1 Flowchart Techniques Is: A graphical representation of the sequence of operations in an information system program The plan to be followed when the program.

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1 Flowchart Techniques Is: A graphical representation of the sequence of operations in an information system program The plan to be followed when the program is written

Flowcharts Symbols : standardized by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). 2

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Flowcharting Rules(1) 4

5 Flowcharting Rules(2)

Advantages of Flowcharts Since a flowchart is a pictorial representation of a program, it is easier for a programmer to understand and explain the logic of the program to some other programmer Analyses the Problem Effectively Effective Joining of a Part of a System Efficient Coding A flowchart is very helpful in detecting, locating, and removing mistakes (bugs) in a program in a systematic manner Systematic Testing 6

Limitations of Flowcharts Takes More Time to Draw Difficult to Make Changes Non-standardization 7

Exercise Draw a flowchart of cooking instant fried noodle process (for women) Draw a flowchart of washing a motorcycle process (for men) 8

Example Draw a flowchart for adding marks in ten subjects obtained by a student in an examination. The output should print the percentage of marks of the student in the examination. 9

Example Draw a flowchart for calculating the percentage marks of 50 students. Each student have ten subjects. The flowchart should display the list of the percentage marks of 50 students. The calculation should stop when the number of counts reaches the number 50. 10

Exercise Mulai Diketahui jam = 0, dan bonus = 0 Setiap bertambah 1 jam maka bonus akan bertambah 8000 Total jam tidak lebih dari 4 jam Tampilkan total bonus ke layar selesai Gambarkan flowchartnya. Berapa total bonus? 11

Home work 1 Soal A Mulai Tersedia 5 buah apel Selama apel masih ada maka makanlah apel satu persatu Setelah apel habis, selesai Soal B Mulai Tunggu masukan nama, ttl, status, alamat palsu Simpan data pada memori Selanjutnya tampilkan ke layar Lakukan ketiga langkah tersebut hingga 10 data masukan Dan berhenti 12

Home work 2 Sumber: file flowcharting.pdf 13

Home work 2 (continue) 1. Answer the following (a) What are the advantages and limitation of pseudocodes ? (b) List the program preparation techniques that are often included under the term ‘Structured Programming’. 2. What is a Flowchart ? List the flowcharting rules. 3. What are the advantages and limitations of flowcharts ? 4. Differentiate between the following (a) Pseudocode and Flowchart (b) Compiler and Interpreter (c) Testing and Debugging 5. What are the two broad types of programming errors ? How are they detected? 6. What are the different ways of debugging and testing a program ? 14

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