Pemahaman terhadap konsep kewirausahaan mengalami dinamika perkembangan Periode Romawi kuno (430-354 SM) : keuntungan dan peluang berdagang di luar negeri Periode awal : Marco Polo = entrepreneur Periode pertengahan : cleric/supervisor Periode abad 17’an : Pedagang, petani dan profesi lain yg mengandung resiko Periode abad 18’an : entrepreneur ≠ capital provider Periode 19-20’an : innovator/an individual developing something unique
Kewirausahaan/entreprenur berasal dari bahasa perancis Entrepreneur : celui qui entrend quelque chose (person who active and achieve something) Entreprendre : to undertake something Entrepreneur : “qui entreprend un bastiment pour un certain prix “ which means entrepreneur has been contracted to perform a certain task at fixed price.
an individual who established and manages a business for the principle purposes of profit and growth. People who have the ability to see and evaluate business opportunities; to gather the necessary resources to take advantage of them; and to initiate appropriate action to ensure success (Carland et al 1984 in Kirby, 2003) One who creates a new business in the face of risk and uncertainty for the purpose of achieving profit and growth by identifying significant opportunities and assembling the necessary resources to capitalize of them (Hisrich et al, 2005).
The ability to create and build something from practically nothing. It is initiating, doing, achieving, and building an enterprise or organization, rather than just watching, analyzing or describing one. The process of creating something new with value by devoting the necessary time and efforts, assuming the accompanying financial, physics, and social risks, and receiving the resulting rewards of monetary and personal satisfaction and independence.
pakardefinisi Drucker (1985)An act of innovation that involves endowing existing resources with new wealth-producing capacity Stevenson (1985)A process by which individuals pursue and exploit opportunities irrespective of the resources they currently control Gartner (1988)The creation of organizations, the process by which new organization come into existence Timmons (1997)A way of thinking, reasoning, and acting that is opportunity driven, holistic in approach, and leadership balanced Venkataraman (1997) It is about how, by whom and whit what consequences opportunities to bring future goods and services into existence are discovered, created, and exploited
The one who brings resources, labor, material and other assets into combination that make their value greater than before The one who introduce change, innovation, and new orders Economist The one who is driven by forces, such as need to obtain or attain something, to experiment, to accomplish, to escape the authority of others Physiologist Aggressive competitor The one who creates job and wealth for others The one who finds better way to utilize resources, and to reduce waste Businessman
The person who assumes the risk associated with uncertainty The person who supplies financial capital An innovators A decision-makers A leader A manager or superintendent An organizer and coordinator The owner of an enterprise An employer of factors of production A contractor An arbitrageur An allocator of resources
Definisi sempit : capitalist employer/business owner, small business, private sector Definisi luas : being creative and innovative as a self-employed and as a employer (intrapreneur)
Kewirausahaan bisa dipelajari dilatih Kewirausahaan melekat pada karakterr (dilahirkan ) Wirausaha = manajer pembuat intreprenurial decision pelatihan rekruitmen
UMKM (micro, small, and medium enterprises) Sektor informal/marginal firm Atractive small company Perusahaan dengan potensi perkembangan /(high growth potential firms) Perusahaan besar Organisasi publik Organisai pemerintah Organisasi non-pemerintah
Kewirausahaan dianggap sebagai pengenalan “aktivitas ekonomi baru “ (new economy activitites ) yang mampu mengubah pasar “aktivitas ekonomi baru “ = “sesuatu” yang menawarkan pembeli sebuah alternatif baru dan yang mendorong pesaing merubah produk ya sekarang sehingga mendorong perubahan pada pasar.
New offer and new competitor Organizational change Geographic market expansion Business as usual to firm Old New
Wiirausawan sbg fungsi pasar Risk-taker manager Opportunity creator Coordinator of limited resources Alert seeker of opportunity capitalist Wirausahawan sebagai individu Great person school Physiological characteristics school Classical school Management school Leadership school Intrapersonal school Kewirausahaan sebaga proses The emergence of new organization The emergence of opportunity