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1 RFLP analysis RFLP= Restriction fragment length polymorphism  Refers to variation in restriction sites between individuals in a population  Acu pada.

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Presentasi berjudul: "1 RFLP analysis RFLP= Restriction fragment length polymorphism  Refers to variation in restriction sites between individuals in a population  Acu pada."— Transcript presentasi:

1 1 RFLP analysis RFLP= Restriction fragment length polymorphism  Refers to variation in restriction sites between individuals in a population  Acu pada variasi di (dalam) lokasi pembatasan antar[a] individu di (dalam) suatu populasi  These are extremely useful and valuable for geneticists (and lawyers)  Ini [yang] berharga dan bermanfaat untuk ahli genetika ( dan para pengacara)  On average two individuals (humans) vary at 1 in 1000 bp  Pada [atas] rata-rata dua individu ( manusia) bertukar-tukar pada bp  The human genome is 3x10 9 bp  Manusia [itu] Genome adalah 3x109 bp  This means that they will differ in more than 3 million bp.  [Alat/ makna] ini yang mereka akan berbeda lebih dari 3 juta bp  By chance these changes will create or destroy the recognition sites for Restriction enzymes  Kebetulan perubahan ini akan menciptakan atau menghancurkan lokasi pengenalan [itu] untuk Enzim Pembatasan

2 2 RFLP Lets generate a restriction map for a region of human X-chromosome Biarkan menghasilkan suatu peta pembatasan untuk suatu daerah manusia X- Chromosome The restriction map in the same region of the X chromosome of a second individual may appear as Pembatasan memetakan di [dalam] daerah sama X chromosome suatu detik/second individu boleh nampak [ketika;seperti] NormalGAATTC MutantGAGTTC

3 3 RFLP The internal EcoRI site is missing in the second individual Ecori Yang internal Lokasi adalah hilang individu yang kedua For X1 the sequence at this site is GAATTC CTTAAG This is the sequence recognized by EcoRI The equivalent site in the X2 individual is mutated GAGTTC CTCAAG Now if we examine a large number of humans at this site we may find that 25% possess the EcoRI site and 75% lack this site. Sekarang jika kita menguji sejumlah besar manusia pada lokasi ini [yang] kita boleh temukan bahwa 25% menguasai Ecori [itu] Lokasi dan 75% kekurangan lokasi ini We can say that a restriction fragment length polymorphism exits in this region Kita dapat kata[kan bahwa suatu panjangnya fragmen pembatasan polymorphism pergi daerah ini These polymorphisms usually do not have any phenotypic consequences Silent mutations that do not alter the protein sequence because of redundancy in Codon usage, localization to introns or non-genic regions or do not affect protein Structure/function. Ini polymorphisms pada umumnya tidak mempunyai manapun konsekwensi phenotypic Mutasi diam yang tidak mengubah urutan protein [itu] oleh karena pemborosan di (dalam) Codon Pemakaian, Lokalisasi ke introns atau daerah non-genic atau tidak mempengaruhi protein Structure/Function

4 4 RFLP RFLP are identified by southern blots In the region of the human X chromosome, two forms of the X-chromosome are Segregating in the population. Digest DNA with EcoRI and probe with probe1 What do we get?

5 5 RFLP Digesting with BamHI and performing Southern blots with the above probe produces the following results for X1/X1, X1/X2 and X2/X2 individuals: Pencernaan dengan Bamhi dan melakukan/menyelenggarakan Selatan menodai dengan di atas pemeriksaan menghasilkan hasil yang berikut untuk X1/X1, X1/X2 Dan X2/X2 Individu: There is no variation with respect to the BamHI sites, all individuals produce the same banding patterns on Southern blots Tidak ada variasi berkenaan dengan Bamhi Lokasi, semua individu menghasilkan yang sama menjilid pola teladan pada [atas] Titik noda Selatan If we used probe2 for southern blots with a BamHI digest what would be the Results for X1/X1, X1/X2 and X2/X2 individuals? Jika kita probe2 digunakan untuk selatan menodai dengan suatu Bamhi mencerna apa [yang] akan adalah Hasil untuk X1/X1, X1/X2 Dan X2/X2 Individu? If we used probe2 for southern blots with a EcoRI digest what would be the results for X1/X1, X1/X2 and X2/X2 individuals? Jika kita probe2 digunakan untuk selatan menodai dengan suatu Ecori mencerna apa [yang] akan adalah hasil untuk X1/X1, X1/X2 Dan X2/X2 Individu?

6 6 RFLP RFLP’s are found by trial and error and they require an appropriate probe and enzyme They are very valuable because they can be used just like any other genetic marker to map genes RFLP’S ditemukan oleh mencoba-coba dan mereka memerlukan suatu enzim dan pemeriksaan sesuai Mereka adalah sangat bernilai sebab mereka dapat digunakan seperti halnya penanda [yang] hal azas keturunan lain untuk memetakan gen They are employed in recombination analysis (mapping) in the same way as conventional Allelic variants are employed Mereka dipekerjakan analisa penggabungan-ulang ( pemetaan) dengan cara yang sama seperti Varian [yang] Allelic konvensional dipekerjakan The presence of a specific restriction site at a specific locus on one chromosome and its absence at a specific locus on another chromosome can be viewed as two allelic forms of a gene Kehadiran suatu lokasi pembatasan spesifik pada suatu tempat spesifik pada [atas] satu chromosome dan ketidakhadiran nya pada suatu tempat spesifik pada [atas] chromosome lain dapat dipandang sebagai dua format [yang] allelic suatu gen The phenotype in this case is a Southern blot rather than white eye/red eye Phenotype dalam hal ini adalah suatu Selatan menodai dibanding/bukannya mata eye/red putih Lets review standard mapping: To map any two genes with respect to one another, they must be heterozygous at both loci. Biarkan standard tinjauan ulang [yang] memetakan: Untuk memetakan manapun dua gen berkenaan dengan satu sama lain, mereka harus heterozygous pada kedua- duanya loci.

7 7 Mapping Gene W and B are responsible for wing and bristle development Centromere Telomere WB To find the map distance between these two genes we need allelic variants at each locus W=wingsB=Bristles w= No wingsb= no bristles To measure genetic distance between these two genes, the double heterozygote is crossed to the double homozygote

8 8 Mapping Both the normal and mutant alleles of gene B (B and b) are sequenced and we find Centromere Telomere WB GAATTC AAATTC By chance, this mutation disrupts the amino acid sequence and also a EcoRI site! If DNA is isolated from B/B, B/b and b/b individuals, cut with EcoRI and probed in A Southern blot, the pattern that we will obtain will be B 2 3 EEE b 5EE B/B BristleB/b Bristleb/b No bristle

9 9 Mapping Therefore in the previous cross (WB/wb x wb/wb), the genotype at the B locus can be distinguished either by the presence and absence of bristles or Southern blots WB/wbxwb/wb FemaleMale WingsNo wings BristlesNo BristlesSouthern blot: 5 and 2 kb band5 kb band There are some phenotypes for specific genes that are very painful to measure Having a RFLP makes the problem easier

10 10 Mapping The same southern blot method can be employed for the (W) wing Locus with a different restriction enzyme (BamHI) if an RFLP exists at this locus !! You make the DNA, digest half with EcoRI and probe with bristle probe Digest the other half with BamHI and probe with the wing probe. GTATCC GGATCC W 8 BB w BB B 44

11 11 Mapping To find the map distance between genes, multiple alleles are required. We can determine the distance between W and B by the classical Method because multiple alleles exist at each locus (W & w, B & b) You find a new gene C. There are no variants of this gene that alter the phenotype of the fly, that you can observe. Say we don’t even know the function of this gene. You can’t even predict its phenotype. However the researcher identified an RFLP variant in this gene. CentromereTelomere WB C R

12 12 Mapping C c 8EE 2 6 EEE With this RFLP, the C gene can be mapped with respect to other genes: Genotype/phenotype relationships for the W and C genes WW and Ww = Red eyes ww = white eyes CC = 8kb band C/c = 8, 6, 2 kb bands cc = 6, 2 kb bands To determine map distance between R and C, the following cross is performed WCwc wcwc

13 13 Mapping Male gamete (wc) Female gamete WB C R WC(8) w c(6,2) w w

14 14 SNPs, RFLPs, point mutations GAATTC GAGTTC GAATTC GACTTC Pt mut SNP RFLP SNP RFLP Pt mut SNP

15 15 PCR If a region of DNA has already been cloned and sequenced, the sequence can be used to isolate and amplify that sequence from other individuals in a population. Jika suatu daerah DNA telah sequenced dan cloned, urutan dapat digunakan untuk mengisolasikan dan memperkuat suara urutan itu dari individu lainnya di (dalam) suatu populasi. Individuals with mutations in p53 are at risk for colon cancer Individu dengan mutasi di (dalam) p53 berhadapan dengan resiko untuk kanker tanda titik dua To determine if an individual had such a mutation, prior to PCR One would have to clone the gene from the individual of interest (construct a genomic library, screen the library, isolate the Clone and sequence the gene). Untuk menentukan jika perorangan telah mutasi seperti itu, sebelum PCR Orang akan harus clone gen dari individu [bunga/minat] ( membangun suatu perpustakaan genomic, menyaring perpustakaan [itu], mengisolasikan Clone [itu] Dan Urutan gen). With PCR, the gene can be isolated directly from DNA isolated from that individual. No lengthy cloning procedure Only small amounts of genomic DNA required 30 rounds of amplification can give you >10 9 copies of a gene

16 Genotype and Haplotype In the most basic sense, a haplotype is a “haploid genotype”. Haplotype: particular pattern of sequential SNPs (or alleles) found on a single chromosome in a single individual The DNA sequence of any two people is 99 percent identical. Sets of nearby SNPs on the same chromosome are inherited in blocks. Blocks may contain a large number of SNPs, but a few SNPs are enough to uniquely identify the haplotypes in a block. The HapMap is a map of these blocks and the specific SNPs that identify the haplotypes are called tag SNPs. Haplotyping: involves grouping individuals by haplotypes, or particular patterns of sequential SNPs, on a single chromosome. Microarrays, and sequencing are used to accomplish haplotyping.

17 17 SNP mapping is used to narrow down the known physical location of mutations to a single gene. The human genome sequence provided us with the list of many of the parts that make a human. The HapMap provides us with indicators which we can focus on in looking for genes involved in common disease. Using the HapMap data we compare the SNP patterns of people affected by a disease with those of unaffected people. This allows researchers to survey the whole genome quickly and identify genetic contributions to common diseases--the HapMap Project has simplified the search for gene variants.

18 18 A recessive disease pedigree

19 19 Mapping recessive disease genes with DNA markers DNA markers are mapped evenly across the genome The markers are polymorphic- they look slightly different in Different individuals. We can tell looking at a particular individual which grandparent Contributed a certain part of its DNA. If we knew that grandparent carried the disease, we could say That part of the DNA might be responsible for the disease. ABCDEFGHI 4 different alleles at each locus A1, A2, A3, A4 B1, B2, B3, B4 C1, C2,………….

20 20 Mapping recessive disease genes with DNA markers Grandparents 1 and 4 and offspring 1 and 4 have a disease We would look at the markers and see that ONLY at position G do offspring 1 and 4 have the DNA from grandparents 1 and 4. It is therefore likely that the disease gene will be somewhere near marker G. ABCDEFGHI

21 21 Genetic polymorphism Genetic Polymorphism: A difference in DNA sequence among individuals, groups, or populations. Genetic Mutation: A change in the nucleotide sequence of a DNA molecule. Genetic mutations are a kind of genetic polymorphism. Single nucleotide Polymorphism (point mutation) Repeat heterogeneity Genetic Variation

22 22 Repeats Variation between people- small DNA change – a single nucleotide polymorphism [SNP] – in a target site, RFLPs and SNPs are proof of variation at the DNA level, Satellite sequences: a short sequence of DNA repeated many times in a row. Chr1 Chr2 Interspersed tandem

23 23 Repeats Satellite sequences: a short sequence of DNA repeated many times in a row. Chr1 Chr2 Interspersed tandem EE E 256 EEE Repeat probe

24 24 Repeat expansion Tandem repeats expand and contract during recombination. Mistakes in pairing leads to changes in tandem repeat numbers E E 4 E 1 EE 2 EE 2 Individual 1 EE 3 Individual 2


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