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Presentasi berjudul: "DAN RANCANGAN PENELITIAN UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA"— Transcript presentasi:


Pengertian Method : The way of doing things Logic : The science of method Research : Systematic search for facts (penyelidikan yang hati-hati dan kritis (inquiry) dalam mencari fakta-fakta dan prinsip. Suatu penyelidikan yang amat cerdik untuk menetapkan sesuatu). Elemen utama penelitian ialah Kebenaran. 2. Ragam Berfikir (Style of Thinking) . Idealism (perfectionalism) : Permikiran yang sangat interpretatif . Rationalism : Bukti-bukti struktur formal . Empiricism : Dapat diamati, bukti konkrit . Existentialism : Proses informasi (pernyataan filosofis)

3 . Metode Ilmiah . . Rasionalisme Idealisme Empirisme Eksistensialisme
Postulate Metode Ilmiah . Idealisme Empirisme Pendapat tak diuji . Eksistensialisme

4 3. Definisi Penelitian (Research Definitrion)
. Research is an organized, systematic, data-based, critical, objective, scientific inquiry or investigation into a specific problem, undertaken with the purpose of finding answers or solutions to it. . Research provides the needed information that guides managers to make in- formed decisions to successfully deal with problems. . The information provided could be the result of careful analysis of data gathered firsthand or of data that are already available. 4. Types of Research . Applied Research : Research conducted with the intention applying the results of the findings to solve specific problems currently being experienced in the organization. . Basic Research : Research conducted chiefly to enhance the under- standing of certain problems that commonly occur in organizational settings and seek methods of solving them.

5 5. The Hallmarks of Scientific Research
The main distinguishing characteristics of scientific research may be listed as follows: . Purposiveness : A research starts with a definite aim or purpose . Rigor : A good theoretical base and a sound methodological design would add rigor to a purposive study. Rigor connotes carefully, scrupulousness and the degree of exactitude in research investigations. . Testability : Scientific research lends itself to testing logically developed hypotheses to see whether or not the data support the educated conjectures or hypotheses that are developed after a careful study of the problem situation. . Replicability : The results of the tests of hypotheses should be supported again and yet again when the same type of research is repeated in the same method.

6 . Precision and : The research results is not merely enough to be precise
Confidence but it is also important that it can be confidently claimed that 95 % of the time the result results would true. . Objective : The conclusions drawn through the interpretation of the results of the data analysis should be objective, that is, they should be based on the facts of the findings derived from actual data. . Generalizability : The wider the range of applicability of the solutions generated by research, the more useful the research is to the users. . Parsimony : Simplicity in explaining the phenomena or problems that occur and in generating solutions for for the problems is always preferred to complex research framework.

7 6. Scientific Methodology
Theory Research Problem Field Problem Objectives Conceptual / Theoretical Framework Hypotheses Data Collection Data Analysis Data Presentation /Interpretation Generalization Conclusion Scientific Report Writing

8 Building Block of Science Identification of problem area Observation
Theoretical framework Refinement of theory (BR) Or Implementation (AR) Building Block of Science Hypotheses Constructs concepts Operational definition Interpretation of data Analysis of data Research design Data collection

9 7 OBSER-VATION 1 DATA COLLEC-TION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 4 5 6 3 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Variable clearly identified/ labeled GENERATION OF HYPO- THESES SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH DESIGN PROBLEM DEFINITION PRELIMINARY DATA GATHERING DEDUC-TION Hypotheses substantiated ? Research ques- tion answered ? 8 2 Yes No 10 11 Report Writing Report Presentation Managerial Decision Making 9

10 7. Research Design P R O B L E M S T A N Purpose of study Exploration
Description Hypotheses testing Type of in- vestigation Establishing -Causal rela- tionship Correlation -Group differ- ences, ranks Extent of reseacher interference .Studying events as they normally occur .Manipulation and/or control and/or simu- lation Study setting .Contrived .Noncontri- ved Measurement and measures .Operational def. .Items (measure) .Scaling .Categorizing .Coding Data Analysis .Feel for data .Good ness of .Hypo- heses testing Data-collec-tion method .Observation .Interview .Questionnaire .Physical mea- surement .Unobstrusive Unit of analysis (population to be studied) . Individual . Dyads . Groups .Organizations Sampling design .Probability/ deterministik .Sample size Time horizon .One-shot (Crosssectional) .Longitudinal

11 Purpose of The Study . Exploratory Study An exploratory study is undertaken when not much is known about the situation at hand, or no information is available on how similar problems or research issues have been solved in the past. In essence, exploratory study is undertaken to better com- prehend the nature of the problems. Example: The manager of a MNC is curious to know if the work ethic values of em- ployees working in its subsidiary in Jakarta City would be different from those of Koreans. . Descriptive Study A descriptive study is undertaken in order to ascertain and be able to describe the characteristics of the variables of interest in a situation. The goal of a descriptive study is to offer to the researcher a profile or to describe relevant aspects of the phenomena of interest from an individual, organizational, industry-oriented or other perspective.

12 Example : A CEO is interested in having a description of organizations in his industry
that follow Activity Based Costing System. The report might include the age of the organizations, their location, their production levels, assets, sales, inventory levels, suppliers and profits. Such information might allow comparison later the performance levels of specific types of companies. . Hypotheses Testing Studies that engage in hypotheses testing usually explain the nature of certain rela- tionship, or establish the differences among groups or the independence of two or more factors in a situation. Hypotheses testing is undertaken to explain the variance in the dependent variable or to predict organizational outcome. Example: . A marketing manager wants to know if the sales of the company will increase if he doubles the advertising dollars. If advertising is increased, then sales will go up. . Organizational cultural development is more effective then reward and punishment system in improving labor productivity. . Working the night shift (as opposed to) the day shift is related to whether or not one is married.

13 Type of Investigation . Causal Study
A causal study is carried out when it is necessary to establish a definite cause-and-effect relationship. Example: Does smoking cause cancer The answer will help to establish whether people who do not smoke will not develop cancer. A Corelational study is conducted if the manager is merely wants to identify the important factors associated with the problem researcher is keen on delinat- ing one or more factors that are undoubtedly causing the problem. Example: Are smoking, drinking and chewing tobacco associated with cancer ? The answer will determine if smoking, drinking / chewing tobacco and cancer are correlated. But do these three help to explain a significant amount of the variance in cancer ? The intention of this hypotheses testing is not to establish a causal connection between one factor and another but merely to see if a relationship does exist among the variables investigated.

14 Setting Study Contrived and Noncontrivrd
Organizational research can be conducted in the natural environment where work proceeds normally (non contrived setting) or in artificial (contrived setting). Example: Corelational studies are invariably conducted in non-contrived setting, (field study) whereas most rigorous causal studies are done in contrived laboratory setting field (experiments). Field study : A bank manager wants to analyze the relationship between interest rates and bank deposit patterns of clients (certificate of deposit, saving, golden passbooks and interest-bearing checking accounts). Field expe- : Experimental design riments

15 Time Horizon: Cross-Sectional VS Longitudinal
Unit of Analysis Individual as the unit of analysis Example : The chief Financial Officer of a manufacturing company wants to know how many of the staff would be interested in attending a 3-day seminar on making appropriate investment decision. Groups as the unit of analysis Example : A manager wants to see the patterns of usage of newly installed infor- mation System (IS) by the production, sales, and operations personnel. Time Horizon: Cross-Sectional VS Longitudinal Cross-Section Studies can be done in which data are gathered just once, perhaps over the period of days or weeks or months in order to answer a research question. Such studies are called one-shot or cross-sectional studies. Data collec- tion at one point in time was sufficient.

16 Longitudinal Studies is conducted if the researcher might wants to
study people or phenomena at more than one point in time in order to answer the research question. Example: The researcher might wants to study employees’ behavior before and after a change in the top management, so as to know what effects the change accomplished. Here data are collected at two points in time

17 8. Metode Dasar Penelitian
1) Penelitian Historis (Histrical Research) Tujuan : Membuat rekonstruksi masa lampau secara sistematik dan objektif dengan cara mengumpulkan, mengevaluasi, mem- verifikasi serta mensintesiskan bukti-bukti untuk menegak- kan fakta dan memperoleh kesimpulan yang kuat. Contoh :

18 2) Penelitian Deskriptif (Descriptive Research)
Tujuan : Untuk membuat pencandraan (description) secara siste- matis, faktual dan akurat tentang fakta-fakta dan sifat-sifat populasi tertentu. Contoh :- Penelitian tentang kebutuhan teknologi industri kecil pe- ngerjaan logam dalam peningkatan produktivitas tenaga kerja. - Penelitian kebutuhan tenaga sarjana pembangunan wila- yah dalam rentang waktu lima tahun kedepan. - Penelitian tentang daya serap sektor pariwisata terhadap tenaga kerja berpendidikan menengah.

19 3) Penelitian Perkembangan (Development Research)
Tujuan : Menyelidiki pola dan perurutan pertumbuhan atau peru- bahan suatu objek atau sistem relatif terhadap waktu. Contoh : - Penelitian perkembangan teknologi pada usaha kecil dan menengah yang bergerak pada pengolahan hasil per- tanian. - Penelitian perkembangan produktivitas Program Studi Magister Perencanaan Pembangunan Wilayah. - Penelitian perubahan pola kemitraan antara usaha besar dan usaha kecil menengah.

20 4) Penelitian Kasus (Case Study)
Tujuan : Mempelajari secara intensif tentang latar belakang kea- daan sekarang dan interaksi lingkungan suatu unit orga- nisasi. Studi kasus menekankan pada analisis konteks secara penuh berdasarkan peristiwa yang kecil dan hu- bungannya dengan yang lain. Contoh : - Studi tentang karakteristik karyawan pada Bagian Pe- ngecoran Industri Pengolahan Logam di Indonesia. - Studi tentang produktivitas kerja para buruh perkebun- an milik negara di Sumatera Utara.

21 5) Penelitian Korelasional (Correlational Research)
Tujuan : Untuk mendeteksi sejauh mana variasi-variasi pada satu faktor berkaitan dengan satu atau lebih faktor lain berda- sarkan pada koefisien korelasi. Contoh : - Penelitian tentang hubungan antara perbaikan sistem insentif terhadap kualitas produk pada industri peng- olahan logam. - Penelitian tentang perkembangan investasi produktivitas tenaga kerja nasional di Indonesia. - Penelitian tentang perkembangan capacity utilization dan produktivitas kerja karyawan.

22 6) Penelitian Kausal Komparatif (Causal Comparative Research)
Tujuan : Untuk menyelidiki kemungkinan hubungan sebab akibat dengan cara mengamati akibat yang terjadi dan kemung- kinan faktor yang menimbulkan akibat tersebut. Contoh :- Penelitian pengaruh perubahan sistem pengupahan ter- hadap tingkat produktivitas kerja karyawan. - Penelitian tentang perubahan gaya kepemimpinan terha- dap service quality level pada unit pelayanan rawat inap di Rumah Sakit Adam Malik Medan. - Penelitian tentang pengaruh perubahan metode teaching menjadi methode learning terhadap Indeks Prestasi maha- siswa MM USU.

23 7) Penelitian Eksperimental Sungguhan (True-Experimental Research)
Tujuan :Menyelidiki kemungkinan saling hubungan sebab-akibat dengan cara mengenakan perlakukan pada satu atau lebih kelompok eksperimen dan membandingkan hasilnya de- ngan satu atau lebih kelompok kontrol (kelompok yang tidak dikenakan perlakuan) A. Pra rancangan Eksperiment Contoh : (1). The one-shot case study X T2 Treatment Post test

24 (2). One Group Pre test- Posttest Design
T X T2 Pretest Treatment Posttest (3). The Static Group Comparison Experimental Group Control Group X T2 T2 Pretest Treatment Posttest

25 Prosedur : (1). Pilih sejumlah subjek dari populasi secara acak (2). Kelompokkan subjek tersebut menjadi dua kelompok secara acak yaitu a. Kelompok eksperimen b. Kelompok kontrol (3). Pertahankan agar kondisi-kondisi kedua kelompok tetap sama kecuali kelompok eksperimen dikenakan variabel eksperimen X. (4). Kenakan test T2, yaitu variabel tergantung kepada kedua kelompok itu. (5). Hitung mean masing-masing kelompok, yaitu T2.e dan T2.c dan cari perbedaan antara kedua mean itu yaitu T2.e – T2.c (6). Terapkan test statistik tertentu untuk menguji apakah perbedaan itu signifikan yaitu cukup besar untuk menolak hipotesis nol.

26 B. Rancangan Eksperiment Sungguhan
(1). Randomized Control-Group Pretest-Posttest Design Experimental Group Control Group T X T2 T T2 Pretest Treatment Posttest (2). Randomized Solomon Four-Group Design Diffrence 1D = T1,X, H, M 2D = T1,H, M 3D = X, H, M 4D = H, M 1-Pretest (R) 2-Pretest (R) 3- Unpretest (R) 4-Unpretest (R) T X T2 T T2 X T2 T2 Pretest Treatment Posttest

27 Prosedur Randomized Control-Group Design:
(1). Pilih sejumlah subjek secara acak dari suatu populasi. (2). Golongkan subjek menjadi dua kelompok secara acak yaitu kelompok eksperimen dan kelompok kontrol. (3). Kenakan pretest T1 untuk mengukur variabel tergantung pada kedua kelompok tersebut, kemudian hitung mean masing-masing kelompok. (4). Pertahankan semua kondisi pada masing-masing kelompok sama kecuali pada satu hal yaitu kelompok eksperimen dikenakan variabel perlakukan X untuk jangka waktu tertentu. (5). Berikan posttest T2 kepada kedua kelompok untuk mengukur variabel tergantung. Kemudian hitung mean masing-masing kelompok tersebut. (6). Hitung perbedaan antar hasil pretest T1 dan posttest T2 untuk masing- masing kelompok yaitu : (T2.e – T1.e) dan (T2.c – T1.c). (7). Bandingkan perbedaan-perbedaan tersebut untuk mengetahui apakah perlakuan X itu berkaitan dengan perubahan yang lebih besar pada kelompk eksperimental yaitu : (T2.e – T1.e) – (T2.c – T1.c). (8). Kenakan test statistik untuk menetukan apakah perbedaan pada langkah 7 cukup signifikan untuk menolak hipotesis nol.

28 Probable Error : a. Historis : Selama mendapatkan treatment atau perlakukan terjadi perubah- an pada objek yang bukan disebabkan oleh perlakukan tersebut. b. Maturation : Selama mendapatkan treatment terjadi pematangan pada objek karena proses alamiah. c. Testing : Selama mendapatkan perlakukan objek mendapat pengalaman effect dari pretest T1 sehingga mempengaruhi kualitas objek dalam postttest T2 d. Changing : Setiap perubahan dalam kegiatan pengujian membawa pengaruh effect of terhadap hasil pengujian instrumentation e. Statistical : Suatu hal yang tidak dapat dihindarkan apabila kelompok-kelompok regressin ekstrim yang dibandingkan dalam pretest dan post test f. Selection : Apabila objek yang sama tidak mengambil kedua test T1 dan T2, biases and perbedaan yang ada mungkin disebabkan oleh sifat-sifat yang tak mortality terkontrol yang berkaitan dengan perbedaan tersebut.

29 (3). Factorial Design Treatment X2 X2’ X2’’ Mean Diff A (A1-A2)
B (B1-B2) I A1 II A2 X1 Faktor X2’’ III B1 IV B2 Mean A’ B’ Diff (A1-B1) (A2-B2)

30 8) Penelitian Eksperimental Semu (Quasi-Experimental Research)
Tujuan : Mendapatkan informasi tentang perkiraan besaran yang dapat digunakan sebagai representasi dari in- formasi yang diperoleh melalui eksperimental sung- guhan sehubungan dengan faktor kesulitan dalam melakukan eksperimen tersebut. Contoh : - Penelitian tentang pengaruh perkembangan usia kar- yawan terhadap tingkat cacat pada pengerjaan di unit perakitan. - Penelitian tentang perkembangan tingkat produktivi- tas karyawan pada berbagai usia perusahaan dalam lingkungan persaingan global.

31 9) Penelitian Tindakan (Action Research)
Tujuan : Mengembangkan keterampilan baru atau cara pendekat- an baru dan untuk memecahkan masalah dengan pene- rapan langsung sidunia nyata. Contoh : -Penelitian inservice training bagi para operator alat-alat berat untuk menurunkan risiko kecelakaan atau mening- katkan produktivitas kerja. - Penelitian metode kerja para karyawan unit pemesinan untuk peningkatan produktivitas kerja.


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