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BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 1 Chapter VIII Layout Planning Models.

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Presentasi berjudul: "BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 1 Chapter VIII Layout Planning Models."— Transcript presentasi:

1 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 1 Chapter VIII Layout Planning Models

2 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 2 Layout till This Point Coordinating facilities planning with other organizational units Facility requirements a product design, process design, schedule design Activity relationships and space requirements Personnel requirements

3 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 3 Basic Layout Types Fixed product layouts  the workstations are brought to the material Product layouts  based on the processing sequence Group layout; Product family layout  high degree of intradepartmental flow Process layout  high degree of interdepartmental flow

4 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 4 Basic Layout Types

5 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 5 Basic Layout Types Product Layout — Layout that uses standardized processing operations to achieve smooth, rapid, high-volume flow — Linear arrangement of workstations to produce a specific product Process Layout — Layout that can handle varied processing requirements — Centers/machines grouped by process they perform Fixed Position Layout — Layout in which the product or project remains stationary; workers, materials, and equipment are moved as needed — Used in projects where the product cannot be moved

6 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 6 Hybrid Layouts Cellular layouts –group machines into machining cells Flexible manufacturing systems –automated machining & material handling systems Mixed-model assembly lines –produce variety of models on one line

7 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 7 Group Technology Layout Just-in-Time Layouts – Assembly-lines or – Group Technology formats Fixed Position Layout – e.g. Shipbuilding Layout Formats

8 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 8 Manufacturing Process Layout L L L L L L L L L LM M M M D D D D D D D D G G G G G G P P AAA Receiving and Shipping Assembly Painting Department Lathe Department Milling Department Drilling Department Grinding Department

9 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 9 Service Process Layout Women’s Lingerie Shoes House- wares Women’s Dresses Cosmetics & Jewelry Children’s Department Women’s Sportswear Entry & Seasonal Men’s Department

10 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 10 Product Layout IN OUT

11 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS IN OUT Workers A U-Shaped Production Line

12 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 12 Cellular Manufacturing –Layout in which machines are grouped into a cell that can process items that have similar processing requirements Group Technology –The grouping into part families of items with similar design or manufacturing characteristics Cellular Layout

13 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 13 Group Technology Machine 1 Machine 2 Machine 3 Machine 4 Machine 5 Materials in Finished goods out One Worker, Multiple Machines

14 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 14 Group Technology Parts Families

15 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 15 Group Technology Drilling DD DD Grinding GG GG GG Milling MM MM MM Assembly AA AA Lathing Receiving and shipping L LL LL LL L

16 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 16 Group Technology (a) Jumbled flows in a job shop without GT cells Drilling DD DD Grinding GG GG GG Milling MM MM MM Assembly AA AA Lathing Receiving and shipping L LL LL LL L

17 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 17 Group Technology (a) Jumbled flows in a job shop without GT cells Drilling DD DD Grinding GG GG GG Milling MM MM MM Assembly AA AA Lathing Receiving and shipping L LL LL LL L

18 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 18 Group Technology (a) Jumbled flows in a job shop without GT cells

19 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 19 Group Technology (b) Line flows in a job shop with three GT cells Cell 3 LM G G Cell 1 Cell 2 Assembly area A A L M D L L M Shipping D Receiving G

20 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 20 Group Technology (b) Line flows in a job shop with three GT cells Cell 3 LM G G Cell 1 Cell 2 Assembly area A A L M D L L M Shipping D Receiving G

21 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 21 Group Technology (b) Line flows in a job shop with three GT cells Cell 3 LM G G Cell 1 Cell 2 Assembly area A A L M D L L M Shipping D Receiving G

22 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 22 Group Technology (b) Line flows in a job shop with three GT cells Cell 3 LM G G Cell 1 Cell 2 Assembly area A A L M D L L M Shipping D Receiving G

23 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 23 Layout Procedures Construction type  develop a new layout “from scratch” Improvement type  generate layout alternatives based on an existing layout

24 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 24 Apple’s Plant Layout Procedure Procure the basic data Analyze the basic data Design the procedure process Plan the material flow pattern Consider the general material handling plan Calculate equipment requirements Plan individual workstations Select specific material handling equipment Coordinate groups of related operations Design activity interrelationships

25 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 25 Apple’s Plant Layout Procedure Determine storage requirements Plan service and auxiliary activities Determine space requirements Allocate activities to total space Consider building types Construct master layout Evaluate, adjust, and check the layout with the appropriate persons Obtain approvals Install the layout Follow up on implementation of the layout

26 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 26 Reed’s Plant Layout Procedure Analyze the product or products to be produced Determine the process required to manufacture the product Prepare layout planning charts Determine workstations Analyze storage area requirements Establish minimum aisle widths Establish office requirements Consider personnel facilities and services Survey plant services Provide for future expansion

27 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 27 Layout Planning Chart Flow process, including operations, transportation, storage, and inspections Standard times for each operation Machine selection and balance Manpower selection and balance Material handling requirements

28 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 28 Muther’s Systematic Layout Planning (SLP) Procedure

29 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 29

30 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 30 Relationship Diagram

31 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 31 Space Relationship Diagram

32 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 32 Alternative Block Layout

33 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 33 Algorithmic Approaches The relative placement of departments on the basis of their “closeness ratings” or “material flow intensities” is one that can be reduced to an algorithmic process. Algorithm classification  Type of input data qualitative “flow” data (relationship chart) quantitative flow matrix (from-to chart); numerical values of closing rating ~ mostly used both qualitative and quantitative (BLOCPLAN, used one at a time)

34 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 34 Algorithm Classification Objective function  “distance-based”: Minimizing the sum of flows times  distances (from-to chart) – QAP: “adjacency-based”: maximizing an adjacency score (relationship chart)

35 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 35 Algorithm Classification Normalized adjacency score (efficiency rating) Normalized adjacency score for an X relationship

36 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 36 Algorithm Classification Layout representation discrete (grid size computational burden) continuous (rectangular building and department shapes) department cannot be split  Any grid assigned to a department must be “reachable” form any other such grid enclosed void (atrium)

37 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 37

38 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 38 Algorithm Classification Layout improvement  start with an initial layout  improve through incremental changes Layout construction  develop a layout from scratch  given dimension (basic assumption in the  book)  “green field”: site plan

39 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 39 Relationship Diagramming for New Layouts Step 1. Select the first department to enter the layout - select the department with the greatest # of “A” Step 2. Select the second department to enter the layout – have an “A” with the 1st department Step 3. Select the third department to enter the layout - AA, AE, AI, A*, EE, EI, E*, II, I* Step 4. Determine the fourth department to enter the layout - AAA, AAE, AAI, AA*, AEE, AEI Step n. Department n is placed according to the rules described in Steps 3 and 4

40 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 40 Pairwise Exchange Method for Layout Improvement Minimize the total cost of transporting materials among all departments in a facility Rectilinear distance, from centroid to centroid

41 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 41 Example Four departments with equal size  Material flow matrix  Distance matrix

42 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 42

43 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 43 Pairwise Exchange Method Remark  does not guarantee to yield the optimal solution: local optimality may cycle back to one alternative symmetric layout may occur can be accomplished only if the department pair considered are of equal size or if they share a common border

44 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 44 Graph Based Construction Methods ( GBCM )

45 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 45 Perancangan Tata Letak Dengan Metode Grafik Merupakan metode perancangan layout dengan menggunakan adjacency graph (grafik kedekatan)untuk memperoleh bobot terbesar Berdasarkan from-to-chart (keterkaitan aktivitas) Node :menyatakan departemen/aktivitas Arc : menghubungkan departemen Angka : menyatakan tingkat kedekatan (closeness) Bobot terbesar = jumlah nilai busur-busur

46 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 46 Contoh metode grafik Dep Diketahui From-to-chart

47 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS Alternatif block layout (a) (b)

48 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 48 Bobot layout (a) Bobot layout (b) BusurBobotBusurBobot terpilih345

49 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 49 Grafik kedekatan terakhir

50 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 50 Langkah-langkah metode grafik Langkah 1 Pilih pasangan departemen yang mempunyai bobot terbesar, dari contoh (block layout b) terpilih dept 1 dan 3. Hubungkan node 1 dan 3 13

51 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 51 Langkah 2 Pilih departemen ke 3 yang akan masuk dalam grafik, dengan menjumlah bobot departemen yang belum terpilih dengan departemen a dan 3 Pilih pasangan yang mempunyai nilai terbesar

52 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS = = = 0 - Terpilih -

53 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 53 Langkah 3 Memilih departemen yang belum terpilih dalam grafik Jumlahkan bobot departemen yang belum terpilih dengan dept 1,3 dan 4

54 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 54 1 – = = 10 Terpilih

55 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 55 Langkah 4 Karena tinggal departemen 5 yang belum masuk grafik, maka ditentukan bidang yang akan menjadi tempat departemen 5 Bidang segitiga yang terbentuk: 1 – 2 – 3 1 – 2 – 4 1 – 3 – 4 2 – 3 – 4

56 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS = = 40 terpilih = = 40 terpilih

57 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 57 Langkah 5 Menyusun ulang block layout berdasarkan grafik kedekatan Bobot layout (b) BusurBobot – 3 1 – –

58 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 58

59 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 59 Contoh

60 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 60 penyelesaian Bobot terbesar adalah dept A dan B AB

61 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 61 Perhitungan bobot dept A dan B dengan dept yang lain

62 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 62 AB C

63 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 63 A – B - C DEFGDEFG = = = = 16 - Terpilih

64 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 64 AB C G 6 7 1

65 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 65 A-B-CA-B-GA-C-GB-C-G DEFDEF = = = = = = = = = = = =2

66 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 66 A B C G 7 90 D

67 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 67

68 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 68

69 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 69

70 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 70 Computer-Aided Layout Techniques

71 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 71 Evaluation and Interchange in CRAFT Interchanges are only possible if  Depts. are the same size; or  Adjacent (a necessary but not sufficient condition) Estimate the potential saving for an interchange  For evaluation only the centroids are swapped (error?) Select the best among all possible interchanges Actually perform the interchange Path-dependent heuristic (locally optimal)  Try different initial solutions or exchange options the error in estimated cost may go either direction

72 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 72 Dummy Departments May be used to  Fill building irregularities  Represent obstacles or unusable areas in the facility (fixed location)  Represent extra space in the facility  Aid in evaluating aisle locations in the final layout

73 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 73 Example 6.1

74 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 74

75 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 75

76 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 76

77 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 77

78 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 78

79 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 79 The Impact of Change Plant layout situations  Changes in the design of existing product, the introduction of new products  Changes in the processing sequence for existing products  Changes in production quantities and schedules - the need for capacity changes  Changes in production strategies

80 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 80 Flexibility Can be achieved by  utilizing modular office equipment, workstations, and material handling equipment  installing general purpose production equipment  utilizing a grid-based utility and services system  using modular construction

81 BAMBANG RISDIANTOPERANCANGAN TATA LETAK FASILITAS 81 Flexible Layout


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