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MAJOR HAZARDS CONTROL Direktorat Pengawasan Norma K3 Kemenakertrans.

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Presentasi berjudul: "MAJOR HAZARDS CONTROL Direktorat Pengawasan Norma K3 Kemenakertrans."— Transcript presentasi:

1 MAJOR HAZARDS CONTROL Direktorat Pengawasan Norma K3 Kemenakertrans

2 MAJOR HAZARD Danger of large accidents, with consequences not only on the plant site, but also in the surroundings :  Many dead or wounded  Heavy damage to buildings  Wide and unfavorable publicity: press, radio,TV  Emotional public reactions  Serious consequences for the company involved :  Production loss  Investigation  Insurance procedures  Additional safety requirements  Shutdown, perhaps : PERMANENT

3 MAJOR ACCIDENT A major accident is defined in the regulation as : “A sudden occurrence at facility causing serious danger or harm to : - a relevant person or - an at risk community or - property or - the environment whether the danger or harm occurs immediately or at a later time”. (Australian Government – Comcare)

4 HARMFUL EFFECT ARISING FROM MAJOR CHEMICAL HAZARDS 1) DEATHS – immediate and delayed 2) PHYSICAL INJURIES – disabling and non disabling 3) MENTAL INJURIES – short term or long term 4) SOCIAL TRAUMA – short term or long term 5) DISRUPTION OF PEOPLE’S WAY OF LIFE – short term or long term 6) ENVIRONMENT DAMAGE – short term or long term 7) FINANCIAL LOSS; property damage; consequential loss

5 INCIDENT BHOPAL,INDIA (3/12/84) Nature of occurrence : runaway reaction in storage tank released ca. 30 tons of MIC Fatalities : Immediate : > 2000; delayed : ?? Physical injuries : ; disabled : ?? Mental injuries : extreme shock & panic, prolonged & extreme anxiety Disruption of people’s way of live : ?? Environmental damage : ?? Financial loss : property damage £ 100 millions

6 INCIDENT MEXICO CITY (19/11/84) Nature of occurrence : 18 hours conflagration of ca.6000 tons of LPG Fatalities : Immediate : > 500; delayed : ?? Physical injuries : 7097; disabled : 100 Mental injuries : severe shock & panic Disruption of people’s way of live : homeless or evacuated; hundreds of houses up to 300 meters destroyed Environmental damage : ?? Financial loss : property damage >£ 13 millions

7 INCIDENT PIPER ALPHA OIL PLATFORM, NORTH SEA (6/7/88) Nature of occurrence : explosion destroyed oil production platform Fatalities : Immediate : 167; delayed : nil Physical injuries : 20; disabled : 7 Mental injuries : loss of public confidence; loss of morale in workforce Disruption of people’s way of live : relief fund £ millions Environmental damage : 5 km oil slick formed Financial loss : property damage + £ 500 millions

8 SPECIFIC FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO MAJOR ACCIDENT (1) Poor management practices; e.g : inadequate supervision Pressure to meet production target Inadequate Safety Management System Failure to learn lessons from previous accident Communication issues; e.g : between shifts, between personnel and management Inadequate reporting system Complacency Violation / non compliance behavior

9 SPECIFIC FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO MAJOR ACCIDENT (2) Inadequate training, e.g : emergency response, fire and safety Lack of competency Excessive working hours resulting in mental fatigue Inadequate procedures Modification /up date to equipment without operator knowledge and/ or revised risk assessment Inadequate /insufficient maintenance Maintenance error

10 MAJOR HAZARD CONTROL is Prevention of Major Accidents

11 Factors Influencing Major Incidents

12 MAJOR ACCIDENTS OCCUR ALWAYS UNEXPECTED At night During the weekend When the factory is stopped During a power failure In very bad weather

13 CONTROL MEASURES  Avoidance of Risks  Prevention of Accidents  Mitigation of Consequences Sitting of the plant Lay out Design Construction Start up Operation Maintenance Repair Modification Decommissioning

14 AVOIDANCE OF RISKS  Small Inventories  Safer Substances  Lower Pressure  Lower Temperature  Etc REDUCE POTENTIAL

15 PREVENTION OF ACCIDENTS  Ensure adequate control  instrumentation  Reduce Failures  Improve Detection  Improve Shutdown  Improve Relief  Site Layout  Operator training  Operation Maintenance  Work permit system  Inspection, testing  Accident - investigation  Etc REDUCE PROBABILITY

16 MITIGATION OF CONSEQUENCES  Detection systems  Emergency action on site  Choice of site  Firefighting system  First aid kit  Personal service/ambulance  Control development nearby  Etc REDUCE IMPACT

17 HUMAN FAILURE Latent Errors Unsafe Plant/ Condition Unsafe acts INCIDENT Fail to recover situation Failure of mitigation ACCIDENT PERSONJOB ORGANISATION ACCIDENT MODEL PERFORMANCE INFLUENCING FACTORS

18 PERSONJOB ORGANISATION ACCIDENT MODEL PERSON : aptitude sifat sistem nilai kharakteristik minat motivasi usia jenis kelamin pendidikan pengalaman dll JOB : mesin peralatan kerja bahan lingkungan fisik metode kerja dll ORGANISATION : kharakteristik perusahaan sistem manajemen diklat pengawasan/supervisi pengupahan lingkungan sosial dll

19 HUMAN FACTOR The JOB – what people are ask to do (task/workload/procedures/environment/equipment) The INDIVUAL – who is doing it (competence/attitude/capability/risk perception) ORGANIZATION – how is the work organized (leadership/resources/culture/communication) HUMAN FACTOR JOB ORGANIZATION INDIVIDUAL (Health & Safety Executive -1999)

20 EXAMPLES OF MAJOR HAZARD WORKS Petrochemical Works Chemical Works LPG Storage Fertilizer Works Explosives Manufacture Bulk Use of Chlorine Pesticide factories Etc

21 CONTOH INDUSTRIAL MAJOR ACCIDENT I. PELEDAKAN (Explosions) Cyxlohexane (Mati : 28; Cidera : 89) Flixborough –UK, 1974 Propylene (Mati : 14; Cidera :107) Beek, Netherland, 1975 II. KEBAKARAN (Major Fires) LPG (Mati : 650; Cidera : 2500) Mexico City, 1985 III. TOKSIK (Toxic Release) Methyl Isocyanate (MIC) (Mati :2000;Cidera :20000 Bhopal, India, 1984

22 MAJOR ACCIDENT BHOPAL – absence of system maintenance PIPER ALPHA – an error in work organization and transmission of instruction CHERNOBYL – breach of safety regulation FLIXBOROUGH – a poorly designated modification

23 DESIGNATION OF MAJOR HAZARD PLANT List of Substances considered to be dangerous Threshold Quantities for each of substances on the list

24 PENETAPAN POTENSI BAHAYA INSTALASI  POTENSI BAHAYA BESAR : Kuantitas Bahan yang Digunakan melebihi Nilai Ambang Kuantitas (NAK) Qs > TQ  POTENSI BAHAYA MENENGAH : Kuantitas Bahan yang Digunakan sama atau lebih kecil Nilai Ambang Kuantitas (NAK) Qs = TQ atau Qs < TQ

25 KEWAJIBAN PENGUSAHA ATAU PENGURUS Persh. Potensi Bahaya Besar (I) Mempekerjakan Petugas K3 Kimia : Sistem Kerja Non Shift min. 2 orang Sistem Kerja Shift min. 5 orang Mempekerjakan Ahli K3 Kimia min. 1 orang Membuat Dokumen Pengendalian Potensi Bahaya Besar Melaporkan Setiap Perubahan (bahan, kuantitas, proses dan modifikasi instalasi)

26 KEWAJIBAN PENGUSAHA ATAU PENGURUS Persh. Potensi Bahaya Besar (II) Melakukan Pemeriksaan dan Pengujian Faktor Kimia min. 6 bulan sekali Melakukan Pemeriksaan dan Pengujian Instalasi min. 2 tahun sekali Melakukan Pemeriksaan Kesehatan Tenaga Kerja min. 1 tahun sekali

27 KEWAJIBAN PENGUSAHA ATAU PENGURUS Persh. Potensi Bahaya Menengah (I) Mempekerjakan Petugas K3 Kimia : Sistem Kerja Non Shift min. 1 orang Sistem Kerja Shift min. 3 orang Membuat Dokumen Pengendalian Potensi Bahaya Menengah Melaporkan Setiap Perubahan (bahan, kuantitas, proses dan modifikasi instalasi)

28 KEWAJIBAN PENGUSAHA ATAU PENGURUS Persh. Potensi Bahaya Menengah (II) Melakukan Pemeriksaan dan Pengujian Faktor Kimia min. 1 tahun sekali Melakukan Pemeriksaan dan Pengujian Instalasi min. 3 tahun sekali Melakukan Pemeriksaan Kesehatan Tenaga Kerja min. 1 tahun sekali

29 DOKUMEN PENGENDALIAN POTENSI BAHAYA BESAR Berisikan : Identifikasi Bahaya, Penilaian dan Pengendalian Risiko Kegiatan Tehnis, Rancang Bangun, Konstruksi, Pemilihan Bahan Kimia, Pengoperasian dan Pemeliharaan Instalasi Kegiatan Pembinaan Tenaga Kerja Rencana dan Prosedur Penanggulangan Keadaan Darurat Prosedur Kerja Aman

30 DOKUMEN PENGENDALIAN POTENSI BAHAYA MENENGAH Berisikan : Identifikasi Bahaya, Penilaian dan Pengendalian Risiko Kegiatan Tehnis, Rancang Bangun, Konstruksi, Pemilihan Bahan Kimia, Pengoperasian dan Pemeliharaan Instalasi Kegiatan Pembinaan Tenaga Kerja Prosedur Kerja Aman

31 Faktor2 yg dipertimbangkan dlm memilih lokasi MH Instalasi : 1. Proximity to populated areas; 2. Proximity to public ways; 3. Risk from adjacent facilities; 4. Storage quantities; 5. Present and predicted development of adjacent properties; 6. Topography of the site, including elevation and slope;

32 Faktor2 yg dipertimbangkan dlm memilih lokasi MH Instalasi : 7. Access for emergency response; 8. Availability of needed utility; 9. Requirement for the receipt and shipment of products; 10. Local codes and regulation; 11. Prevailing wind condition;

33 IDENTIFICATION AND PRIOTISATION OF MAJOR HAZARD CONTROL 1. Factories 2. Installation 3. Plant Unit

34 PRIORITISATION OF MAJOR HAZARD FACTORIES IDENTIFIED FACTORY RANKING FACTOR (FRF) : Consist of 5 rating factors : 1) Hazard Rating (HR) 2) Capacity Rating (CR) 3) Population Rating (PR) 4) Domino Effect Rating (DER) 5) Special Object Rating (SOR) FRF = HR + CR +PR + DER + SOR

35 HAZARD RATING (HR ) The chemical & physical properties The hazardous substances No.Group of Hazardous SubstancesPenalty Point 1.Extremely Toxic and Toxic Substances – gases (Cl2, NH3, Phosgene) 25 2.Flammable Substances (LPG, Butane, Propane, Propylene, Hydrogen) 20 3.Highly Reactive and Explosive Substances (NH4NO3,TNT)15 4.Extremely Toxic and Toxic Substances – powder/solid (Parathion Methyl) 10 5.Liquid Flammable Substances – solvent (Toluen, naphta)5

36 CAPACITY RATING (CR)  Max. quantity  Threshold quantity No.Capacity ratioPenalty Points 1.CR < < CR < < CR < CR > CR = Max. Capacity ILO Threshold Quantity

37 POPULATION RATING (PR)  Population in within a circle of 1 km No.Number of PeoplePenalty Points 1.PR < < PR < PR > 50009

38 DOMINO EFFECT RATING (DER)  Major Hazard Installation No.Domino Effect RatingPenalty Points 1.1 MH Installation0 2.2 MH Installation2 3.> 3 MH Installation4

39 SPECIAL OBJECTS RATING (SOR)  Object such as : schools, hospitals, cinemas, markets, supermarkets etc  Within a circle of 1 km No.CategoriesSOR points 1.No special objects0 2.1 Special objects1 3.> 2 Special objects2

40 FACTORY RANKING FACTOR (FRF) No.Factories CategoriesFRF I.Important MH Factories12 < FRF < 27 II.More Important MH Factories27 < FRF < 41 III.Most Important MH Factories41 < FRF < 56

41 CONTOH 1 PT. X Jakarta, Informasi : LPG : tons Penduduk lebih dari orang, tidak terdapat MH instalasi lainnya dan tidak ada spesial objek Jawaban : HR = 20; CR = : 25 = 1480 => CR > 100, CRp = 16; PR = 9; DER = 0 dan SOR = 0 Jadi FRF = = 45 (Category III)

42 CONTOH 2 PT. X Cikampek, Informasi : Chlorine : 113 tons Penduduk lebih dari 1000 orang, tidak terdapat MH instalasi lainnya dan spesial objek sekolah dan rumah sakit Jawaban : HR = 25; CR = 113 : 10 = 11 => CRp = 8; PR = 6; DER = 0 dan SOR = 2 Jadi FRF = = 41 (Category II)

43 IDENTIFICATION AND PRIORITISATION OF MAJOR HAZARD INSTALATION Calculation of Designation Factor (DF) of a Major Hazard Installation : DF = Q x CF/DQ DF = Designation Factor of Major Hazard Installation. Q = Max. Quantity of Major Hazard Substance in kg CF = Condition Factor DQ = Designation Quantity of Major Hazard Substance in kg

44 CONDTIONS FACTOR (CF)  A measure for the conditions under which a Major Hazard Substances is present in the installation  Condition deviations and corrections No.ConditionCorrection Factor aInstallation for Processing Installation for storage bInstallation out of doors Installation in enclosure 1212 cSubstance is in the gaseous phase Substance is in the liquid phase (see table 1) Substance is in the solid phase (respirable powder only) d If the process temperature is equal or higher than ambient If the process temperature is lower than ambient (see table 2)

45 CONDITIONS FACTOR (CF) CF = a x b x (c + d)

46 DESIGNATION QUANTITY (DQ) Quantity of hazardous substance when released suddenly, can result in extreme danger for a worker within a radius of 100 m from the point of emission The designation Quantity : a. Flammable Substances : kg b. Extremely Toxic Substances : 1 kg (based on LC < 20 mg/kg) c. Toxic Substances; reference = 300 kg Chlorine d. Explosive Substances; reference = 1000 kg TNT See list of Dangerous substances and Threshold Quantities

47 CORRECTION FACTOR c FOR LIQUIDS (I) Table 1 : NoProcess Temperature (Tp – Tbp)Correction Factors 1.Tp>90˚c below the boiling point below the boiling point below the boiling point below the boiling point below the boiling point below the boiling point below the boiling point below the boiling point below the boiling point <10 below or above boiling point

48 CORRECTION FACTOR c FOR LIQUIDS (II) NoProcess Temperature (Tp – Tbp)Correction Factors ˚c above the boiling point above the boiling point above the boiling point above the boiling point above the boiling point above the boiling point above the boiling point above the boiling point Tp> 90 above the boiling point

49 CORRECTION FACTOR d Tabel 2 : - 25˚C < boiling point < ambient ˚C : ˚C < boiling point < - 25˚C : ˚C < boiling point < - 75 ˚C : 2 boiling point < -125 ˚C : 3

50 MH INSTALLATION CATEGORIES Designation Factor ( DF) No.MH Installation CategoriesDF I.Important MH Installation0 < DF < 100 II.More Important MH Installation100 < DF < 500 III.Most Important MH InstallationDF > 500

51 CONTOH 1 Instalasi produksi yang tertutup, berisikan kg bahan kimia beracun Chlorine dalam bentuk cair pada temperatur proses 35˚C Boiling Point Cl2 : - 34˚C Threshold Quantity Cl2 : 300 kg. DF = ? DF= (Q x CF)/DQ CF = 1 (processing)x2(enclosed)x7(69˚C above atm bp) = 14 DF = (2100 x 14)/300 kg = 98 (Category I. Important MH Instalation )

52 CONTOH 2 PT.X Jawa Barat – LPG Instalasi penyimpanan yang di lapangan terbuka, berisikan ton; DQ = 10 ton LPG mixture : 80% butane; 20% propane Tbp butane : - 2˚C; Tbp propane : - 45˚C Storage & ambient temp. (max. 35˚C) T proses antara 30 – 40˚C diatas utk Tbp butane dan ˚C utk propane. DF = ? DF= (Q x CF)/DQ DF = 80%x37000x0.1(4+0) + 20%x37000x0.1(8+0)/10 DF = 1776 (Category III. Most Important MH Instalation )

53 CLASSIFICATION OF PLANT ELEMENT DOW INDEX FIRE, EXPLOSION & TOXICITY INDEX (FE&T INDEX)

54 CLASSIFICATION OF PLANT ELEMENT CategoryFire and Explosion Index Toxicity Index Category IF < 65T < 6 Category II 65 < F < 95 6 < T < 10 Category IIIF > 95T > 10

55 SURVEY SAFETY STUDIES CategoryIIIIII Checklist 1xx Checklist 2x Hazard and Operability Study (HAZOPS)x Accident Dataxxx Emission of Safety Devicesxxx

56 CHECKLIST 1 Causes (internal and external) that may lead to loss of containment of a hazardous material in the installation Failure in The supply/discharge of process substances The electric power supply The cooling water supply The process water or common water supply Air supply Steam supply Inert gas supply Fuel supply Explosion and/or fire in the area Extreme high open air temperature Extreme low open air temperature Flood Soil subsidence Stroke of lightning Mechanical impact

57 CHECKLIST 2 Causes that may lead to loss of containment of the hazardous substances from the installation Exceeding safe limits Corrosion (internal) Corrosion (external) Erosion Mechanical stress, fatigue Fouling and clogging Failure of seals Thermal expansion Contraction Decomposition Incorrect sampling Stratification Control errors Fire in the observed plant element

58 SEKIAN


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