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1 Bab VII Biaya Produksi AFC AVC ATC MC. 2 Dlm Bab Ini Akan Dipelajari n Berbagai Organisasi Perusahaan n Biaya n Produksi Jk Pendek n Biaya Produksi.

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Presentasi berjudul: "1 Bab VII Biaya Produksi AFC AVC ATC MC. 2 Dlm Bab Ini Akan Dipelajari n Berbagai Organisasi Perusahaan n Biaya n Produksi Jk Pendek n Biaya Produksi."— Transcript presentasi:

1 1 Bab VII Biaya Produksi AFC AVC ATC MC

2 2 Dlm Bab Ini Akan Dipelajari n Berbagai Organisasi Perusahaan n Biaya n Produksi Jk Pendek n Biaya Produksi Jk Pendek n Hubungan Antara ukuran Perusahaan dan Biaya Dlm Jk Panjang

3 3 Topik Bab VII n Sektor Bisnis n Biaya Ekonomi n Produksi jk Pendek n Biaya Produksi Jk Pendek n Biaya Produksi Jk Panjang

4 4 Terminology PLANT Satu Lokasi Sektor Bisnis

5 5 Terminology PLANT 2- FIRM one business organization with one or more plants one business organization with one or more plants Sektor Bisnis NOTES: Vertical Combinations Horizontal Combinations Conglomerates

6 6 Terminology PLANT 2- FIRM Kumpulan perusahaan Menjual produk sama 3- INDUSTRY Sektor Bisnis

7 7 Topik Bab VII 3 Sektor Bisnis n Biaya Ekonomi n Produksi jk Pendek n Biaya Produksi jk Pendek n Biaya Produksi jk Panjang

8 8 Biaya Ekonomi Opportunity Costs

9 9 Explicit Costs Implicit Costs Biaya Ekonomi

10 TotalRevenue Profits to an Economist Accountant 10 Gambar 7-1

11 ExplicitCosts Accounting costs (explicit costs only) TotalRevenue Profits to an Economist Accountant 11 Gambar 7-1

12 ExplicitCosts Accounting costs (explicit costs only) AccountingProfits TotalRevenue Profits to an Economist Accountant 12 Gambar 7-1

13 Implicit costs (including a normal profit) ExplicitCosts Accounting costs (explicit costs only) AccountingProfits Economic (opportunity) Costs TotalRevenue Profits to an Economist Accountant 13 Gambar 7-1

14 EconomicProfits Implicit costs (including a normal profit) ExplicitCosts Accounting costs (explicit costs only) AccountingProfits Economic (opportunity) Costs TotalRevenue Profits to an Economist Accountant 14 Gambar 7-1

15 15 Jk Pendek & Jk Panjang n Jk Pendek (Short Run) –Fixed Plant n Jk Panjang (Long Run) –Variable Plant

16 16 Bab VII 3 Sektor Bisnis 3 Biaya Ekonomi n Produksi Jk Pendek n Biaya Produksi Jk Pendek n Biaya Produksi Jk Panjang

17 17 Produksi Jk Pendek n Total Produksi (Total Product) –Seluruh kuantitas yg diproduksi n Produksi Marjinal (Marginal Product) n Produksi Rata-rata (Average Product) perubahan total product perubahan input L = total product Input L =

18 18 Produksi Jk Pendek Law of Diminishing Returns n marginal product selalu menurun

19 19 units of labour TPMPAP perubahan total product perubahan labour input MP= Tabel 7-1

20 20 units of labour TPMPAP increasing marginal returns diminishing marginal returns negative marginal returns Tabel 7-1

21 21 units of labour TPMPAP total product total labour input AP = Table 8-1

22 AP MP TP increasing marginal returns diminishing marginal returns negative marginal returns 22 Figure 8-2

23 23 Fixed Cost Tdk Dipengaruhi Besar Kecil Produksi Tdk Dipengaruhi Besar Kecil Produksi Biaya Produksi Jk Pendek

24 24 Fixed Cost Total fixed cost Biaya Produksi Jk Pendek

25 25 Fixed Cost Total fixed cost Average fixed cost = Total fixed cost Quantity Short-Run Production Costs

26 26 Fixed Cost Total fixed cost Variable Cost dipengaruhi besar kecil produksi dipengaruhi besar kecil produksi Average fixed cost = Total fixed cost Quantity Biaya Produksi Jk Pendek

27 27 Fixed Cost Total fixed cost Variable Cost Total variable cost Average fixed cost = Total fixed cost Quantity Biaya Produksi Jk Pendek

28 28 Fixed Cost Total fixed cost Variable Cost Average variable cost = Total variable cost Quantity Average fixed cost = Total fixed cost Quantity Total variable cost Biaya Produksi Jk Pendek

29 29 Total Cost Total fixed & variable cost Biaya Produksi Jk Pendek

30 30 Total Cost Total fixed & variable cost Average total cost = Total cost Quantity Biaya Produksi Jk Pendek

31 31 Total Cost Total fixed & variable cost Marginal Cost Average total cost = Total cost Quantity Biaya Produksi Jk Pendek

32 32 Total Cost Total fixed & variable cost Marginal Cost Marginal cost = Change in Total cost Change in Quantity Average total cost = Total cost Quantity Biaya Produksi Jk Pendek

33 33 Marginal Cost = MC Total Fixed Costs = TFC Total Variable Costs = TVC Average Variable Costs = AVC Total Costs = TC Average Total Costs = ATC Average Fixed Costs = AFC Biaya Produksi Jk Pendek

34 QTFCTVCTCAFCAVCATCMC Tabel 7-1

35 QTFCTVCTCAFCAVCATCMC

36 QTFCTVCTCAFCAVCATCMC

37 QTFCTVCTCAFCAVCATCMC TC=TFC + TVC 37 Tabel 7-1

38 TFC 38

39 TVC 39 add vertically to get TC

40 TFC TVC TC 40.

41 QTFCTVCTCAFCAVCATCMC AFC=TFC / Q 41 Tabel 7-1

42 QTFCTVCTCAFCAVCATCMC AVC=TVC / Q 42 Tabel 7-1 ©

43 QTFCTVCTCAFCAVCATCMC ATC=TC / Q 43 Tabel 7-1

44 QTFCTVCTCAFCAVCATCMC MC=  TC /  Q 44 Note: MC is graphed at average Q 2.5 Tabel 7-1

45 AFC AFC continually declines as fixed cost is spread over more & more units 45

46 AFC AVC AVC is U-shaped: AVC starts to rise when AP starts to fall 46

47 AFC AVC get ATC by vertically summing AFC & AVC 47

48 AFC ATC AVC 48 ©

49 AFC MC AVC MC cuts ATC & AVC at minimum points 49 ©

50 Quantity of labour Costs (dollars) Average Product and Marginal Product Quantity of labour Productivity & Cost Curve Relationship, Figure

51 Quantity of labour Costs (dollars) Average Product and Marginal Product Quantity of labour MPMC51 Productivity & Cost Curve Relationship, Figure 7-6

52 Quantity of labour Costs (dollars) Average Product and Marginal Product Quantity of labour MP AP MCAVC52 Productivity & Cost Curve Relationship, Figure 7-6

53 53 Pergeseran Kurva Biaya Harga resources n harga fixed input naik... ÜAFC & ATC naik ÜAVC & MC tdk berubah

54 AFC ATC MC AVC 54

55 AFC ATC MC AVC Fixed costs naik $25 55

56 56 Pergeseran Kurva Biaya Harga resources harga variable input naik... harga variable input naik... ÜAVC, ATC & MC naik ÜAFC tdk berubah

57 AFC ATC MC AVC 57.

58 AFC ATC MC AVC Variable costs naik 15% 58

59 59 Pergesean Kurva Biaya technology n Technology yg semakin baik ÜBiaya turun ÜKurva Biaya turun n Kurve bergeser tergantung apakah teknologi mempengaruhi FC, VC atau keduanya

60 60 Topik Bab VII 3 Sektor Bisnis 3 Biaya Ekonomi 3 Produksi Jk Pendek 3 Biaya Produksi jk Pendek n Biaya Produksi jk Panjang

61 61 Biaya Produksi Jk Panjang ATC-1ATC-2 ATC-3 ATC-4 ATC-5 Memilih pabrik dari Setiap Level Produksi

62 62 Biaya Produksi Jk Panjang ATC-1ATC-2 ATC-3 ATC-4 ATC-5

63 63 Biaya Produksi Jk Panjang Kurva Jk Panjang LRATC

64 64 Biaya Produksi Jk Panjang

65 65 kurva LR ATC merupakan amplop dari SR ATC kurva LR ATC merupakan amplop dari SR ATC LRATC

66 66 Biaya Produksi Jk Panjang LRATC

67 67 Biaya Produksi Jk Panjang LRATC Economies of scale

68 68 Biaya Produksi Jk Panjang LRATC Constant returns to scale Economies of scale

69 69 Biaya Produksi Jk Panjang Economies of scale Constant returns to scale Diseconomies of scale LRATC

70 70 Skala Ekonomis Dlm Produksi –Labour Specialization –Managerial Specialization –Efficient Capital –Other Factors n Diseconomies of Scale n Constant Returns to Scale

71 71 Topik Bab VII 3 Sektor Bisnis 3 Biaya Ekonomi 3 Produksi Jk Pendek 3 Biaya Produksi jk Pendek 3 Biaya Produksi Jk Panjang

72 72 NEXT: Per.Sempurna Bab VIII


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