might/could/had to + V1 S + will/shall + be + V3 S + would/should + be + V3 S + may/can/must + be + V3 S + might/could/had to + be + V3

12 GERUND & INFINITIVE Gerund adalah kata kerja yang dibendakan/ kata benda yang dibentuk dari kata kerja yang diberi akhiran –ing (V-ing). Gerund digunakan bila: Verb/ kata kerja sebagai subjek. Swimming is a good sport. Verb sebagai complement/ pelengkap. My hobby is cycling. Setelah kata depan/preposition seperti for, on, before dll. I am sorry for coming late. Before leaving, he said nothing. Setelah istilah khusus seperti no use, to be worth, to be busy, can’t help/ can’t bear, to be used to, get used to. It is no use studying without practicing. Setelah possessive adjective (my, your, his, her, our, their, Amir’s, dll) His staring frightens me. Kata kerja/V setelah kata kerja tertentu We enjoy seeing them again after so many years.

13 admit appreciate claim can’t help resume consider avoid delay deny risk enjoy finish quit resist suggest mind miss postpone practice advise recall regret report recent resist

14 SINGULAR & PLURAL nounscountablesingularpluralregularirregularuncountableSingular expressions of quantity used with count nouns used with noncount nouns

15 ADJECTIVE CLAUSES (RELATIVE CLAUSES) Adjective Clauses Relative pronouns whowhomthatwhichwhosewhen (on which)where (in which) Punctuation in adjective clauses

16 DIRECT-INDIRECT SPEECH Direct (kalimat langsung) Indirect (kalimat tidak langsung) Simple Present Present Continuous Present Future Present Perfect Present Perfect Continuous Simple Past Past Continuous Simple Past Past Continuous Past Future Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous

17 DirectIndirect Now Today Tomorrow Next… Last… …ago Yesterday The day before yesterday Here This These Then That day The next day The day after The following day A day later The… after The following… The…before The previous … …before …earlier The day before The previous day Two day before There That those

18 CONNECTORS Connectors digunakan untuk menggabungkan dua kalimat/lebih menjadi satu kalimat. Connectors dibagi menjadi 3, yaitu: Menunjukan waktu: before, after, as soon as, while, when. – We went home after the rain stopped. – I prepare my ticket and passport before I go on holiday to Paris. – I started to look for an apartment as soon as I arrived in this city. – While he was reading her novel, somebody knocked on the door. – I was really sad when I saw a drama movie. Menunjukan sebab dan akibat: because/because of, since. – I went to the hospital because I had a serious accident. – I went to the hospital because of my serious accident. – Since I have no money, I can’t treat you. Menunjukan tanda urutan: first, next, then, after that, finally. – first, we must prepare the ingredients. – Next, we cut the vegetables into small pieces. – After that, we put them into frying pan. – Finally, we put some sauce and salt.

19 CONJUNCTIONS Kata sambung adalah kata yang digunakan untuk menyambung dua kalimat/kata-kata. Kata sambung yang berdiri sendiri seperti: and, or, but, for, although/though, that, if, dll. Kata sambung yang berpasangan seperti: both…and… (…dan juga….) not only…but also… (…tidak hanya…tetapi juga…) either…or… (….maupun…) neither…nor… (…tidak…dan tidak…)

20 CONDITIONAL SENTENCES Future Conditional (type 1)Present Conditional (type 2)Past Conditional (type 3) Kalimat yang diucapkan dan kenyataan yang sebenarnya tidak bertolak belakang. Apa yang diucapkan, itulah yang diharapkan. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah ada (bukan imajinasi) tapi kalau syarat terpenuhi. Kalimat yang diucapkan bertolak belakang dengan kenyataan yang sebenarnya di masa sekarang. Kalau kalimatnya (+), maka makna/meaning-nya (-) dan sebaliknya. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah tidak ada (hanya imajinasi saja). Kalimat yang digunakan untuk menyatakan kewajiban/kegiatan yang dilakukan dimasa lampau, tetapi tidak dilakukan/ tidak terpenuhi. Kalimat ini diucapkan bertolak belakang dengan kenyataan yang sebenarnya di masa lalu. Kalau kalimatnya (+), maka makna/meaning yang disampaikan (-) dan sebaliknya. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah tidak ada (hanya imajinasi saja) If + simple present + simple future/modal If + simple past + past future/modal If + past perfect + past future perfect/modal perfect

21 PREFERENCES Menyukai A ketimbang B 1)S + prefers + noun/V-ing + to + noun/V-ing - Dona prefers dancing to singing. (Dona lebih menyukai menari ketiumbang menyanyi) 2)S + like + noun/V-ing + better than + noun/V-ing - I like T.V better than radio. - Kokom likes reading better than watching T.V. 3)S + would rather + V1 + than + V1 - Dita would rather watch T.V. than plays a video game. (Dita lebih menyukai nonton T.V ketimbang main video game) 4)S + would prefer + to V1 + rather than + V1 - Ayu would prefer to phone me rather than send SMS. (Ayu lebih menyukai menelpon saya ketimbang mengirim SMS)

22 Elliptical Construction : handout page 46 Causative: handout page 32 Question tag: handout page 48

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