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KONFLIK Budi Anna Keliat. Konflik Suatu proses yang dimulai bila satu pihak merasakan bahwa suatupihak lain telah mempengaruhi secara negatif atau akan.

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Presentasi berjudul: "KONFLIK Budi Anna Keliat. Konflik Suatu proses yang dimulai bila satu pihak merasakan bahwa suatupihak lain telah mempengaruhi secara negatif atau akan."— Transcript presentasi:

1 KONFLIK Budi Anna Keliat

2 Konflik Suatu proses yang dimulai bila satu pihak merasakan bahwa suatupihak lain telah mempengaruhi secara negatif atau akan segera mempengaruhi secara negatif, sesuatu yang diperhatikan pihak pertama. (Robbins)

3 THE DEFINITION OF CONFLICT Conflict is behavior by a person or group that is purposely designed to inhibit the attainment of goals by another person or group. Active Passive Most of us think of conflict as a negative experience. Conflict has the potential to produce positive outcome. A device for directing effort.

4 Pandangan Tentang Konflik Semua konflik merugikan dan harus dihindari. Konflik merupakan hasil wajar dan tidak terelakkan dalam setiap kelompok. Konflik tidak hanya suatu kekuatan positif dalam suatu kelompok melainkan mutlak perlu untuk suatu kelompok agar dapat berkinerja efektif.

5 LEVEL OF CONFLICT (Vecchio&Gray&Starke) 1. INTRAPERSONAL CONFLICT Approach – Approach Conflict Avoidance – Avoidance Conflict Approach – Avoidance Conflict 2. INTERPERSONAL CONFLICT PERSPECTIVES IN CONFLICT ANALYSIS 1. Intra-Individual Conflict 2. Inter-Individual Conflict 3. Individual-Group Conflict 4. Intergroup Conflict

6 Jenis Konflik Fungsional Konflik yang mendukung tujuan kelompok dan memperbaiki kinerja kelompok. Disfungsional Konflik yang merintangi kinerja kelompok.

7 Proses Konflik Tahap ITahap II Tahap IIITahap IVTahap V Oposisi atauKognisi danMaksudPerilakuHasil ketidakcocokanpersonalisasi potensial

8 Tahap I: Oposisi atau Ketidakcocokan Potensial Kondisi yang menciptakan timbulnya konflik: Komunikasi Struktur Makin besar kelompok Makin muda Makin berbeda tujuan Gaya tertutup dan ketat Variabel Pribadi Otoriter dan dogmatik Beda sistem nilai

9 SOURCES OF CONFLICT 1. VECCHIO Comminication factors Structural factors Personal behaviour factors 2. GRAY & STARKE Limited resources Interdependent work activities Differentiation of activities Communication problems Differences in perseption’s The environment of the organization Other sources of conflict

10 Source of Conflict Tensions between groups Increased workload Multiple role demands Threats to safety and security Sconce resources Cultural differences Invasion of personal space (Mc. Elhaney)

11 Tahap II: Kognisi dan Personalisasi Persepsi terhadap konflik Kesadaran oleh satu pihak atau lebih akan eksistensi kondisi-kondisi yang menciptakan kesempatan untuk timbulnya konflik. Perasaan terhadap konflik Pelibatan emosional dalam suatu konflik yang menciptakan kecemasan, ketegangan, frustasi, dan permusuhan.

12 Tahap III: Maksud Maksud (Intensi) Keputusan untuk bertindak dalam suatu cara tertentu. Bersaing Suatu hasrat untuk memuaskan kepentingan seseorang, tidak peduli dampaknya pada pihak lain. Berkolaborasi Keinginan untuk memuaskan kepentingan semua pihak. Menghindar Menarik diri dari kondisi konflik. Mengakomodasi Kesediaan menaruh kepentingan lawan di atas kepentingan sendiri. Berkompromi Tiap pihak bersedia melepas sesuatu.

13 Tahap IV: Perilaku Perilaku mencakup: Pernyataan Tindakan Reaksi

14 Kontinum Intensitas Konflik Konflik Pemusnah Tiada Konflik Upaya terang-terangan untuk menghancurkan pihak lain Serangan fisik yang agresif Ancaman dan ultimatum Serangan verbal yang tegas Pertanyaan atau tantangan terang- terangan terhadap pihak lain Ketidaksepakatan atau salah paham kecil

15 Manajemen Konflik Pemecahan konflik Pemuaian sumber daya Penghindaran Perataan Kompromi Otoritatif Mengubah variabel manusia Mengubah variabel struktur Disfungsional Oposisi tak terkendali Menghentikan fungsi kelompok Menghambat komunikasi Mengurangi keterpaduan Mengalahkan tujuan

16 CONFLICT MANAGEMENT A. GRAY & STARKE 1. Conflict Stimulation a. Appointing managers who are open to change b. Encouraging competition c. Restructuring the work unit 2. Conflict Resolution a. Forcing b. Smoothing c. Ajority Rule d. Compromise e. Consensus f. Confrontation g. Integration

17 B. VECCHIO 1. Conflict management (five styles) a. Forcing/Competing b. Collaborating c. Compromising d. Avoiding e. Accommodating 2. Structural Approach 3. Stimulating Conflict (sama dengan Gray & Starke) 4. Intergroup Conflict a. Rules and Procedures b. Appeal to Higher Authority c. Boundary-Spanning Positions d. Negotiation e. Team f. Integrating Department

18 Konflik dan Kinerja Unit Tinggi ↑ Kinerja A BC Unit ↓ (Rendah)Tingkat Konflik (Tinggi) SituasiTingkat Konflik Tipe KonflikKarakteristik Internal Unit Hasil Kinerja Unit ARendah atau Tiada DisfungsionalApatis Macet 1. Tidak tanggap thd perubahan 2. Kekurangan ide baru Rendah BOptimalFungsionalHidup, kritis diri, inovatifTinggi C DisfungsionalMengganggu, kacau balau Tidak kooperatif Rendah

19 FIVE CONFLICT-HANDLING STYLES Conflict-handling stylesRelated TermProverb ForcingCompeting Conflictful Moving against the other Put your foot down where you mean to stand CollaboratingProblem solving Integrating Confronting Come let us reason together CompromisingSplitting the difference Sharing Horse-trading You have to give some to get some (take and give) AvoidingMoving away from the other Withdrawing Losing-leaving Let sleeping dogs lie AccommodatingYielding-losing Friendly-helping Moving toward the other It is better to give than to receive Source: K. W. Thomas, “Organizational Conflict,” in Organizational Behaviour, ed. S. Kerr (Columbus)


21 A. Avoiding 1. When an issue is trivial, or more important issues are pressing. 2. When you perceive no chance of satisfying your concern. 3. When potential disruption outweighs the benefits of resolution. 4. To let people cool down and regain perspective. 5. When gathering information supersedes immediate decision. 6. When others can resolve the conflict more effectively. 7. When issues seem tangential or symptomatic of other issues.

22 B. COMPETING 1. When quick, decisive action is vital, e.g., emergencies. 2. On important issues where unpopular actions need implementing, e.g., cost-cutting, enforcing unpopular rules, discipline. 3. On issues vital to company welfare when you know you’re right. 4. Against people who take advantage of noncompetitive behavior.

23 COMPETITION PLUS The winner is clear Winner usually experience gains MINUS Establishes the batter ground for the next conflict May cause worthy competitions to withdraw or leave the organization

24 C. Accommodating 1. When you find you are wrong – to allow a better position to be heard, to learn, and to show your reasonableness. 2. When issues are more important to others than to you – to satisfy others and maintain cooperation. 3. To build social credits for later issues. 4. To minimize loss when you are outmatched and losing. 5. When harmony and stability are especially important. 6. To allow subordinates to develop by learning from mistakes. Source: K. W. Thomas, “Toward Multi – Dimensional Values in Teaching: The Example of Conflict Behaviours,” Academy of Management Review 2.

25 ACCOMMODATION PLUS Curtails conflict situations Enhances ego of the other MINUS Sometimea establishes a precedence Does not fully engage participants

26 D. Compromising 1. When goals are important but not worth the effort of potential disruption of more assertive modes. 2. When opponents with equal power are committed to mutually exclusive goals. 3. To achieve temporary settlements to complex issues. 4. To arrive at expedient solutions under time pressure. 5. As a backup when collaboration or competition is unsuccessful.

27 COMPROMISE PLUS Show good will Establishe friendship MINUS No one gets what they wants May feel like a dead end

28 E. Collaborating 1. To fid an integrative solution when bath sets of concerns are too important to be compromised. 2. When your objective is to learn. 3. To merge insights from people with different perspectives. 4. To gain commitment by incorporating concerns into a consensus. 5. To work through feelings that have interfered with a relationship.

29 COLLABORATION PLUS Every one “wins” Create good feelings MINUS Hard to achieve since no one knows how Often confusing since players can “win” something they didn’t know they wanted


31 TIPS FOR MANAGING WORKPLACE CONFLICT Bina hubungan baik sebelum konflik terjadi Jangan biarkan masalah kecil menjadi besar, selesaikan segera Hargai perbedaan Dengarkan pendapat orang lain pada situasi konflik Hargai perasaan sebelum fokus pada fakta Fokus pada penyelesaian masalah bukan mengubah orang lain Jika tidak dapat diselesaikan, cari orang ketiga yg dapat membantu Ingat adaptasi style sdr pada situasi dan orang yg terlibat

32 Terima kasih Selamat Mencoba

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