2 CHAPTER 1 ACCOUNTING IN ACTION WHAT IS ACCOUNTING? Accounting is an information system that identifies, records, and communicates the economic events of an organization to interested users.Akuntansi merupakan sistem informasi tentang identifikasi, pencatatan dan komunikasi tentang kejadian ekonomi dalam organisasi untuk kepentingan pengguna.
7 BUSINESS ENTERPRISES Proprietorship / perseorangan Owned by one person.Partnership / firma atau CVOwned by two or more persons.Corporation / PTOrganized as a separate legal entity under state corporation law and having ownership divided into transferable shares of stock.
8 PERHATIAN DALAM AKUNTANSI Ethics / etikaStandards by which actions are judged as right or wrong, honest or dishonest.Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP)Established by the F.A.S.B and the S.E.C.Pernyataan Standar Akuntansi Keuangan (PSAK)Penerbit Dewan Standar Akuntansi (DSAK/IAI)Assumptions /AsusmiMonetary UnitOnly data that can be expressed in terms of money is included in the accounting records.Economic EntityIncludes any organization or unit in society.- Going Concern - assumes organization will continue into foreseeable future
9 Prinsip Dasar Akuntansi Fiscal Period PrincipleHistorical Period PrincipleAccrual Basic PrincipleRevenue Realization PrincipleCost Income Matching PrincipleFull Disclosure PrincipleMateriality PrincipleConsistency PrincipleObjectivity PrincipleConservatism Principle
10 Persamaan Dasar Akuntansi Assets=+Owner’s EquityLiabilities)
11 Contoh SoalTuan Ray Neal memutuskan untuk mendirikan perusahaan jasa pemrograman computer dengan nama “SOFTBYTE”. Pada tgl 1 september 2005 Tuan Ray Neal menginvestasikan uang tuani sebesar $ kedalam bisnis tersebut“SOFTBYTE” membeli peralatan berupa computer secara tunai sebesar $7.000“SOFTBYTE” membeli perlengkapan berupa ATK secara kredit sebesar $1.600“SOFTBYTE” menerima jasa pemrograman dari pelanggan secara tunai $1.200“SOFTBYTE” memasang iklan di sebuah surat kabar, pada saat di tagih “SOFTBYTE” menjanjikan akan di bayar minggu depan sebesar $250“SOFTBYTE” menyerahkan jasa pemrograman seharga $3.500 kepada pelanggan, namun pelanggan tersebut membayar sejumlah $1.500 dan sisanya akan dibayar bulan depan“SOFTBYTE” membayar secara tunai sewa took sebesar $600, gaji karyawan $900 dan rekening listrik $200“SOFTBYTE” membayar tagihan iklan sebesar $250Diterima secara tunai tagihan dari pelanggan sejumlah$600Tuan Ray Neal mengambil uang dari perusahaan sejumlah $1.300 untuk keperluan pribadinya
13 Kelompok Aktiva/Harta Assets are resources owned by a business. They are used in carrying out such activities as production, consumption and exchange.Assets : Current Asset and Fixes AssetsCurrent Assets : Cash, Account receivable, Note Receivable, Inventory, Prepaid expenses, Accrued RevenuesFixes Assets : Fixed tangible Assets and Fixed intangible Assetsa. Fixed tangible Assets : land, Building, Furniture, Equipment Machine, Carsb. Fixed intangible Assets : Goodwill, Patent, Trade Mark
14 Kelompok Hutang/Kewajiban =Liabilities-Owner’s EquityAssetsLiabilities are creditor claims against assets or existing debts and obligations to creditorsCurrent Liabilities : Short Term Loan, Account Payable, Notes Payable, Accrued ExpenseLong Term Liabilities : Bonds, Hipotek
15 Kelompok Modal=-Owner’s EquityAssetsLiabilitiesOwner’s Equity represents the ownership claim to total assets. Subdivisions of Owner’s Equity:1 Capital or Investments by Owner (+)2 Drawing (-)3 Revenues (+)4 Expenses (-).
16 Kelompok Investasi Investments are the assets the owner puts in the businessincrease owner’s equity
17 Kelompok Prive Drawings are withdrawals of cash or other assets by the owner for personal usedecrease owner’s equity
18 Kelompok Pendapatan/Penjualan Revenuesgross increases in owner’s equity from business activities entered into for the purpose of earning incomemay result from sale of merchandise, services, rental of property, or lending moneyusually result in an increase in an asset
19 Kelompok Biaya/Beban Expenses decreases in owner’s equity that result from operating the businesscost of assets consumed or services used in the process of earning revenueexamples: utility expense, rent expense, supplies expense, and tax expense
20 Menaikan atau menurunkan modal pemilik DecreasesIncreasesInvestmentsWithdrawalsOwner’s EquityRevenuesExpenses
24 Laporan KeuanganFour financial statements are prepared from the summarized accounting data:Income Statement/ Laporan laba rugi revenues and expenses and resulting net income or net loss for a specific period of timeOwner’s Equity Statement/ Laporan perubahan equitas (modal) changes in owner’s equity for a specific period of timeBalance Sheet / Neraca assets, liabilities, and owner’s equity at a specific dateStatement of Cash Flows / Laporan arus kas cash inflows (receipts) and outflows (payments) for a specific period of time
25 FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND THEIR INTERRELATIONSHIPS SOFTBYTE, INC.Income StatementFor the Month Ended September 30, 2005RevenuesService revenue$ 4,700ExpensesSalaries expense$ 900Rent expense600Advertising expense250Utilities expense200Total expenses1,950$ 2,750Net incomeNet income of $2,750 shown on the income statement is added to the beginning balance of owner’s capital in the owner’s equity statement.
26 FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND THEIR INTERRELATIONSHIPS SOFTBYTE, INC.Owner’s Equity StatementFor the Month Ended September 30, 2005Retained earnings, September 1, 2005$Add: Investments$ 15,000Net income2,75017,75017,750Less: Drawings1,300Retained earnings, September 30, 2005$16,450Net income of $2,750 carried forward from the income statement to the owner’s equity statement. The owner’s capital of $16,450 at the end of the reporting period is shown as the final total of the owner’s equity column of the Summary of Transactions (Illustration 1-8).
27 FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND THEIR INTERRELATIONSHIPS SOFTBYTE, INC.Balance SheetSeptember 30, 2005AssetsCash$ 8,050Accounts receivable1,400Supplies1,600Equipment7,000Total assets$ 18,050Liabilities and Owner’s EquityLiabilitiesAccounts payable$ 1,600Owner’s equityR. Neal, capital16,450Total liabilities and owner’s equity$ 18,050Owner’s capital of $16,450 at the end of the reporting period shown in the owner’s equity statement is shown on the balance sheet.
28 FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND THEIR INTERRELATIONSHIPS SOFTBYTE, INC.Balance SheetSeptember 30, 2005AssetsCash$ 8,050Accounts receivable1,400Supplies1,600Equipment7,000Total assets$ 18,050Liabilities and Owner’s EquityFormat HelpLiabilitiesAccounts payable$ 1,600Owner’s equityR. Neal, capital16,450Total liabilities and owner’s equity$ 18,050Cash of $8,050 on the balance sheet is reported on the statement of cash flows.
29 FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND THEIR INTERRELATIONSHIPS SOFTBYTE, INC.Statement of Cash FlowsFor the Month Ended September 30, 2005Cash flows from operating activitiesCash receipts from revenues$ 3,300Cash payments for expenses(1,950)Net cash provided by operating activities1,350Cash flows from investing activitiesPurchase of equipment(7,000)Cash flows from financing activitiesSale of common stock$ 15,000Fix ME- Help!Payment of cash dividends(1,300)Net cash provided by financing activities13,700Net increase in cash8,050Cash at the beginning of the period––Cash at the end of the period$ 8,050Cash of $8,050 on the balance sheet and statement of cash flows is shown as the final total of the cash column of the Summary of Transactions (Illustration 1-8).