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Bab-6 Perancangan ProdukProgram Magister Manajemen Pascasarjana Fakultas Ekonomi 19 November 2013 © 2007 Wiley
Tujuan Pembelajaran Mendefinisikan perancangan produk dan dampaknya terhadap organisasi. Menjelaskan tahapan perancanan produk Menggunakan analisis break-even analysis untuk memilih alternatif Mengidentifikasi bentuk-bentuk yang berbeda dan menjelaskan karakteristiknya. © 2007 Wiley
Tujuan, cont Menggunakan flowchart Menggunakan metriks kinerjaMemahami pengguaan teknologi dan dampaknya terhadap pengembangan produk. Memahami isu yang berkaitan dengan pengembangan produk. © 2007 Wiley
Perancangan Produk Product design – proses pendefinisian seluruh produk dan karakteristik perusahaan. Harus diingat Perancangan produk harus didukung oleh proses pabrik. ( (cara termudah dihasilkan di pabrik) Perancangan produk dapat meliputi; Appearance (pertampakan), Materials (material), Dimensions (dimensi), Tolerances (toleransi), and performance standards (standar keinerja) © 2007 Wiley
Perancangan Jasa Vs BarangJasa sifatnya unik, sehingga perancangan harus memenuhi: Dirancang meliputi jasa dan konsep - Unsur fisik, estetika, dan manfaat psikologis. e.g. kecepatan, keakraban, atmosphere Produk dan jasa dirancang harus memenuhi kebutuhan dan preferensi kelompok pelanggan. © 2007 Wiley
Akad Nikah Harus Bersusah-susah © 2007 Wiley
Diskusikan Apa Makna Konsep dalam Pernikahan?© 2007 Wiley
Perancangan Produk dan JasaPerancangan produk dan proses pemilihan mempengaruhi. Kualitas produk Biaya Kepuasan pelanggan Kemampuan pabrikasi dan kemudahan di bidang operasi. © 2007 Wiley
Proses Perancangan PRODUKStep 1 – Pengembangan Ide - Someone thinks of a need and a product/service design to satisfy it e.g. customers, marketing, engineering, competitors, benchmarking, reverse engineering Step 2 – Pemeriksaan Perancangan - Every business needs a formal/structured evaluation process e.g. fit with facility and labor skills, size of market, contribution margin, break-even analysis, return on sales Step 3 – Perancangan awal dan pengujian - Technical specifications are developed, prototypes built, testing starts Step 4 – Rancangan Final - Final design based on test results, facility, equipment, material, & labor skills defined, suppliers identified © 2007 Wiley
Menggunan Break-Even AnalysisComputes the quantity of goods company needs to sell to cover its costs QBE = F/ (SP - VC) QBE – Break even quantity F – Fixed costs SP – selling price/unit VC – Variable cost © 2007 Wiley
Product Screening Tool – Break-Even AnalysisBreak-even analysis also includes calculating Total cost – sum of fixed and variable cost Total cost = F + (VC)*Q Revenue – amount of money brought in from sales Revenue = (SP) * Q Q = number of units sold © 2007 Wiley
Break-Even Analysis: Pendekatan GrafikCompute quantity of goods that must be sold to break-even Compute total revenue at an assumed selling price Compute fixed cost and variable cost for several quantities Plot the total revenue line and the total cost line Intersection is break-even Sensitivity analysis can be done to examine changes in all of the assumptions made © 2007 Wiley
Total revenues = Total costs @ break-even point QBreak-even calculation: A company is planning to establish a chain of movie theaters. It estimates that each new theater will cost approximately $1 Million. The theaters will hold 500 people and will have 4 showings each day with average ticket prices at $8. They estimate that concession sales will average $2 per patron. The variable costs in labor and material are estimated to be $6 per patron. They will be open 300 days each year. What must average occupancy be to break-even? Break-Even Point Total revenues = Total break-even point Q Selling price*Q = Fixed cost + variable cost*Q ($8+$2)Q= $1,000,000 + $6*Q Q = 250,000 patrons (42% occupancy) What is the gross profit if they sell 300,000 tickets Profit = Total Revenue – Total Costs P = $10*300,000 – (1,000,000 + $6*300,000) P = $200,000 If concessions only average $.50/patron, what is break-even Q now? (sensitivity analysis) ($8.50)Q = 1,000,000 - $6*Q Q = 400,000 patrons (67% occupancy) © 2007 Wiley
Faktor yang berdampak pada Perancangan ProdukKebutuhan Perancangan Pabrik Series of guidelines to follow in order to produce a product easily and profitably Minimilais bentuk produk Standardisasi Design parts for multiply applications Rancangan yang terintegrasi Sederhanakan operasi © 2007 Wiley
Faktor Siklus Produk Product life cycle – series of changing product demand Consider product life cycle stages Introduction Growth Maturity Decline Facility & process investment depends on life cycle © 2007 Wiley
Pabrikasi Simultan Old “over-the –wall” sequential design process should not be used Each function did its work and passed it to the next function Replace with a Concurrent Engineering process All functions form a design team working together to develop specifications, involve customers early, solve potential problems, reduce costs, & shorten time to market © 2007 Wiley
Process Selection Product design considerations must include the process Klasifikasi meliputi Intermittent operations – menghasilakan berbagai jenis dalam jumlah kecil Repetitive operations – menghasilakan satu atau beberapa dalam jumlah besar. © 2007 Wiley
Process Selection Lima PertimbanganBentuk proses ; range from intermittent to continuous Derajat integrasi vertikal Fleksibilitas sumberdaya Bauran antara modal dan sumberdaya manusia Derajat kontak dengan konsumen © 2007 Wiley
Process Selection Process types can be: chikaProject process – make a one-at-a-time product exactly to customer specifications Batch process – small quantities of product in groups or batches based on customer orders or specifications Line process – large quantities of a standard product Continuous process – very high volumes of a fully standard product Process types exist on a continuum © 2007 Wiley
Underlying Process Relationship Between Volume and Standardization Continuum© 2007 Wiley
Differences between Intermittent and Continuous Operations© 2007 Wiley
Designing Processes Process design tools includeProcess flow analysis Process flowchart Design considerations include Make-to-stock strategy Assemble-to-order strategy Make-to-order strategy © 2007 Wiley
Process Design Tools Process flow analysis is a tool used to analyze and document the sequence of steps within a total process. Usually first step in Process Reengineering. Process Re-engineering is a structured approach used when major business changes are required as a result of: Major new products Quality improvement needed Better competitors Inadequate performance © 2007 Wiley
Facility Layout and Process Choice© 2007 Wiley
Process Performance MetricsDetermining if a process is functioning properly is required Determination requires measuring performance Process performance metrics – measurement of different process characteristics that tell us how a process is performing © 2007 Wiley
Process Performance Metrics© 2007 Wiley
Linking Product Design & Process SelectionProduct design and process selection directly linked Type of product selected defines type of operation required Type of operation available defines broader organizational aspects such as Equipment required Facility arrangement Organizational structure © 2007 Wiley
Linking Design & Process SelectionOrganizational Decisions appropriate for different types of operations © 2007 Wiley
Intermittent VS. Repetitive Layouts© 2007 Wiley
Product and Service StrategyType of operation is directly related to product and service strategy Three basic strategies include Make-to-stock; in anticipation of demand Assemble-to-order; built from standard components on order Make-to-order; produce to customer specification at time of order © 2007 Wiley
Product and Service Strategy Options© 2007 Wiley
Process Decisions-Vertical Integration & Make or BuyVertical integration refers to the degree a firm chooses to do processes itself- raw material to sales Backward Integration means moving closer to primary operations Forward Integration means moving closer to customers A firm’s Make-or-Buy choices should be based on the following considerations: Strategic impact Available capacity Expertise Quality considerations Speed Cost (fixed cost + variable cost)make = Cost (fixed cost + Variable cost)buy Business are trending toward less backward integration, more outsourcing © 2007 Wiley
Manufacturing Technology DecisionsSimplify first then apply appropriate technology Information Technology: ERP, GPS, RFID Automation Automated Material Handling: Automated guided vehicles (AGV) Automated storage & retrieval systems (AS/RS) Flexible Manufacturing Systems (FMS) Robotics & Numerically-Controlled (NC) equipment © 2007 Wiley
E-manufacturing Web-based environment creates numerous business opportunities to include; Product design collaboration Process design collaboration Computer-aided design – uses computer graphics to design new products Computer-integrated manufacturing – integration of product design, process planning, and manufacturing using an integrated computer system © 2007 Wiley
How Are Services Different from ManufacturingServices are different from manufacturing as they; Produce intangible products Involve a high degree of customer contact Type of service is classified according to degree of customer contact © 2007 Wiley
Designing Services Service Characteristics Pure servicesQuasi-Manufacturing Mixed services Service Package The physical goods The sensual benefits The psychological benefits Differing designs Substitute technology for people Get customer involved High customer attention © 2007 Wiley
Product Design and Process Selection Across the OrganizationStrategic and financial of product design and process selection mandates operations work closely across the organization Marketing is impacted by product that is produced Finance is integral to the product design and process selection issues due to frequent large financial outlays © 2007 Wiley
Product Design and Process Selection Across the Organization - continuedStrategic and financial of product design and process selection mandates operations work closely across the organization Information services has to be developed to match the needs of the production process Human resources provides important input to the process selection decisions for staffing needs © 2007 Wiley
Chapter 3 Highlights Product design is the process of deciding on the unique characteristics and features of a company’s product Process selection is the development of the process necessary to produce the product being designed. Steps in product include idea generation, product screening, preliminary design and testing, and final design Break-even analysis is a tool used to compute the amount of goods that have to be sold just to cover costs. Production processes can be divided into two broad categories: intermittent and repetitive operation project to batch to line to continuous © 2007 Wiley
Chapter 3 Highlights Product design and process selection decisions are linked Process flow charts is used for viewing the flow of the processes involved in producing the Different types of technologies can significantly enhance product and process design. These include automation, automated material handling devices, CAD, NC, FMS, and CIM Designing services have more complexities than manufacturing, because service produce an intangible product and typically have a high degree of customer contact. © 2007 Wiley
The End Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in Section 117 of the 1976 United State Copyright Act without the express written permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages, caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information contained herein. © 2007 Wiley
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