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1 Prentice Hall, 2002 Konsep B2B. 2 Prentice Hall, 2002 Tujuan pembelajaran Memahami konsep dan karakteristik B2B Menggambarkan tipe model B2B Menggambarkan.

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Presentasi berjudul: "1 Prentice Hall, 2002 Konsep B2B. 2 Prentice Hall, 2002 Tujuan pembelajaran Memahami konsep dan karakteristik B2B Menggambarkan tipe model B2B Menggambarkan."— Transcript presentasi:

1 1 Prentice Hall, 2002 Konsep B2B

2 2 Prentice Hall, 2002 Tujuan pembelajaran Memahami konsep dan karakteristik B2B Menggambarkan tipe model B2B Menggambarkan karakteristik marketplace sell-side dan buy side

3 3 Prentice Hall, 2002 Konsep dan Karakteristik EC B2B Definisi EC B2B Suatu transaksi bisnis yang dilakukan secara elektronik melalui jaringan Internet, Extranet, Intranet, private network (Contoh EDI). Suatu Transaksi dapat dilakukan antara bisnis dan anggota supply chain-nya, seperti melakukan antar bisnis. Suatu bisnis bisa suatu organisasi, umum atau swasta, untuk kepentingan profit / non profit Karakteristik B2B adalah perusahan yang melakukan otomatisasi proses jual-beli / trading

4 4 Prentice Hall, 2002 Konsep dan karakteristik EC B2B Ukuran dan isi pasar Diperkirakan tumbuh dari $1.1 juta di 2003 sampai $10 juta di 2005 Persentase of Internet-based B2B dari 2.1% di 2000 sampai 10% di 2005 Private and public e-marketplace Private—one-to-many mode Public—many-to-many mode

5 5 Prentice Hall, 2002 Konsep dan Karakteristik EC B2B Bagaimana B2B bisa berjalan ? Bisa Secara langsung antara pembeli/buyer dan penjual/seller melalui perantara / intermediary online. Intermediary dapat berupa organisasi, orang, atau sistem elektronik Biasanya Melalui supply chain dengan atau tidak melalui perantara-perantara/ intermediaries Tipe transaksi B2B Spot buying / pembeli spot—berdasarkan pembelian barang dan jasa pada pasar harga/market price yang ditentukan oleh dynamic supply dan permintaan pasar /demand. Penjual dan pembeli biasanya tidak saling kenal. Contoh stock exchange dan commodity exchange (minyak gula,jagung) Strategic sourcing/sumber strategik—melibatkan kontrak jangka panjang biasanya berdasarkan negosiasi antara penjual dan pembeli.

6 6 Prentice Hall, 2002 Figure 6-1 B2B Supply Chain

7 7 Prentice Hall, 2002 Konsep dan Karakteristik EC B2B Hubungan Supply chain Saling berhubungan subproses dan aturan-aturan mendapatkan material memroses produk dan jasa Menuju distributor Dibeli oleh pelanggan Proses Traditional diatur melalui transaksi kertas Aplikasi B2B menawarkan keuntungan competitive untuk supply chain management (SCM)

8 8 Prentice Hall, 2002 Konsep dan karakteristik EC B2B Entitas B2B Selling company / Perusahaan penjual— perspektif manajemen marketing Buying company / perusahaan pembeli— perspektif manajemen pengadaan Electronic intermediaries / perantara elektronik—optional third party directory service provider (scope of service may be extended to order fulfillment) Trading platforms—pricing and negotiation protocol (auctions, reverse auctions)

9 9 Prentice Hall, 2002 Konsep dan Karakteristik EC B2B Payment services— mechanism for transferring money to sellers Logistics providers— logistics to complete transaction (packaging, storage, delivery) Network platforms— Internet, VAN, intranet, extranet Protocols of communication— EDI or XML Back-end integration— connecting to ERP systems, databases, functional applications

10 10 Prentice Hall, 2002 Konsep dan Karakteristik EC B2B Product Customer Supplier Product process Transportation Inventory Supply chain Competitor Sales and marketing Supply chain process and performance Information processed in B2B

11 11 Prentice Hall, 2002 Konsep dan Karakteristik EC B2B Electronic intermediaries in B2B Pelanggan dan bisnis bisa saling berbagi perantara/intermediaries Bisnis dapat menggunakan intermediaries yang berbeda dengan supplier yang berbeda Keuntungan model B2B Menghilangkan sistem yang menggunakan kertas Mempercepat waktu siklus Mengurangi kesalahan Meningkatkan produktifitas karyawan Mengurangi biaya Meningkatkan pelayanan pelanggan dan manajemen partnership / kerjasama

12 12 Prentice Hall, 2002 Model B2B Company-centric models Sell-side marketplace (one-to-many), satu perusahaan melakukan semua penjualan Buy-side marketplace (many-to-one), satu perusahaan melakukan semua pembelian Many-to-many marketplaces—the exchange Buyers and sellers meet to trade Trading communities Trading exchanges Exchanges

13 13 Prentice Hall, 2002 Model B2B Other B2B models and services Tujuan penjualan / selling Tujuan pembelian / buying Integrator Value chain Service provider Value chain Information brokers

14 14 Prentice Hall, 2002 Arsitektur Sell-Side Marketplace

15 15 Prentice Hall, 2002 Sell-Side Marketplaces: One-to-Many Dell Intel IBM Cisco Successful cases

16 16 Prentice Hall, 2002 Sell-Side Case: CISCO Connection Online (CCO) Benefits— saves the company $363 million per year in: Technical support Human resources Software distribution Marketing material

17 17 Prentice Hall, 2002 Cisco Connection Online (CCO) (cont.) Benefits to Cisco Reduced operating costs for order taking Enhanced technical support and customer service Reduced technical support staff cost Reduced software distribution costs Lead times reduced fro 4-10 days to 2-3 days

18 18 Prentice Hall, 2002 Cisco Connection Online (CCO) (cont.) Benefits to customers Quick order configuration Immediate cost determination Collaboration with Cisco staff

19 19 Prentice Hall, 2002 Buy Side: One-from-Many, E-Procurement Purchasing agents (buyers) Direct purchasing Use of material is scheduled Not a shelf item Indirect purchasing MROs Nonproduction materials Inefficiencies in procurement management of indirect materials

20 20 Prentice Hall, 2002 Figure 6-3 A Traditional Purchasing Process Flow Source: ariba.com, February 2001.

21 21 Prentice Hall, 2002 Figure 6-4 Buy-Side B2BMarketplace Architecture

22 22 Prentice Hall, 2002 Procurement Revolution at GE TPN at GE Lighting Division Purchasing was inefficient—too many administrative transactions Process for each requisition took 7 days Complex and time-consuming Could only send out bids for 2 or 3 suppliers Trading Process Network (TPN)—electronic bids Entire process takes 7 days (for suppliers to bid) 2 hours to send information to suppliers Evaluate and award bids same day

23 23 Prentice Hall, 2002 Procurement Revolution at GE (cont.) Benefits to GE Involvement in procurement process Labor declined 30% Material costs declined 5%-20%--wider base of suppliers online Redeployment 60% of the staff Sourcing department concentrates on strategic activities instead of paperwork, etc.

24 24 Prentice Hall, 2002 Procurement Revolution at GE (cont.) Benefits to GE Time to identify suppliers, prepare a request for bid, negotiate a price, and award the contract Was days Now 9-11 days Invoices automatically reconciled reflecting modifications GE procurement departments share information about their best suppliers across the world

25 25 Prentice Hall, 2002 Procurement Revolution at GE (cont.) Benefits to buyers Worldwide supplier partnerships Current business partners Strengthen relationships Streamline sourcing process Rapid distribution of information Transmit electronic drawings to multiple suppliers Decrease sourcing cycle time Quick receipt and comparison of pricing bids

26 26 Prentice Hall, 2002 Procurement Revolution at GE (cont.) Benefits to suppliers Increased sales volume Expanded market reach, finding new buyers Lowered administration costs for sales and marketing activities Shortened requisition cycle time Improved sales staff productivity Streamlined bidding process

27 27 Prentice Hall, 2002 Procurement Revolution at GE (cont.) Deployment strategies Start EC in one division and slowly go to all divisions Use the site as public bidding marketplace to generate commission income to GE

28 28 Prentice Hall, 2002 B2B Infrastructure Server to host database and applications Software for executing sell-side (catalogs) Software for conducting auctions and reverse auctions Software for e-procurement (buy-side)

29 29 Prentice Hall, 2002 B2B Infrastructure (cont.) Software for CRM Security hardware and software Software for building a storefront Telecommunications networks and protocols

30 30 Prentice Hall, 2002 Extranet and EDI Secure interorganizational networks Traditional EDI limits accessibility of small companies Internet-based EDI offers wide accessibility to companies around the world

31 31 Prentice Hall, 2002 B2B Agents Figure 6-7 Intelligent Agent-Based Commerce Source: J. K. Lee and W. Lee (1997).


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