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Bioindustri Enzim Materi Kuliah Bioindustri Nur Hidayat

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Presentasi berjudul: "Bioindustri Enzim Materi Kuliah Bioindustri Nur Hidayat"— Transcript presentasi:

1 Bioindustri Enzim Materi Kuliah Bioindustri Nur Hidayat
Jurusan Teknologi Industri Pertanian, Fak Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya Malang

2 Enzim Enzim, dihasilkanoleh sistem hidup, merupakan protein yg memiliki sifat katalitik. Sebagai katalis, enzim efisien dan sangat spesifik terkait keterlibatanya dalam reaksi kimia. Cofactors terlibat dalam reaksi dimana molekul dioksidasi, reduksi, dioecah ataupun digabung.

3 Biotechnology Teknik yang melibatkan penggunaan oragnisme hidup atau produknya untukmembuat atau memodifikasi produk untuk tujuan komerial.

4 Main Enzyme Classes ____________________________________________________ Enzyme class Catalyzed reaction Oxidirectadases Oxidation-reduction reaction Transferases Transfer of functional group Hydrolases Hydrolytic reactions Lyases Group elimination (forming double bonds) Isomerases Isomerizaion reaction Ligases Bond formation coupled with a triphosphate cleavage

5 Enzymes in Biotechnology
• Enzymes in food and beverage production Dairy industry Beer industry Wine and juice industry Alcohol industry Protein industry Meat industry Baking industry Fat and Oil industry • Enzymes as industrial catalysts Starch processing industry Antibiotic industry Fine Chemicals industry

6 Enzymes in Biotechnology
• Enzymes as final products Detergent industry Cleaning agent industry Pharmaceutical industry Animal feed industry Analytical applications • Enzymes as processing aids Textile industry Leather industry Paper and pulp industry Sugar industry Coffee industry

7 Faktor-faktor penting kenapa digunakan enzim
• kemungkinan reaksi tidak dapat dilakukan secara kimia. • Reaksi spesifik • Mereduksi jumlah tahapan proses yang dibutuhkan. • Mengeliminasi kebutuhan pelarut organik dalam proses. • Enzim dapat digunakan ulang melalui imobilisasi. • Dapat dikombinasikan dengan proses lain. • Enzim dapat diperbaiki melalui rekayasa genetika.

8 Industrial Enzyme Market
Annual Sales: $ 1.6 billion Food and starch processing: % Detergents: % Textiles: % Leather: % Pulp and paper: %

9 Beberapa contoh enzim mikrobial
Protease: protease netral dari Aspergillus dan Alkali dari Bacillus Deterjen biologi: subtilisin dari Bacillus licheniformis dan B. subtilis Penjernihan wine Pengolahan kulit Pembuatan keju Pengempukan daging dsb

10 Lipase Lipase terutama dari Bacillus, Aspergillus, Rhizopus, dan Rhodotorula Deterjen biologis Pengolahan kulit – penghilangan lemak Produksi senyawa flavor Pengolahan susu dan daging

11 Alfa Amilase Sumber: Aspergillus dan Bacillus
Untuk pengolahan pati menjadi sirup gula Modifikasi tepung dalam pembuatan roti Hidrolisis pati pada industri wine Detergen biologis Manufaktur tekstil

12 Beta Amilase dan Amiloglukosidase
Bacillus polymyxa, Streptomyces, Rhizopus Untuk produksi sirup maltosa Industri beer: meningkatkan gula yg dapat difermentasi. Amiloglukosidase: A. niger, R. niveus Produksi sirup glukosa Roti, Beer, wine Juice buah

13 Production of High Fructose Corn Syrups from Starch
Corn Starch Slurry (30-35% DS, pH , Ca2+ 50 ppm) Liquefaction Thermostable a-Amylase Gelatinization (105°C, 5 min) Dextrinization (95°C, 2h) Liquefied Starch DE 10-15 Saccharification Glucoamylase (60°C, pH , h) Glucose Syrups DE 95-96 Isomerization Glucose isomerase (pH , 55-60°C, 5 mM Mg2+) High Fructose Corn Syrups (42% fructose)

14 Production of Glucose from Starch
_______________________________________________________________ Liquefaction Saccharification DE Glucose Acid Acid Acid Glucoamylase Acid/α-amylase Glucoamylase α-Amylase/High pressure Glucoamylase cooking/ α-amylase α-Amylase (thermostable) Glucoamylase α-Amylase (thermostable) Glucoamylase

15 Conversion of Glucose to Fructose
HO OH HO OH glucose isomerase O O OH HO OH HO OH OH

16 Enzim mikrobial komersial
Enzim detergent Enzim dalam pengolahan Pati dan karbohidrat Enzim dalam produksi keju Enzim dalam produksi juice Enzim dalam Manufaktur tekstil Enzim dalam manufaktur kulit Enzim dalam penanganan pulp kayu Enzim dalam sintesis bahan organik

17 6-Aminopenicillanic Acid (6-APA)
Penicillin: First discovered by Fleming in 1932 19% of worldwide antibiotic market. Superior inhibitory action on bacterial cell wall synthesis Broad spectrum of antibacterial activity Low toxicity Outstanding efficacy against various bacterial strains Excessive use has led to development of resistant pathogens 6-APA: Raw material for production of new semisynthetic penicillins (amoxycillin and ampicillin) Fewer side effects Diminished toxicity Greater selectivity against pathogens Broader antimicrobial range Improved pharmacological properties

18 Chemical and Enzymatic Deacylation
of Penicillins to 6-APA H R C N S S CH3 CH3 NH2 Penicillin acylase CH3 CH3 O Alkaline N N COOH [Enzymatic] COOH O O Penicillin V or G (6-APA) [R=Ph or PhO] [Chemical] PCl5 ROH H2O Pyridine Me3SiCl H R C N S CH3 CH3 O N COOSiMe3 O

19 6-Aminopenicillanic Acid (6-APA)
Chemical method: Use of hazardous chemicals - pyridine, phosphorous pentachloride, nitrosyl chloride Enzymatic method: Regio- and stereo-specific Mild reaction conditions (pH 7.5, 37 oC) Enzymatatic process is cheaper by 10% Enzymes: Penicillin G acylase (PGA)- Escherichia coli, Bacillus megaterium, Streptomyces lavendulae Penicillin V acylases (PVA)- Beijerinckia indica var. Penicillium, Fusarium sp., Pseudomonas acidovorans Immobilized Enzyme: Life, hours

20 Enzymatic Modification of Penicillins
to 6-APA and Semisynthetic Penicillins H R C N S S CH3 CH3 NH2 Penicillin acylase CH3 CH3 O Alkaline N N COOH [Deacylation] COOH O O Penicillin V or G (6-APA) Penicillin acylase [Acylation] Acidic Semisynthetic Penicillins

21 Synthesis of Acrylamide
Monomeric raw material for the manufacture of polymers and synthetic polymers Obtained by hydration of the cyanide function of acrylonitrile World market, 200,000 tpa Chemical Process: Reaction of acrylonitrile with water in the presence of H2SO4 (90 oC) or a metal catalyst ( oC) Formation of toxic waste (HCN) The reaction must be stopped to prevent the acrylamide itself being converted to acrylic acid Enzymatic Process: 99.9% yield Kg quantity product/g cells Acrylic acid is not produced Fewer process steps are involved Much more environmental friendly Nitto Chemical Industry: 6,000 tons annually

22 Synthesis of Acrylamide
Copper-catalysed process Microbial process Nitrile hyratase and amidase reactions

23 Aspartame (L-Asp-L-Phe-Methyl Ester)
Aspartame is dipeptide sweetener formed by linking the methyl ester of phenylalanine with aspartic acid Extensively used in food and beverages 200 times as sweet as sucrose Annual sale: 200 million Ibs, $ 850 million Nutrasweet Corp. retains 75% of the US market Chemical method: The amino group of aspartic acid needs to be protected to prevent its reacting with another molecule of aspartic acid to give unwanted by-products The correct single enantiomer of each of the reactants must be used to give the required stereochemistry of aspartame (beta-aspartame is bitter tasting) Enzymatic method: Thermolysin promotes reaction only at the alpha-functionality Mild condition, pH 6-8, 40 oC Cbz, benzyloxycarbonyl

24 Biocatalytic Production of Aspartame
HO2C Ph + thermolysin PhCH2OCNH CO2H H2N CO2Me O H2O N-Cbz-aspartic acid D,L-phenylalanine Methyl ester HO2C Ph PhCH2OCNH CNH CO2Me O O Cbz-aspartame Cbz, benzyloxycarbonyl

25 L-Carnitine Thyroid inhibitor Slimming agent
Dietary supplement for athletes Only one enantiomer of the compound is used Two biocatalytic routes are available to make L-carnithine. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rhizobiaceae

26 Synthesis of L-Carnitine (R)-g-chloro-b-hydroxybutanoic
reductase HO H Cl Cl OC8H17 OC8H17 g-chloroacetoacetic acid octyl ester (R)-g-chloro-b-hydroxybutanoic acid octyl ester O HO H Me3N OH L-carnitine O O hydroxylase HO H Me3N Me3N OH OH g-butyrobetaine L-carnitine

27 Synthesis of Naproxene
CO2H biocatalysts * CH3O CH3O CO2H CO2H * * resolution multistep (D/L) CH3O CH3O CH3O O Tartaric acid Br2 3) Hydrolysis CO2H C CH2CH3 * CH3O CH3O

28 Synthesis of Calcium – Antagonist Drug
Diltiazem OMe OMe O O (R,R) esterase MeO2C HO2C racemate OMe S (S, S) O Diltiazem N O O H

29 Synthesis of L-malic Acid and L-Aspartic Acid
from Fumaric Acid HO2C HO2C fumarase H H2O CO2H HO CO2H fumaric acid L-malic acid HO2C HO2C aspartase H CO2H NH3 HO CO2H fumaric acid L-aspartic acid

30 Environmentally Compatible Synthesis of Catechol from Glucose
acetone hydroquinone a b HO c benzene cumene phenol OH CO2H CO2H HO OH d OH O d d catechol HO OH O OH HO OH OH OH D-glucose 3-dehydroshikimic acid protocatechuic acid (a) propylene, solid H3PO4 catalyst, °C, psi. (b) O2, °C then SO2, °C. (c) 70% H2O2, EDTA, Fe2+ or Co2, 70-80°C. Draths and Frost, 1995 (d) E. coli AB2834/pKD136/pKD9.069A, 37°C.

31 Debittering of Protein Hydrolyzates
Treatment with activated carbon Extraction with alcohol Isoelectric precipitation Chromatographic separation Masking of bitter taste Enzymatic hydrolysis of bitter peptides with aminopeptidase with alkaline/neutral protease with carboxypeptidase Condensation reactions using protease

32 Mill Scale Xylanase-aided Bleaching Trials
____________________________________________________ Sequence after Pulp Total active chlorine Enzyme treatment consumption decrease (%) (CD)EDED Softwood kraft (CD)EoDED Pine kraft (CD)EpDEpD Birch kraft (CD)EopDEpD Pine kraft DEopDED Softwood kraft C, elemental chlorine (Cl2), D, chlorine dioxide (ClO3), E, alkaline extraction (NaOH), Eo/Ep, oxygen/hydrogen peroxide reinforced alkaline extraction

33 Mannitol Food additive Reduces the crystallization tendency of sugars
and is used as such to increase the shelf-life of foodstuffs Used in chewing gum Pharmaceutical formulation of chewable tablets and granulated powders Prevents moisture adsorption from the air, exhibits excellent mechanical compressing properties, does not interact with the active components, and its sweet cool taste masks the unpleasant taste of many drugs

34 Mannitol Mannitol hexanitrate is a well-known vasodilator,
used in the treatment of hypertension The complex of boric acid with mannitol is used in the production of dry electrolytic capacitors It is an extensively used polyol for the production of resins and surfactants It has low solubility in water of only 18% (w/w) at 25 oC In alkaline solutions, it is a powerful sequestrant of metallic ions It is about half as sweet as sucrose

35 Hydrogenation of D-Fructose
H2C OH C O HO CH HC OH H2C OH HC OH HO CH H2C OH HO CH HC OH H2, catalyst + D-Fructose D-Sorbitol D-Mannitol

36 Heterofermentative Conversion Pathway of Fructose into Mannitol
ATP ADP Fructose – 6-P Glucose – 6-P NADP+ NADPH + H+ 6 - Phosphogluconate NADP+ CO2 NADPH + H+ Ribulose – 5-P Xylulose – 5-P Glyceraldehyde - 3-P Acetyl - P NAD+ 2 ADP ADP NADH + H+ 2 ATP Pyruvate NADH + H+ ATP NAD+ Lactate Acetate 2 Mannitol

37 Mannitol Production from Fructose in pH-Controlled Batch Fermentation
(g/L) Time (h) Mannitol (g/g) Lactic Acid (g/g) Acetic Acid (g/g) 150 200 250 300 15 40 64 136 0.720.00 0.69±0.03 0.70±0.02 0.66±0.03 0.17±0.00 0.16±0.00 0.15±0.01 0.12±0.00 0.13±0.00 0.11±0.00 At 37oC, 130 rpm, Initial pH 6.5, pH controlled at 5.0, 500 ml fleaker with 300 ml medium.

38 Fructose and Glucose (2:1) Co-Utilization and Mannitol Production
100 Fructose ) L Mannitol / g ( t 37 C O c u pH 5.0 d o r P r 50 o e t a Lactic acid r t s b Acetic acid u S Glucose 12 24 36 48 Time (h)

39 Mannitol Production in pH-Controlled Fed-Batch Fermentation
200 ) pH 5.0 L / g ( t c u 150 Mannitol d o r P r o 100 Fructose e t a r t Fructose used: 300 g/L (final concentration) s Lactic b u 50 acid S Acetic acid 24 48 72 96 Time (h)

40 Catalytic Hydrogenation
Fermentation Catalytic Hydrogenation All fructose converted to mannitol Co-product: lactic acid and acetic acid one half of mannitol Glucose is hydrogen source in hydrogenation Nitrogen source essential for growth Electrodialysis for removing organic acids Use of less pure substrates poses no problem Only half of fructose converted to mannitol Co-product: sorbitol in large excess (3) Highly pure hydrogen gas necessary Nickel catalyst essential Ion exchanger for nickel ions removal Highly pure substrates necessary to avoid catalyst inactivation

41 Enzymatic Conversion of Fructose to Mannitol
CH2OH O HO H H OH CH2OH HO H H OH Mannitol 2-Dehydrogenase NAD(P)H NAD(P) D-fructose Mannitol

42 Cofactor Regeneration
Chemical Photochemical Electrochemical Biological Enzymatic

43 Enzymatic Conversion of Fructose to Mannitol
with Simultaneous Cofactor Regeneration Mannitol Dehydrogenase Mannitol D-Fructose NADH NAD Na-Formate CO2 + H20 Formate Dehydrogenase

44 Enzymatic Conversion of Fructose to Mannitol
with Simultaneous Cofactor Regeneration Mannitol Dehydrogenase Mannitol D-Fructose NADH NAD+ Gluconic acid Glucose + H20 Glucose Dehydrogenase

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